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FIRST edit 

on, publis 

bed in 

three volumes, 

1768— 1771. 


. » 

ten „ 

1777— 1784. 


, , 

eighteen „ 

1788— 1797. 


, , 

twenty „ 

1801 — 1810. 


i » 


twenty „ 

1815— 1817. 


» i 

twenty „ 

1823 — 1824. 


, , 

twenty-one „ 

1830 — 1842. 


, , 

twenty-two „ 



, , 

twenty-five „ 



, ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 

1002 --1003, 


, publi. 

shed in 

twenty-nine volumes, 

1910 — igii. 

in all countries subscribing to the 

: Bern -Cdntfention ■'. V \ .- ... 
of the* " ' '< ' 


All rights riicrvid 











New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 

342 Madison Avenue 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911, 


The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 














A. B. Go. Alfred Bradley Gough, M.A., Ph.D. f 

Sometime Casberd Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. English Lector in the T Westphalia, Treaty of. 

University of Kiel, 1896-1905. I ■ 

A. C. S. Algernon" Charles Swinburne. f w .i,, ter i n |. n 

Sec the biographical article: Swinburne, Algernon Charles. \ weD5rer > JOnn. 

A. D. Mo. Anson Daniel Morse, M.A., LL.D. f 

Emeritus Professor of History at Amherst College, Mass. Professor at Amherst -j Whig Party. 
College, 1877-1908. I 

A. E. S. Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., D. Sc, F.R.S. fwasp (in tart)- 

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. -{ w .J- . ." ' ' . 
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History. { Weevil (m part). 

Aldred Farber Barker, M.Sc. /Wool, Worsted and Woollen 

Professor of Textile Industries at Bradford Technical College. \ Manufactures. 

Archibald Frank Becke. f 

Captain, Royal Field Artillery. Author of Introduction to the History of Tactics, -j Waterloo Campaign 
I740-i9o5;&c. [ 

A. F. Hutchison, M.A. f w « 1IaM Sip wrm™ 

Sometime Rector of the High School, Stirling. \ W* 1 " 08 . »» William. 

Arthur Francis Leach, M.A. (" 

Barrister -at-law, Middle Temple. Charity Commissioner for England and Wales. J Waynflete, William; 
Formerly Assistant-Secretary to the Board of Education. Fellow of All Souls j William of Wykeham 
College, Oxford, 1874-1881. Author of English Schools at the Reformation; &c. I 

A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. | 

Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University Walsingham, Sir Franeis; 

of London. Assistant-Editor of the Dictionary of National^ Biography, 1893-1901. -j Wishart, George; 

""** ' " ~ -.... Cranmer ; Henry 1 

VIII. ; &c. • - - ^ 

Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas Cranmer; Henry Wolsey, Cardinal. 

A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke. f „ .. 

See the biographical article: Clerke, Agnes M. -^iOOiae. 

A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred. 

f Vulture; Wagtail; Warbler; 
Waxwing; Weaver-bird; 
Wheatear; Whitethroat; 
Wigeon; Woodcock; 
Woodpecker; Wren; 
Wryneck; Zosterops. 
A. P. C. Arthur Philemon Coleman, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. ( 

Professor of Geology in the University of Toronto. Geologist, Bureau of Mines, -j Yukon Territory. 
Toronto, 1 893-1910. Author of Reports of the Bureau of Mines of Ontario. y 

A. Sy. Arthur Symons. J" Villiers de l'lsle-Adam, 

Sec the biographical article: Symons, Arthur. 1 Comte de. 

A. S. C. Alan Summerly Cole. CB. r 

Formerly Assistant-Secretary, Board of Education, South Kensington. Author of J . , . , . 

Ornament in European Silks ; Catalogue of Tapestry, Embroidery, Lace and Egyptian 1 Weaving. Archaeology am Art. 
Textiles in the Victoria and Albert Museum; &c. I 

A. S. P.-P. Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, M.A., LL.D., D.CL. f 

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gjfford J Weber's Law; 

Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 191T. Fellow of the British Academy. | Wolff, Christian {in part). 

Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c. I 

A. v. 0. Aloys von OrelLi. f 

Formerly Professor of Law in the University of Zurich. Author of Das Staatsrecht ( Veto. 
der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft. I 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 


A. W. H.* 

A. W. Hu. 

A. W. B. 

B. E. S. 

B. H.-S. 

C. El. 
















C. L. K. 

C. R. B, 

C. W. R. 

D. B. M. 

D. F. T. 

D. G. H. 

D. H. 
D. H. S. 

D. R.-M. 


Arthur William Holland. J" . 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. \ Widukmd; Wltan. 

Rev. Arthur Wollaston Hutton. ( 

Rector of Bow Church, Cheapside, London. Formerly Librarian of the National J uui coniQ „ r ri , n , 
Liberal Club. Author of Life of Cardinal Manning. Editor of Newman's Lives of the 1 Wiseman, t-aruinai. 
English Saints; &c. I 

Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws 
of England. 

Benjamin Eli Smith, A.M. 

Editor of the Century Dictionary. Formerly Instructor in Mathematics at Amherst 
College, Mass., and in Psychology at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 
Editor of the Century Cyclopaedia of Names; Century Atlas; &c. 

B. Heckstall-Smith. f 

Associate of the Institute of Naval Architects. Secretary of the International J Yachting. 

Yacht Raciag Union; Secretary of the Yacht Racing Association. Yachting] 
Editor of The Field. I 

Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. f 

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, 
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa J Yue-Cui. 
Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for German 
East Africa, 1 900- 1 904. |_ 

Cham,es Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbor. 


Whitney, William Dwight. 

1st City of London (Royal \ Wilderness: Grant's Campaign. 

Charles Francis Keary, MA. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of The Vikings in Western Christendom; 
Norway and the Norwegians; &c. 


Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City, 
of the American Historical Association. 

Crawford Howell Toy, A.M., LL.U. 

See the biographical article; Toy, Crawford Howell. 

Charles Kingsley Webster, M.A. 
Fellow of -King's College, Cambridge. 

Whewell Scholar, 1907. 

Chakles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc, F.S.A. 

Assistant-Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of %ife of Henry V. Editor 
of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. 

w , f Victor III. and IV. (Popes): 
Member J Viseont , t p amUy) _ 

[ Wisdom, Book of; 
I Wisdom literature. 

1 Vienna, Congress of. 

Warwick, Richard Beau- 
champ, Earl of; 

Warwick, Richard Neville, 
Earl ol; 

Whittington, Richard; 

Worcester, John Tiptoft, 
Earl of; 

York, Richard, Duke of. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of 
Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 
Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. 

Charles' Walker Robinson, C.B., D.C.L. 

■ Major-General (retired). Assistant Military Secretary, Headquarters of the Army, 
1890^-1892. Governor and Secretary, Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea, 1895- 
1898. Author of Strategy of the Peninsular War; &c. 

David Binning Monro, M.A., Litt.D. 

See the biographical article: Monro, David Binning. 



Donald Francis Tovey. 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. 


David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Fellow 

of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; 

Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 

1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 
David Hannay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal 

Navy ; Life of EmUio Castelar ; Sec. 
Dukinfield Henry Scott, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Professor of Botany, Royal College of Science, London, 1885-1892. Formerly 

President of the Royal Microscopical Society and of the Linnean Society. Author 

of Structural Botany; Studies in Fossil Botany; &c. 

David Randall-Maciver, M.A., D.Sc. 

Curator of Egyptian Department, University of Pennsylvania. Formerly Worcester 
Reader in Egyptology, University of Oxford. Author of Medieval Rhodesia ; &C 

Wolf, Friedrich August. 

r Victoria, Tommasso L. da; 
Wagner: Biography (in part) 
and Critical Appreciation; 
Weber: Critical Appreciation. 

j Xanthus; 
1 Zeitun. 

) Villeneuve; 

( Zumalacarregui. 

Williamson, William Crawford. 

J 7.i 




E. Ar.* 
E. C* 

E. Cu. 
E. C. B. 

E. C. S. 
E. G. 
Ed. M. 


M. W 







E. P. W. 
E. R. L. 

E. T. 

F. A. C. 
F. C. C. 

F. G. M. B. 
F. J. H. 

F. Ke. 

Rev. Elkanah Aemitage, M.A. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor in Yorkshire United Independent College, 

Ernest Clarke, M.D., F.R.C.S. 

Surgeon to the Central London Ophthalmic Hospital, and Consulting Ophthalmic . 
Surgeon to the Miller General Hospital. Vice-President of the Ophthalmological 
Society. Author of Refraction of the Eye; &c. 




Errors of Refraction, 

Edmund Curtis, M.A. 
Keble College, Oxford. 

Lecturer on History in the University of Sheffield. 

Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A., D.Litt. 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Rath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius ' 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies. 

Edmund Clarence Stedman. 

See the biographical article: Stedman, Edmund Clarence. 

William I. and II. of Sicily. 

Wadding, Luke. 

Whittier, John GreenleaJ. , 

Villanelle; Virelay; 
Vosmaer, Caiel; 
Waller, Edmund; 
Walloons: Literature; 
Watson, Thomas; 
Wells, Charles Jeremiah; 
Wennerberg, Gunnar; 
WiBther, Christian; 
I Wordsworth, Dorothy. 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des "! y^**™,*. v™' j ^ " 

~ ' Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarslamme. L AexX8S > la^egerO. 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund. 

Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt., LL.D 
Professor of Ancient History in the L 
AUerthums; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens 

Rev. Edward Mewburn Walker, M.A. 

Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen's College, Oxford. 

Xenophon {in part). 

Edmund Owen, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. r 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, J Wart; 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 1 Whitlow, 
A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. i 

Elizabeth O'Neill, M.A. (Mrs H. O. O'Neill). 

Formerly University Fellow and Jones Fellow of the University of Manchester. 

Edgar Prestage. 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Com- 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal 
Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society ; &c. 

Everett Pepperreli. Wheeler, A.M. 

Formerly Chairman of the Commission on International Law, American Bar 
Association, and other similar Commissions. Author of Daniel Webster; Modern 
Law of Carriers ; Wages and the Tariff. 

Sir Edwin Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.Sc, LL.D., D.C.L. 

Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. President of the British Association, 1906. 
Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University College, London, 
1874-1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, 1891-1898. 
Director of the Natural History Departments of the British Museum, 1898-1907. 
Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at Oxford, 1905. 
Author of Degeneration; The Advancement of Science; The Kingdom of Man; &c. 

Elihu Thomson, A.M., D.Sc., Ph.D. 

Inventor of Electric Welding. Electrician to the Thomson-Houston and General 
Electric Companies. Professor of Chemistry and Mechanics, Central High School, 
Philadelphia, 1870—1880. President of the International Electro-technical Com- 
mission, 1908. 

Franklyn Arden Crallan. 

Formerly Director of Wood-carving, Gloucester County Council. Author of Gothic 

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. 
Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and 
Morals; &c. 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge. 

Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brase- 
nose College. Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church. 
Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Mono- 
graphs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; &c. 

Frank Keiper, A.M., B.L., M.E. 

Manager of the United States Voting Machine Company. Formerly Assistant 
Examiner. United States Patent Office 


Vicente, Gil; 
Vieira, Antonio. 

Webster, Daniel {in part). 


Welding: Electric. 



■i Wessex. 


Walling Street. 

j Voting Machines. 




H. H 

















Lady Lugard. J . 

See the biographical article: Lugard, Sir F. J. D. \ »ria. 

Colonel Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B. f 

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University- Author of War and the ■{ Wfirth. 
World's Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign. I 

r Victoria Falls; 
Frank R. Cana. J Victoria Nyanza (iw £ar/); 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. I Zambezi • Zululand 

Sir Frank Thomas Marzials, K.C.B. -f Zola fimile 

Formerly Accountant-General of the Army. Editor of the "Great Writers" Series. \ ' 

Frederick Wedmore. f whistler. 

See the biographical article: Wedmore, Frederick. \ 

Frederick William Rudler I.S 10., F.G.S J Volcano; Wolframite; 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. 1 rji rnnn 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. I z,ircon - 

Frederick York Powell, D.C.L., LL.D. [ , r .- iBii -...-„ 

See the biographical article: Powell, Frederick York. I vigiusson, uiiaDranur, 

Lord Grimthorpe. J 

See the biographical article: Grimthorpe, ist Baron, \ Watch {in part). 

Rev. George Albert Cooke, M.A., D.D. r 

Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture in the University of Oxford, J »»-__».■_ 
and Fellow of Oriel College. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of* St Mary's] * en0Dia - 
Cathedral, Edinburgh. Author of Text-Book of North Semitic Inscriptions; &c. I 

G. C. L. George Collins Levey, C.M.G. r 

Member of the Board of Advice to the Agent-General for Victoria. Formerly Editor J 
and Proprietor of the Melbourne Herala. Secretary, Colonial Committee of Royal j 
Commission to the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Secretary, Adelaide Exhibition, 1887. i Victoria (Australia): History, 
Secretary, Royal Commission, Hobart Exhibition, 1894-1895. Secretary to Com- 
missioners for Victoria at the Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia 
and Melbourne. 



L. L. 


N. M. 


R. C. 


T. M. 




W. R.* 


Y. P. 



A. C* 

G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. 
Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society ; and Foreign Member, Netherlands 
Association of Literature. 

William II., King of the 

William III., King of the 

William the Silent; 
I William II., Prince of Orange. 

G. Ft George Fleming, C.B., LL.D., F.R.C.V.S. f 

Formerly Principal Veterinary Surgeon, War Office, London. Author of Animal -l Veterinary Science (in part). 
Plagues: their History, Nature and Prevention. I 

G. F. D. George Frederick Deacon, LL.D., M.Inst.M.E., F.R.M.S. (1843-1909). r 

Formerly Engineer-in-Chief for the Liverpool Water Supply (Vyrnwy Scheme),' 
and Member of the Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Borough and Water \ Water Supply. 
Engineer of Liverpool, 1871-1879. Consulting Civil Engineer, 1879-1909. Author I 
of addresses and papers on Engineering, &c. 

George Francis Robert Henderson. 

See the biographical article: Henderson, George Francis Robert. 


George Grenville Phillimore, M.A., B.C.L. f Wreck (in -Part) 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-law, Middle Temple. "^ 

George Herbert Carpenter. r ... ,. . 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: i was P { - ln P a ">\ 
their Structure and Life. [_ Weevil (in part). 

George Jamieson, C.M.G., M.A. f 

Formerly Consul-General at Shanghai, and Consul and Judge of the Supreme Court, J Yangtsze-Kiang. 
Shanghai. [ 

George James Turner. r 

Barrister-at-law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden J Wapentake. 
Society. [ 

George Saintsbury, D.C.L., LL.D. f 7,'^' A } lKi de = 

See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George E. B. -i Villehardouin, Geoffrey de; 

L Villon, Francois; Voltaire. 

George Waiter Prothero, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. 

Editor of the Quarterly Review. Honorary Fellow, formerly Fellow of King's I 

College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Professor of History in the J \i/;ik««, tv v,™ n r v*,~i*nn 
University of Edinburgh, 1894-1899. Author of Life and Times of Simon de Mont- 1 wuuam lv -> Am & 01 *-ngiano. 
fort ; &c. Joint-editor of the Cambridge Modern History. I 

G. W. R. Major George William Redway. f nnM--.,,,.. ,. . a 

Author of The War of Secession, 1861-1862; Fredericksburg: a Study in War. \ wutt « In ess Km part). 

G. W. T. Rev. Griefithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. f Wahhabis; Waqidi; 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old \ Ya'qfibl; Yaqut; 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. [ Zamakhshari; Zuhair. 



H. Ch. 

H. C. H. 















H. J. C. 

H. Lb. 

15. L. J. 














H. W. C. D. 

H. W. R.* 


I. J. C. 

Hugh Chisholm, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the Ilth edition of" 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the ioth edition. 

Rev. Horace Carter Hovey, A.M., D.D. 

Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Geological 
Society of America, the National Geographic Society and the Societede Sp£!eologie. * 
Author of Celebrated American Caverns; Handbook of Mammoth Cave of Kentucky; 

Victoria, Queen; 

Walter, John; 

Ward, Mrs Humphry; 

Wilde, Oscar; 

Wordsworth, William (in pari) 

Wyandotte Cave. 


Hippot.yte Delehaye, S.J. 

Bollandist. Joint Editor of the Acta Sanctorum; and the Analecla BoUandiana 

Herbert Edward Ryle, M.A., D.D. 

Dean of Westminster. Bishop of Winchester, 1903-1911. Bishop of Exeter, 1901- 
1903. Formerly Hulsean Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge; 
and Fellow of King's College. Author of On Holy Scripture and Criticism; &c. &c. 

Hans Friedrich Gadow, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. 
Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the Cambridge Natural History; &c. 

Sir Henry Hardinge Cunynghame, K.C.B., M.A. 

Assistant Under-Secretary, Home Office, London. Vice-President, Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. Author of various works on Enamelling, Electric Lighting, 

Rev. Henry Herbert Williams, M.A. 

Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer in Philosophy, Hertford College, Oxford. 
Chaplain to the Bishop of Llandaff. 

Henry Jackson, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D., O.M. f 

Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Trinity J 
College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Texts to illustrate the History of\ 
Greek Philosophy from Thales to Aristotle. I 

Henry James Chaney, I.S.O. (1842-1906). 

Formerly Superintendent of the Standards Department of the Board of Trade, 
and Secretary to the Royal Commission on Standards. Represented Great Britain 
at the International Conference on the Metric System, 1901. Author of Treatise on 
Weights and Measures. 

Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Professor of Mathematics in the University of Manchester. Formerly Fellow 
Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of Council of the Royal 
Society, 1894-1896. Royal Medallist, 1902. President of London Mathematical 
Society, 1902-1904. Author of Hydrodynamics ; &c. 

Henry Lewis Jones, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 

Medical officer in charge of the Electrical Department and Clinical Lecturer on 
Medical Electricity at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Author of Medical 
Electricity ; &c. 

Hector Munro Ciiadwick, M.A. 

Fellow and Librarian of Clare College, Cambridge, and University Lecturer in 
Scandinavian. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions. 

Herbert Murray Vaughan, M.A., F.S.A. 

Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici 
Popes; The Last Stuart Queen. 

Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A. 

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. 

Henry Sturt, M.A. 

Author of Idola Theatri ; The Idea of a Free Church ; Personal Idealism. 

Henry Sweet, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D. 

University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford University. Corresponding Member of the 
Academies of Munich, Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingfors. Author cf A History 
of English Sounds since the Earliest Period ; A Primer of Phonetii s ; &c. 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. 

Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson, M.A. 

Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, 
Oxford, 1901. Author of " Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthropo- 
logy " in Mansfield College Essays; &c. 

Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short 
History of Jewish Literature ; Jewish Life in the Middle A ges ; Judaism ; &c. 

Isaac Joslin Cox, Pn.D. 

Assistant Professorof History in the University of Cincinnati. President of the 
Ohio Valley Historical Association. Author of The Journeys of La Salle and his 
Companions; &c. 

-I Vincent, St; Vitus, St. 

Westcott, Brooke Foss. 


Watch {in pari). 

Examining 1 Will: Philosophy. 


Xenophanes of Colophon; 
Zeno of Elea. 

Weights and Measures: 

Scientific and Commercial. 


X-Ray Treatment. 


Wales: Geography and 
Statistics and History. 

Wood, Anthony a. 

Vischer, Friedrich Theodor. 


Wace, Robert; 
Walter of Coventry; 
William I., King of England; 
William II., King of England; 
William of Malmesbury; 
William of Newburgh. 

Zechariah (in part) . 

Wise, Isaac Mayer; 
Zunz, Leopold. 

Wilkinson, James. 


A. H. 






E. 0. 


J. A. E. James Alfred Ewing, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., M.Inst.CE. f 

Director of (British) Naval Education. Hon. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. J \ir a H T am pc 

Professor of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics in the University of Cambridge, 1 ' 

1890-1903. Author of The Strength of Materials ; &c. I 

J. A. F. John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. _ | 

Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of J Voltmeter' Wattmeter* 
University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, 1 whoatcfnJa'c p . H „ * 
and University Lecturer on Applied Mechanics. Author of Magnets and Electric "neaisione S Bridge. 
Currents. [ 

John Allen Howe. f 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of 1 Wealden; Wenlock Group. 

The Geology of Building Stones. I 

James Bartlett. f 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c, at King's J Wall-eoverinffS 
College, London. Member of the Society of Architects. Member of the Institute of 1 
Junior Engineers. I 

John Burroughs. -f whitman to»i+ 

See the biographical article: Burroughs, John. \ waumau > wau - 

Julius Emtl Olson, B.L. _ f 

Professor of Scandinavian Languages and Literature at the University of Wisconsin. -I. Vinland. 

Author of Norwegian Grammar and Reader. [_ 

J. F.-K. James Fitzmaueice-Kellv, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. f 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Vlllaniediana, Count de; 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. "1 Villena, Enrique de; 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Zorrilla y Moral Jose. 
Alphonso XII. Author 01 A History of Spanish Literature; &c. [ ' ■ " 

J. P. M'L. John Fergusson M'Lennan. j Wer woIf (in pari). 

See the biographical article : M Lennan, John Fergusson. t 

J. Ga. James Gairdner, C.B LL.D. J York, House of. 

See the biographical article : Gairdner, James. i_ 

J. G. H. Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I. Mech.E. j' .. ,. , 

Author of Plating and Boiler Making; Practical Metal Turning; &c. \ WelOing (,»» part). 

J. G. M. John Gray McKendrick, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. , F.R.S. (Edin.). f vision- 

Emeritus Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Professor of -j „ . ' 
Physiology, 1876-1906. Author of Life in Motion; Life of Helmhollz; &c. |_ V01C6. 

J. G. R. John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D. f 

Professor of German Language and Literature, University of London. Editor of the J w . , ^ -,. . , . w ,. 
Modem Language Journal. Author of History of German Literature ; Schiller after | Wielana, l/nristopu. Martin. 

a Century; &c. I 

J. G. So. Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E. [ 

Superintendent and Political, Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma; "j Wa. 
The Upper Burma Gazetteer. t 

J. H. F. John Henry Freese MA jxenophon (in part). 

Formerly Fellow of St John s College, Cambridge. I 

J. H. M. John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1806). f 

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1 886-1895. Director Vltrovius; 
of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1 889-1 892. Art Director of the South H Wren, Sir Christopher; 
Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Zuccaro I.-II. 
Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Medieval Times. [_ 

I- J. L.* Rev. John James Lias, M.A. r 

Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral. Formerly Hulsean Lecturer in Divinity and Lady J w.,-.! wiliiom rA^. 
Margaret Preacher, University of Cambridge. Author of Miracles, Science and) wara > "Uiiam ueorge. 
Prayer ; &c. [ 

J. L. W. Jessie Laidlay Weston. f _. .. _ , . . 

Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory. | WOltrarn von iJiSCnenbaen. 

J. Mac. James MacQueen, F.R.C.V.S. r 

Professor of Surgery at the Royal Veterinary College, London. Editor of Fleming's 

Operative Veterinary Surgery (2nd edition); Dun's Veterinary Medicines (ioth-{ Veterinary Science {in part): 

edition); and Neumann's Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of the Domesticated J 

Animals (2nd edition). t I 

J. Mu.* John Muir, A.M., LL.D. ' f 

Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. President of the Sierra 
Club and the American Alpine Club. Visited the Arctic regions on the United-! yosemite. 
States steamer " Corwin " in search of the De Long expedition. Author of The 
Mountains of California; Our National Parks; &c. ! 

J. M. G. John Miller Gray (1850-1894). t r 

Art Critic. Curator of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 1884-1894. Author J Wilkie, Sir David. 
of David Scott, R.S.A.; Jamas and William Tassie. ]_ 

J. M. J. John Morris Jones, M.A. f 

Professor of Welsh at the University College of North Wales, Bangor. Formerly I Wales: Literature and 
Research Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. Author of The Elucidarium in Welsh; 1 Language. 

J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell. r _ - 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London -j WinckelmanH {in part). 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. |_ 



J. Si. 

J. S. N. 

J. S. R. 

J. T. Be. 

J. T. C. 

J. V. B. 
J. W. 

J. We. 
J. W. G. 

J. W. He. 

K. G. 
K. G. J. 
K. S. 


L. D.* 

L. F. V.-H. 

L. J. S. 

L. R. P. 

L. V.* 

-j Winckelmann (in part)- 

Wyttenbach, Daniel Albert. 

James Sime, M.A. (1843-1895). 

Author of A History of Germany; &c. 

Joseph Shield Nicholson, M.A., Sc.D. f 

Professor of Political Economy at Edinburgh University. Fellow of the British J Wages; 

Academy. Author of Principles of Political Economy; Money and Monetary 1 Wealth. 

Problems; &c. I 

James Smith Reid, M.A., LL.M., Litt.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Cambridge and Fellow and Tutor J 
of Gonvillc and Caius College. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer, of 
Christ's College. Editor of Cicero's Academica; De Amicitia; &c. 

Rev. John Telford. [ Wesley (Family); 

Wesleyan Methodist Connexional Editor. Editor of the Wesleyan Methodist J \y es i e y John' 
Magazine and the London Quarterly Review. Author of Life of John Wesley; „. , „ .*. ,. . _, , 

Life of Charles Wesley; &c. I Wesleyan Methodist Church. 

Vladimir: Government [in part) 
Volga (in part); 
Vologda: Government (in part) 
Vyatka: Government (in part). 
Warsaw: Poland (in part); 
Yakutsk (in part); 
Yeniseisk (in part). 

John Thomas Bealby. 

Joint -author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. 

Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow 
of University College, Oxford, and Assistant Professor of Natural History in the 
University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. 

James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. 

Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic 
Age; &c. 

James Williams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. 

All Souls Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln 
College. Barrister-at-Law of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Law of the Universities; &c. 

Julius Wellhausen, D.D. 

See the biographical article: Wellhausen, Julius. 

John Walter Gregory, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Professor of Geology in the University of Glasgow. Professor of Geology and 
Mineralogy in the University of Melbourne, 1900-1904. Author of The Dead Heart 
of A ustratia ; &c. 

James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and Professor of Greek and Ancient History at 
Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German 
Empire; &c. 

Karl Frif.drich Geldner, Ph.D. 

Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology in the University of Marburg. 
Author of Vedische Studien; &c. • 

KiNfiSLF.v Garland Jayne. 

Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. 
Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors. 

Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Editor of The Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the 

Count Lutzow, Litt.D., D.Ph., F.R.C..S. f 

Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member of 
the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. Author \ Zizka, John. 
of Bohemia: a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ilchester Lecture, 
Oxford, 1904) ; The Life and Times of John Hus ; &c- • 

Louis Duchesne. 

See the biographical article: Duchesne, Louis M. O. 

Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst. C.E. (1839-1907). 

Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London, 1882^1905. Author of 
Rivers and Canals ; Harbours and Docks; Civil Engineering as applied in Con- 
struction ; &c. 


Vinet, Alexandre R, 

Warranty; Water Rights; 

Will (Law); 

Women (Early Law); Writ. 

Zechariah (in part). 

Victoria: Geology; 
Western Australia: Geology. 

Windthorst, Ludwig. 

Zend-Avesta; Zoroaster. 

Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. j 

Xavier, Francisco de. 

Vielle; Viol; Virginal; 
Wind Instruments; 

{ Victor I.-II. (Popes). 


Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Minera- 
logical Magazine. 

Lewis Richard Farnf.ll, M.A., Litt.D. f 

Fellow and Senior Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Classical J 7 P1IS 
Archaeology; and Wilde Lecturer in Comparative Religion. Author of Cults of) ' 

Greek States ; Evolution of Religion. I 

Luioi Villari. 

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Corre- 
spondent in the East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906 ; Phila- 
delphia, 1907 ; and Boston, 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country ; 

r Vivianite; Wad; 
I Wavellite; Willemite; 
J Witherite; Wollastonite; 
I Zeolites; Zoisite. 

Victor Emmanuel II. 




A. B 








M. Ca. 
M. H. S. 

N. W. T. 

P. A. K. 

P. C. M. 

P. Gi. 

P. G. H. 
P. G. K. 

P. S. 

P Vi. 
R. A. W. 

R. C. D. 

R. G. 
R. G. M. 
R. He. 

R. J. M. 


Lccien Wolf. | 

Vice-President, formerly President, of the Jewish Historical Society of England. *i 
Joint-editor of the Bibliotheca Anglo-judaica. I 

Lady Broome (Mary Anne Broome). 

Author of Station- Life in New Zealand; Stories About; Colonial Memories; &c. 

Malcolm Bell. 

Author of Pewter Plate; Sir E. Burne-Jones: a Record and Review. 

Margaret Bryant. 

Rt. Rev. Makdell Creighton, D.C.L., LL.D. 

Sec the biographical article: Creighton, Mandell. 

Moritz Cantor, Ph.D. J 

Honorary Professor of Mathematics in the University of Heidelberg. Ilofrat of "1 Vieta, Francois. 
the German Empire. Author of Vorlesungen uber die Geschichte der Mathematik ; &c. t 

Marion II. Spielmann, F.S.A. 

Formerly Editor of the Magazine of A rt. Member of Fine Art Committee of Inter- 
national Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome, and the PVanco-British 
Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch" ; British Portrait Painting 
to the opening of the igth Century; Works of G. ¥. Walls, R.A.; British Sculpture 
and Sculptors of To-Day ; Henriette Ronner ; &c. 

i Western Australia: History. 

\ Watts, George Frederick. 
I Virgil: The. Virgil Legend. 
\ Waldenses. 

Wauters, Emile; 
Wood-engraving {in pari). 

Northcote Wiiitridge Thomas, M.A. _ I 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the j 
Societe o" Anthropologic de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and 
Marriage in Australia; &c. 

Prince Teter Alexeivitch Kkopotkin. 

See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A. 

Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.Z.S., F.R.S. 

Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com- 
parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. 
Author of Outlines of Biology ; &c. 

Peter Giles, M.A. , LL.D., Litt.D. f w - 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J A. 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- 1 Y. 
logical Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology. 1 2 


Werwolf (in part) ; 


Vladimir: Government (in part) ; 
Volga (in part) ; 
Vologda: Government (in part) ; 
Vyatka: Government (in part); 
Warsaw: Poland (in part) ; 
Yakutsk (in part); 
Yeniseisk (in part). 

I Zoological Gardens; 

1 Zoological Nomenclature. 

Philip Gilbert Hamerton. 
Sec the biographical article: 

Hamerton, Philip Gilbert. 

Wood-engraving (in part). 


Paul George Konodv. 

Art Critic of The Observer and The Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. J Watteau, Antoine. 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; ike. \_ 

Philip Schidrowhv, Ph.D., F.C.S. r 

Member of the Council, Institute of Brewing; Member of the Committee of the J Whisky; 
Society of Chemical Industry. Author of numerous articles on the Chemistry and | Wine. 
Technology of Brewing, Distilling; &c. [ 

Paul Vinogradoff, D.C.L.. LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Vinogradoff, Paul. 

Colonel Robert Alexander Wahab, C.B., C.M.G., CLE. 

Formerly H.M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary Delimitation. Served with Tirah 
Expeditionary Force, 1897-1898, and on the Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission, 

Pamirs, 1895. 

Romesh Chitnder Dutt, CLE. (1848 -1 000). 

Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature; Member of the Royal Asiatic. Society. 
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Formerly Revenue Minister of Baroda State, 
and Prime Minister of Baroda State. Author of Economic History of India in the 

V-ictorian Age, 1837-1900; &c. 

Richard Gafnett, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: 

' Village Communities; 
. VHIenage. 


Vidyasagar, Iswar Chandra. 

Garrett, Richard. 

Wakefield, Edward Gibbon. 

Reginald Godfrey Marsden. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. 

Sir Reginald Hennell, D.S.O., C.V.O. 

Colonel in the Indian Army (retired). Lieutenant of the King's Body-Guard of the I 
Yeomen of the Guard. Served in the Abyssinian Expedition, 1867-68: Afghan J, 1879-80; Burmah Campaign, 1886-87. Author of History of the Yeomen of \ 
the Guard, 14S5- 1904; &c. 

J Wreck {in part). 

Yeomen of the Guard. 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. 
St James's Gazette (London). 

Formerly Editor of the-] Wentworth {Family). 



R. K. D. 

R. L.* 

R. L. P. 

Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas. 

Formerly Professor of Chinese, Kind's College, London. Keeper of Oriental Printed 
Books and MSS. at the British Museum, 1892-1907. Member of the Chinese 
Consular Service, 1858-1865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; 
Europe and the Far East; &c. 

Richard Lydexker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. 
Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum ; 
of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c. 

Author of 
The Deer 

Wade, Sir Thomas F. 

Viscaoha; Vole; 
Walrus (in part) ; 
Water-Deer; Weasel; 
Whale (in part); 
Whale-fishery; Wolf (in pari)', 
Wombat; Zebra (in part); 
Zoological Distribution. 

Reginald Lane Poole, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D. 

Keeper of the Archives of the University of Oxford and Fellow of Magdalen College. I 

Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the English Historical Review. Author -\ Wycliffe (in part). 

of Wyclijfe and movements for Reform ; &c. 

R. Mu.* Rev. Robert Munro, B.D., F.S.A. (Scot.) 

Barclay Manse, Old Kilpatrick, N. B. 

R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; Tlie First Romanovs, 
1613-1725 ; Slavonic Europe : the Political History of Poland and Russia from 
146Q to I7g6 ; &c. 

R. P. S. R. PriENE Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 
President of the Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, * 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. 

J Vitrified Forts. 

Vladimir, St; 

Voluinsky, Artemy Petrovich; 
Vorontsov (Family); 
Vorosmarty, Mihaly; 
Wallqvist, Olaf; 
Wesselenyi, Baron; 
Wielopolski, Aleksander; 

Wladislaus I.-IV. of Poland. 
Zamoyski, Jan; 
Zolkiewski, Stanislaus; 
Zrinyi, Count (1 508-1 566); 
. Zrinyi, Count (1620-1664). 


Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Lttt. f 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. J v i sp ; 
Formerly Professor of Lathi 1 in University College, Cardiff ; and Fellow of Gonville | 

R. S. C. 

and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. 

R. W. F. H. Robert William Frederick Harrison. 

Barristcr-al-Law, Inner Temple. Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society, London. 

S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Coos. 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Author of Glossary of 
Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical 
Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 

S. N. Simon Newcomb, D.Sc, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Newcomb, Simon. 

S. P. Stephen Paget, F.R.C.S. 

Surgeon to the Throat and Ear Department, Middlesex Hospital. Hon. Secretary, 
Research Defence Society. Author of Memoirs and Letters of Sir James Paget ; &c. 

T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Lttt. 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography 
of the Roman Campagna. 

T. A. A. Thomas Andrew Archer, M.A. 

Author of The Crusade of Richard I. ; &c. 

T. A. C. Timothy Augustine Coghlan, I.S.O. 

Agent-General for New South Wales. Government Statistician, New South Wales, 
1886-1905. Honorary Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. Author of Wealth 
and Progress of New South Wales ; Statistical Account of A ustralia and New Zealand ; 

T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. 
Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Black- 
burn, 1910. 

T. H. B. Thomas Hudson Beare, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E. 

Regius Professor of Engineering in the University of Edinburgh. Author of papers 
in the Transactions of the Societies of Civil and Mechanical Engineers, 1894-1902. 




Zodiacal Light 


Vetulonium; Vicenza; 
Viterbo; Volci; 
Volsinii; Volterra; 
• Volturno. 

Vincent of Beauvais. 

Victoria: Geography and 

Western Australia: Geography 

and Statistics. 

War: Laws of; 
Waters, Territorial. 

Water Motors. 


r. r. g. 

T. W.-D. 
T. W. F. 

U. B. 
W. Ay. 

W. A. B. C. 

W. A. J. F. 
W. A. P. 
W. B.* 
W. C. U. 
W. E. G. 
W. F. C. 
W. Hy. 

W. H. F. 
W. I. G. 

W. M. 

W. MacD.* 


















Terrot Reaveley Glovek, M.A. 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer at St John's College, Cambridge. Professor of Latin, 
Queen's University, Kingston, Canada, 1896-1901. Author of Studies in Virgil; &c. 

Walter Theodore Watts-Dunton. 

See the biographical article: Watts-Dunton, Walter Theodore. 

Virgil (in part). 

Wyoherley, William. 

Author of Mechanics of S Y arn * 

Thomas William Fox. 

Professor of Textiles in the University of Manchester. 

Count Ugo Balzani, Litt.D. 

Member of the Realc Accademia dei Lincei. Sometime President of the Reale 
Societa Romana di Storia Patria. Corresponding Member of the British Academy ; 
Author of The Popes and the Hohenstaufen ; &c. 

Wilfrid Airy, M.Inst. C.E. 

Sometime Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. Technical Adviser to the Standards 
Department of the Board of Trade. Author of Levelling and Geodesy ; &c. 

Rev. William Augustus Beevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Ilaut Dauphini; The Range 
of the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald ; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and 
in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881; &c. 

Walter Armitage Justice Ford. 

Sometime Scholar of King's College, Cambridge. Teacher of Singing at the Royal 
College of Music, London. 

Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Morton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c. 

William Burton, M.A., F.C.S. 

Chairman of the Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. 
Author of English Stoneware and Earthenware ; &c. 

William Cawthorne Unwin, F.R.S., LL.D., M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E. 

Emeritus Professor, Central Technical College, City and Guilds of London Institute. 
Author of Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs ; Treatise on Hydraulics ; &c. 

Sir William Edmund Garstin, G.C.M.G. 

British Government Director, Suez Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of 
Irrigation, Egypt. Adviser to the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt, 1904-1908. 

William Feilden Craies, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, 
London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). 

William Henry. 

Founder and Chief Secretary of the Royal Life Saving Society. Associate of the J 
Order of St John of Jerusalem. Joint Author of Swimming (Badminton Library) ; 

Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H. 

Villani, Giovanni. 

Weighing Machines. 

Vevey; Vienne: Town; 
Vorarlberg; Walensee; 
Winkelried, Arnold von; 
Winterthur; Zug: Canton; 
Zug: Town; Zug, Lake of; 
Zurich: Canton; 
Zurich: Town; 
Zurich, Lake ot. 

Wolf, Hugo. 

Walther von der Vogelweide; 
Wycliffe (in part). 

Wedgwood, Josiah. 


Victoria Nyanza (in part). 

Wager; Warrant; 

Water Polo. 

Walrus (in part); 
Whale (in part) ; 
Wolf (in part) ; 
Zebra (in part). 

William Lawson Grant, M.A. f 

Professor of Colonial History, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly J ^|yii sfln gjj, Daniel. 
Beit Lecturer on Colonial History, -Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy j * 

Council (Canadian Series). I 

William Minto, M.A. 

See the biographical article : MlNTO, WILLIAM. 

William MacDonald, LL.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of American History in Brown University, Frovidence, R.I. Formerly 
Professor of History and Political Science, Bowdoin. Member of the American" 
Historical Association, &c. Author of History and Government of Maine; &c 
Editor of Select Charters and other documents illustrative of American History. 

i Wordsworth, William (in parti. 

Washington, George. 

William Matthew Flinders Fetrie, F.R.S., D.C.L., Litt.D. 
See the biographical article : Petrie, W. M. Flinders. 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. 

William Oscar Scroggs, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History and Economics at Louisiana State University 
Formerly Goodwin and Austin Fellow, Harvard University. 

William Prtdeaux Courtney. 

See the biographical article: Courtney, L. H, Baron. 

J* Weights and Measures: 
\ Ancient Historical. 
J Vivarini; 
\ Zurbaran, Francisco. 

J Walker, William. 

J Walpole, Horatio; 
\ Wilkes, John.- 

William Price James. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. 
Romantic Professions; &c. 

High Bailiff, Cardiff County Court. Author of \ Watson, William (poet). 



W. P. R. 

W. Ri. 

W. S. R. 

W. T. Ca. 

W. Wr. 

W. W. F.' 

W. W. R.* 

W. Y. S. 

Hon. William 1'ember Reeves. 

Director of the London School of Economics. Agent-General and High Com- 
missioner for New Zealand, 1896-1909. Minister of kducatiou, Labour and Justice, -I Vogel Sir JllliUS 
New Zealand, 1891-1896. Author of 'The Long White Cloud: a History of Nevj ' 

Zealand; &c. t 

William Ridgeway, M.A., D.Sc, Litt.D. f 

Disney Professor of Archaeology, and Brereton Reader in Classics, in the University 
of Cambridge. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College. Fellow of the British | Villanova. 
Academy. President of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 1908. Author of The 
Early Age of Greece; &c. ^~ 

William Smyth Rockstro. f Wagner: Biography (in part); 

Author of A Great History of Music from the Infancy of the Greek Drama to the Present '\ Weber 
Period; &c. L 

William Thomas Calman, D.Sc., F.Z.S. f Water-flea; 

Assistant in charge of Crustacea, Natural History Museum, South Kensington, ~i Wood-louse 
Author of " Crustacea," in a Treatise on Zoology, edited by Sir E. Kay Lankestcr. I 

Williston Walker, Ph.D., D.D. 

Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of History of the Congrega- 
tional Churches in the United States; The Reformation; John Calvin; &c. 

William Warde Fowler, M.A. 

Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford 

Winthrop, John (1588-1649). 

Sub-rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, J Vulcan. 

Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; 
"■ ~ <ublican Period; &c. I- 

The Roman Festivals of the Rep; 

William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol. 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, Ne 

William Young Sellar, I.L.D. 

See the biographical article: Sellar, William Young. 


Westminster, Synods of. 

-j Virgil (in part). 












Vote and Voting. 







War Game. 








Wax Figures. 




West Indies. 





West Point (N.Y.). 

West Virginia. 





Whig and Tory. 



White Plains. 






Wight, Isle of. 



Williamsburg (Va.). 


Wilmington (Del.). 








Wisconsin, University 


Wyoming Valley. 
Yale University. 

Yellow Fever. 
Yellowstone National 


Zuider Zee. 




VETCH, in botany, the English name for Vicia sativa, also 
known as tare, a leguminous annual herb with trailing or climb- 
ing stems, compound leaves with five or six pairs of leaflets, 
reddish-purple flowers borne singly or in pairs in the leaf-axis, 
and a silky pod containing four to ten smooth seeds. The 
wild form, sometimes regarded as a distinct species, V. angusti- 
folia, is common in dry soils. There are two races of the 
cultivated vetch, winter and spring vetches: the former, a 
hardy form, capable of enduring frost, has smoother, more 
cylindrical pods with smaller seeds than the summer variety, 
and gives less bulk of stem and leaves. The spring vetch is a 
more delicate plant and grows more rapidly and luxuriantly 
than the winter variety. 

The name vetch is applied to other species of the genus 
Vicia, Vicia orobus, bitter vetch, and V. sylvalica, wood 
vetch, are British plants. Another British plant, Hippocrepis, 
is known as horseshoe vetch from the fact of its pod breaking 
into several horseshoe- shaped joints. Anlhyllis wdneraria 
is kidney-vetch, a herb with heads of usually yellow flowers, 
found on dry banks. Astragalus is another genus of Legumi- 
noaae, and is known as milk-vetch. 

Vetches are a very valuable forage crop. Being indigenous 
to Britain, and not fastidious in regard to soil, they can be 
cultivated successfully under a great diversify of circumstances, 
and are well adapted for poor soils. By combining the winter 
and spring varieties, and making several sowings of each in its 
season at intervals of two or three weeks, it is practicable to 
have them fit for use from May till October, and thus to carry 
out a system of soiling by means of vetches alone. But it is 
usually more expedient to use them in combination with grass 
and clover, beginning with the first cutting of the latter in May, 
taking the winter vetches in June, recurring to the Italian 
ryegrass or clover as the second cutting is ready, and afterwards 
bringing the spring vetches into use. Each crop can thus be 
used when in its best state for cattle food, and so as gratefully 
to vary their dietary. 

Winkr Vetches. — There is no botanical difference between 
winter and spring vetches, and the seeds being identical in 
appearance, caution is required in purchasing seed to get it of 

the right sort. Seed grown in England is found the most 
suitable for sowing in Scotland, as it vegetates more quickly, 
and produces a more vigorous plant than that which is home- 
grown. As the great inducement to cultivate this crop is the 
obtaining of a supply of nutritious green food which shall be 
ready for use about the ist of May, so as to fill up the gap which 
is apt to occur betwixt the root crops of theprcviousautumnand 
the ordinary summer food, whether for grazing or soiling, it is 
of the utmost importance to treat it in such a way that it may be 
ready for use by the time mentioned. To secure this, winter 
tares should be sown in August if possible, but always as soon 
as the land can be cleared of the preceding crop. They may 
yield a good crop though sown in October, but in this case will 
probably be very little in advance of early-sown spring vetches, 
and possess little, if any, advantage over them in any respect. 
The land on which they are sown should be dry and well sheltered, 
clean and in good heart, and be further enriched by farmyard 
manure. Not less than 3$ bushels of seed per acre should be 
sown, to which some think it beneficial to add half a bushel of 
wheat. Rye is frequently used for this purpose, but it gets 
reedy in the stems, and is rejected by the stock. Winter beans 
are better than either. The land having been ploughed rather 
deeply, and well harrowed, it is found advantageous to deposit 
the seed in rows, either by a drilling-machine or by ribbing. 
The latter is the best practice, and the ribs should be at least 
a foot apart and rather deep, [that the roots may be well 
developed before top-growth takes place. As soon in spring as 
the state of the land and weather admits of it, the crop should 
be hoed betwixt the drills, a top-dressing at the rate of 40 bushels 
of soot or 2 cwt. of guano per acre applied by sowing broadcast, 
and the roller then used for the double purpose of smoothing 
the surface so as to admit of the free use of the scythe and of 
pressing down the plants which may have been loosened by 
frost. It is thus by early sowing, thick seeding and liberal 
manuring that this crop is to be forced to an early and abundant 
maturity. May and June are the months in which winter 
vetches are used to advantage. A second growth will be 
produced from the roots if the crop is allowed to stand; but it 
is much better practice to plough up the land as the crop is 



cleared, and to sow turnips upon it. After a full crop of vetches, 
land is usually in a good state for a succeeding crop. When the 
whole process has been well managed, the gross amount of cattle 
food yielded by a crop of winter vetches, and the turnip crop 
by which it is followed in the same summer, will be found 
considerably to exceed what could be obtained from the fullest 
crop of turnips alone, grown on similar soil, and with the same 
quantity of manure. It is useless to sow this crop where game 

Spring vetches, if sown about the ist of March, will be ready for 
use by the ist of July, when the winter vetches are just cleared 
off. To obtain the full benefit of this crop, the land on which it 
is sown must be clean, and to keep it so a much fuller allowance 
of seed is required than is usually given in Scotland. When the 
crop is as thick set as it should be, the tendrils intertwine, and 
the ground is covered by a solid mass of herbage, under which 
no weed can live. To secure this, not less than 4 bushels of 
seed per acre should be used if sown broadcast, or 3 bushels if in 
drills. The latter plan, if followed by hoeing, is certainly the 
best; for if the weeds are kept in check until the crop is fairly 
established, they have no chance of getting up afterwards. 
With a thin crop of vetches, on the other hand, the land is so 
certain to get foul, that they should at once be ploughed down, 
and something else put in their place. As vetches are in the 
best state for use when the seeds begin to form in the pods, 
repeated sowings are made at intervals of three weeks, beginning 
by the end of February, or as early in March as the season admits, 
and continuing till May. The usual practice in Scotland has 
been to sow vetches on part of the oat break, once ploughed 
from lea. Sometimes this does very well, but a far better 
plan is to omit sowing clover and grass seeds on part of the 
land occupied by wheat or barley after a crop of turnips, and 
having ploughed that portion in the autumn to occupy it with 
vetches, putting them instead of " seeds " for one revolution of 
the course. 

When vetches are grown on poor soils, the most profitable 
way of using them is by folding sheep upon them, a practice 
very suitable also for clays, upon which a root crop cannot 
safely be consumed in this way. A different course must, 
however, be adopted from that followed when turnips are so 
disposed of. When sheep are turned in upon a piece of tares, 
a large portion of the food is trodden down and wasted. Cutting 
the vetches and putting them into racks does not much mend 
the matter, as much is still pulled out and wasted, and the 
manure unequally distributed over the land. To avoid those 
evils, hurdles with vertical spars, betwixt which the sheep can 
reach with head and neck, are now used. These are set close 
up to the growing crop along a considerable stretch, and shifted 
forward as the sheep eat up what is within their reach. This 
requires the constant attention of the shepherd, but the labour 
is repaid by the saving of the food, which being always fresh and 
clean, does the sheep more good. A modification of this plan 
is to use the same kind of hurdles, but instead of shifting them 
as just described, to mow a swathe parallel to them, and fork, 
this forward within reach of the sheep as required, repeating 
this as often during the day as is found necessary, and at night 
moving the sheep close up to the growing crop, so that they may 
lie for the next twenty-four hours on the space which has yielded 
food for the past day. During the night they have such pickings 
as have been left on the recently mown space and so much of the 
growing crop as they can get at through' the spars. There is 
less labour by this last mode than the other, and having practised 
it for many years, we know that it answers well. This folding 
upon vetches is suitable either for finishing off for market sheep 
that are in forward condition, or for recently weaned lambs, 
which, after five or six weeks' folding on this clean, nutritious 
herbage, are found to take on more readily to eat turnips, and to 
thrive better upon them, than if they had been kept upon 
the pastures all the autumn. Sheep folded upon vetches 
must have water always at command, otherwise they will not 

As spring-sown vetches are in perfection at the season when 

pastures usually get dry and scanty, a common practice is to 
cart them on to grass land and spread them out in wisps, to be 
eaten by the sheep or cattle. It is, however, much better either 
to have them eaten by sheep where they grow, or to cart them to 
the homestead. 

VETERAN, old, tried, experienced, particularly used of a 
soldier w r ho has seen much service. The Latin veteranus (veins, 
old), as applied to a soldier, had, beside its general application 
in opposition to tiro, recruit, a specific technical meaning in the 
Roman army. Under the republic the full term of service 
with the legion was twenty years; those who served this period 
and gained their discharge (missio) were termed emeriti. If they 
chose to remain in service with the legion, they were then called 
veierani. Sometimes a special invitation was issued to the 
emeriti to rejoin; they were then styled evocati. 

The base of Lat. vetus meant a year, as seen in the Gr. eras (for 
Feros) and Sanskrit vatsa; from the same hase comes Vilnius, a calf, 
properly a yearling, vitellus, a young calf, whence 0. Fr. veel, modern, 
veau, English "veal," the flesh of the calf. The Teutonic cognate of 
vitulus is probably seen in Goth, withrus, lamb, English " wether," 
a castrated ram. 

VETERINARY SCIENCE (Lat. veterinarius, an adjective 
meaning " connected with beasts of burden and draught," 
from veterinus, " pertaining to yearlings," and vitulus, " a calf "), 1 
the science, generally, that deals with the conformation and 
structure of the domesticated animals, especially the horse; 
their physiology and special racial characteristics; their breed- 
ing, feeding and general hygienic management; their pathology, 
and the preventive and curative, medical and surgical, treat- 
ment of the diseases and injuries to which they are exposed; 
their amelioration and improvement; their relations to the 
human family with regard to communicable maladies; and 
the supply of food and other products derived from them for 
the use of mankind. In this article it is only necessary to 
deal mainly with veterinary science in its relation with medicine, 
as other aspects are treated under the headings for the par- 
ticular animals, &c. In the present edition of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica the various anatomical articles (see Anatomy for a 
list of these) are based on the comparative method, and thv, 
anatomy of the lower animals is dealt with there and in the 
separate articles on the animals. 


There is evidence that the Egyptians practised veterinary 
medicine and surgery in very remote times; but it is not until 
we turn to the Greeks that wc obtain any very definite informa- 
tion with regard to the state of veterinary as well as human 
medicine in antiquity. The writings of Hippocrates (460-377 
B.C.) afford evidence of excellent investigations in comparative 
pathology. Diodes of Carystus, who was nearly a contem- 
porary, was one of the first to occupy himself with anatomy, 
which he studied in animals. Aristotle, too, wrote on physiology 
and comparative anatomy, and on the maladies of animals, 
while many other Greek writers on veterinary medicine are 
cited or copied from by Varro, Columella and Galen. And we 
must not overlook Mago of Carthage (200 B.C.), whose work in 
twenty-eight books was translated into Greek and was largely 
used by Varro and Columella. 

1 Regarding the origin of the word " veterinary," the following 
occurs in D'Arboval's Dictionnaire de medecine et de chirurgie 
vetSrinaires, edited by Zundel (1877), iii. 814: " Les mots 
veterinaria et veterinarius 6taient employes par les Romains pour 
designer: le premier, la medecine des bites de somme; le second, 
pour indiquer celui qui la pratiquait; le mot veterinae indiquait les 
betes de somme, et etait la contraction de veheterinae, du verbe 
vehere, porter, tirer, trainer. L'etymologie reelle du mot veterinaire, 
ou plutrYt du mot veterinarius des Romains, serait d'apres Lenglet 
encore plus ancienne; elle viendrait du ecltique, d'ou le mot serait 
passe chez les Romains; cet auteur fait venir le mot de vee, betail 
(d'ou 1'allemand Vkh), teeren, etre maladc (d'ou l'allemand Zekren, 
consomption), aeris ou arts, artiste, m6decin (d'ou Tallemand 





Until after the conquest of Greece the Romans do not appear 
to have known much of veterinary medicine. Varro (116-28 B.C.) 
may be considered the first Roman writer who deals with 
animal medicine in a scientific spirit in his De Re Rustica, 
in three' books, which is largely derived from Greek writers. 
Celsus is supposed to have written on animal medicine, 
and Columella (rst century) is credited with having utilized those 
relating to veterinary science in the sixth and seventh parts of his 
De Re Rustica, one of the best works of its class of ancient times; 
it treats not only of medicine and surgery, but also of sanitary 
measures for the suppression of contagious diseases. From the 
3rd century onwards veterinary science had a literature of its own 
and regular practitioners, especially in the service of the Roman 
armies (mulomedici, vetefhtatii). Perhaps the most renowned 
veterinarian of the Roman empire was Apsyrtus of Bithynia, who 
in 322 accompanied the expedition of Cunstantine against the Sar- 
matians in his professional capacity, and seems to have enjoyed a 
high and well-deserved reputation in his time. He was a keen 
observer; he distinguished and described a number of diseases 
which were badly defined by his predecessors, recognized _ the 
contagious nature of glanders, farcy and anthrax, and prescribed 
isolation for their suppression; he also made interesting observations 
on accidents and diseases of horses' limbs, and waged war against 
certain absurd empirical practices then prevailing in the treatment 
of disease, indicating rational methods, some of which are still 
successfully employed in veterinary therapeutics, such as splints 
for fractures, sutures for wounds, cold water for the reduction of 
prolapsed vagina, hot baths for tetanus, &c. Not less eminent was 
Hierocles, the successor of Apsyrtus, whose writings he largely 
copied, but with improvements and valuable additions, especially 
tn the hygiene and training of horses. Pelagonius, again, was a 
writer of empirical tendency, and his treatment of disease in general 
was most irrational. Publius Vcgctius (not to be confounded with 
Flavius Vegetius Renatus, who wrote on the military art) was a 
popular author of the end of the 5th century ,_ though less distin- 
guished than Apsyrtus, to whom and to Pelagonius he was to a great 
extent indebted in the preparation of his Mulomedicina sive Ars 
Veterinaria. He appears to have been more of a horse-dealer than 
a veterinary practitioner, and knew next to nothing of anatomy, 
which seems to have been but little cultivated at that period. He 
was very superstitious and a believer in the influence of demons and 
sorcerers; nevertheless, he gives some interesting observations de- 
rived from his travels. He nad also a good idea of aerial infection, 
recognized the utility of disinfectants, and describes some operations 
not referred to by previous writers, such as removal of calculi from 
the bladder through the rectum, couching for cataract, the extirpa- 
tion of certain glands, and several serious operations on the horse's 
foot. Though inferior to several works writien by his predecessors, 
the Mulomedieina of Vegetius maintained its popularity through 
many centuries. Of most of the ancient veterinary writers we know 
little beyond what can be gathered from the citations and extracts 
in the two great collections of Hippiatrica and Geoponica compiled 
by order of Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century. 

It is unnecessary to dwell here on the progress of the veterinary 
art during the middle ages. Towards the close of the medieval 
period the subject was much cultivated in the cavalry schools of 
Italy; and Spain also had an organized system of good practitioners 
in the 15th century, who have left many books still extant. Ger- 
many was far behind, and literature on the subject did not exist 
until the end of the 15th century, when in 1492 there was published 
anonymouslv at Augsburg a Pferdearzneibuchlein. In the following 
century the "influence of the Italian writers was becoming manifest, 
and the works of Fugger and Fayser mark the commencement 
of a new era. Fayser's treatises, Von der Gestiiterei and Von der 
Zucht der Kriegs- und Burger-Pferde (i52°-97)> are remarkable for 
originality and good sense. In Great Britain animal medicine was 
perhaps in a more advanced condition than in Germany, if we 
accept the evidence of the Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales 
(London, 1841); yet it was largely made up of the grossest super- 
stitions. 1 Among the Celts the healer of horse diseases and the 
shoer were held in high esteem, as among the more civilized nations 
of Europe, and the court farrier enjoyed special privileges. 2 The 
earliest known works in English appeared anonymously towards 
the commencement of the 16th century, viz. Vropertees and 
Medcynesjor a Horse and Mascal of Oxen, Horses, Skeepes, Hogges, 
Dogges. The word " mascal " shows that the latter work was in its 
origin Italian. There is no doubt that in the 15th century the 
increasing taste for horses and horsemanship brought Italian riding- 
masters and farriers into England; and it is recorded that Henry 
VIII. brought over two of these men who had been trained by 
Grisone in the famous Neapolitan school. The knowledge so intro- 
duced became popularized, and assumed a concrete form in Blunde- 
ville's Foure Chiefest Offices belonging to Horsemanship (1566), which 
contains many references to horse diseases, and, though mainly a 
compilation, is yet enriched with original observations. In the 

1 See Leechdoms. Wortcunning and Starcraf I of Early England (3 vols. 
8vo, London, 1864). 

* See Fleming, Horse-shoes and Horse-Shoeing (London, 1869). 

15th century the anatomy of the domesticated animals, formerly 
almost entirely neglected, began to receive attention. A work on 
comparative anatomy by Volcher Koyter was issued at Nuremberg 
in 1573; about the same time a writer in Germany named Copho 
or Cophon published a book on the anatomy of the pig, in which 
were many original remarks on the lymphatic vessels; and Jehan 
Hervard in France produced in 1504 his rather incomplete Hippo- 
Osteologie. But by far the most notable work, and one which main- 
tained its popularity for a century and a half, was that of Cano 
Ruini, a senator of Bologna, published in 1598 in that city, and 
entitled Dell' Anatomia e delV Infirmity del Cavallo, e suoi Remedii. 
Passing through many editions, and translated into French and 
German, this book was for the most part original, and a remarkable 
one for the time in which it was composed, the anatomical portion 
being especially praiseworthy. English books of the 17th century 
exhibit a strong tendency towards the improvement of veterinary 
medicine and surgery, especially as regards the horse. This is even 
more notable in the writings of the 18th century, among which may 
be particularized Gibson's Farrier's New Guide (1719), Method of 
Dieting Horses (1721) and (best of all) his New Treatise on the 
Diseases of Horses, besides Braken's, Burdon's, Bridge's and Bartlet's 
treatises. Veterinary anatomy was greatly advanced by the Anatomy 
of an Horse (1683) of Snape, farrier to Charles II., illustrated with 
copperplates, and by the still more complete and original work of 
Stubbs, the Anatomy of the Horse (1766), which decidedly marked 
a new era in this line of study. Of foreign works it may suffice to 
mention that of Solleysel, Veritable parfait mareschal (1664), which 
passed through many editions, was translated into several languages, 
and was borrowed from for more than a century by different writers. 
Sir VV. Hope's Compleat Horseman (1696) is a translation from 
Solleysel by a pupil. 

Modern Schools and Colleges. — The most important era in the 
history of modern veterinary science commenced with the institution 
of veterinary schools. France was the first to take the p rance 
great'initiative step in this direction. Buff on hadrecom- an aCon- 
mended the formation of veterinary schools, but his tlnentul 
recommendations were not attended to. Claude Bourgelat ^ ur0 pe t 
(17 12-1799), an advocate at Lyons and a talented hippolo- [ 

gist, through his influence with Bertin, prime minister under Louis 
XV., was the first to induce the government to establish a veterinary 
school and school of equitation at Lyons, in 1761. This school 
he himself directed for only a few years, during which the great 
benefits that had resulted from it justified an extension of its teaching 
to other parts of France. Bourgelat; therefore, founded (1766) at 
Alfort, near Paris, a second veterinary school, which soon became, 
and has remained to this day, one of the finest and most advanced 
veterinary schools in the world. At Lyons he was replaced by the 
Abbe Rozier, a learned agriculturist, who was killed at the siege 
of Lyons after a very successful period of school management, 
during which he had added largely to agricultural and physical 
knowledge by the publication of his Journal de Physique and Cours 
d' Agriculture. Twenty years later the Alfort school added to its 
teaching staff several distinguished professors whose names still 
adorn the annals of science, such as Dauberton, who taught rural 
economy ; Vic d'Azyr, who lectured on comparative anatomy ; 
Fourcroy, who undertook instruction in chemistry; and_ Gilbert, 
one of its most brilliant pupils, who had veterinary medicine and 
surgerv for his department. The last-named was also a distinguished 
agriculturist and published many important treatises on agricultural 
as well as veterinary subjects. The position he had acquired, added 
to his profound and varied knowledge, made him most useful to 
France during the period of the Revolution. It is chiefly to him 
that it is indebted for the celebrated Rambouillet flock of Merino 
sheep, for the conservation of the Tuilcries and Versailles parks, 
and for the creation of the fine experimental agricultural estab- 
lishment organized in the ancient domain of Sceaux. The Alfort 
school speedily became the nursery of veterinary science, and the 
source whence all similar institutions obtained their first teachers 
and their guidance. A third government school was founded in 
1825 at Toulouse; and these three schools have produced thousands 
of thoroughly educated veterinary surgeons and many professors 
of high scientific repute, among whom may be named Bouley, 
Chauveau, Colin, Joussaint, St Cyr, Goubaux, Arloing, Galtier, 
Nocard, Trasbot, Neumann, Cadiot and Lcclainche. The opening 
of the Alfort school was followed by the establishment of national 
schools in Italy (Turin, 1769), Denmark (Copenhagen, 1773), Austria 
(Vienna, 1775), Saxony (Dresden, 1776), Prussia (Hanover, 1778; 
Berlin, 1790)" Bavaria (Munich, 1790), Hungary (Budapest, 1787) 
and Spain (Madrid, 1793); and soon government veterinary schools 
were founded in nearly every European country, except Great 
Britain and Greece, mostly on a munificent scale. Probably all, 
but especially those of France and Germany, were established as 
much with a view to training veterinary surgeons for the army as 
for the requirements of civil life. In 1907 France possessed three 
national veterinary schools, Germany had six, Russia four (Kharkov, 
Dorpat, Kazan and Warsaw), Italy six, Spain five, Austria-Hungary 
three (Vienna, Budapest and Lemberg), Switzerland two (Zurich 
and Bern), Sweden two (Skara and Stockholm), Denmark, Holland, 
Belgium and Portugal one each. In 1849 o- government veterinary 


school was established at Constantinople, and in 1861 the govern- 
ment of Rumania founded a school at Bucharest. The veterinary 
schools of Berlin, Hanover and Vienna have been raised to the 
position of universities. 

In 1790 St Bel (whose real name was Vial, St Bel being a village 
near Lyons, where was his paternal estate), after studying at the 
Lyons school and teaching both at Alfort and Lyons, came 
ATJ ed to England and published proposals for founding a school 

*^ ' in which to instruct pupils in veterinary medicine and 
surgery. The Agricultural Society of Odiham, which had been 
meditating sending two young men to the Alfort school, elected 
him an honorary member, and delegated a committee to consult 
with him respecting his scheme. Some time afterwards this 
committee detached themselves from the Odiham Society and formed 
an institution styled the Veterinary College of London, of which 
St Bel was appointed professor. The school w r as to be commenced 
and maintained by private subscription. In March 1792 arrange- 
ments were made for building temporary stabling for fifty horses 
and a forge for shoeing at St Pancras. The college made rapid 
progress in public estimation, notwithstanding considerable pecuniary 
embarrassments. As soon as the building was ready for the recep- 
tion of animal patients, pupils began to be enrolled ; and among the 
earliest were some who afterwards gained celebrity as veterinarians, 
as Bloxam t Blaine, R. Lawrence, Field and Bracy Clark. On the 
death of St Bel in August 1793 there appears to have been some 
difficulty in procuring a suitable successor; but at length, on the 
recommendation of John Hunter and Cline, two medical men were 
appointed, Coleman and Moorcroft, the latter then practising as a 
veterinary surgeon in London. The first taught anatomy and 
physiology, and Moorcroft, after visiting the French schools, directed 
the practical portion of the teaching. Unfortunately, neither of 
these teachers had much experience among animals, nor were they 
well acquainted with their diseases; but Coleman (1765-1839) had 
as a student, in conjunction with a fellow- student (afterwards Sir 
Astley Cooper), performed many experiments on animals under the 
direction of CJine. Moorcroft, who remained only a short time at 
the college, afterwards went to India, and during a journey in 1S19 
was murdered in Tibet. Coleman, by his scientific researches and 
energetic management, in a few years raised the college to a high 
standard of usefulness; under his care the progress of the veterinary 
art was such as to qualify its practitioners to hold commissions in 
the army ; and he himself was appointed veterinary surgeon- 
general to the British cavalry. In 1831 he was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society. Owing to the lack of funds, the teaching at 
the college must have been very meagre, and had it not been for 
the liberality of several medical men in throwing open the doors 
of their theatres to its pupils for instruction without fee or reward, 
their professional knowledge would have been sadly deficient. 
The board of examiners was for many years chiefly composed of 
eminent members of the medical profession. Coleman died in 
1839, and with him disappeared much of the interest the medical 
profession of London took in the progress of veterinary medicine. 
Vet the Royal Veterinary College (first styled " Royal " during the 
presidentship of the duke of Rent) continued to do good work in 
a purely veterinary direction, and received such public financial 
support that it was soon able to dispense with the small annual 
grant given to it by the government. In the early years of the 
institution the horse was the only animal to which much attention 
was given. But at the instigation of the Royal Agricultural Society 
of England, which gave £200 per annum for the purpose, an addi- 
tional professor was appointed to investigate andteach the treatment 
of the diseases of cattle, sheep and other animals; outbreaks of 
disease among these were also to be inquired into by the_ officers 
of the college. This help to the institution was withdrawn in 1875, 
but renewed and augmented in 1886. For fifteen years the Royal 
Agricultural Society annually voted a sum of £500 towards the 
expenses of the department of comparative pathology, but in 1902 
this grant was reduced to £200. 

As the result of representations made to the senate of the uni- 
versity of London by the governors of the Royal Veterinary College, 
the university in 1906 instituted a degree in veterinary science 
(B.Sa). The possession of this degree does not of itself entitle 
the hclder to practise as a veterinary surgeon, but it washoped that 
an increasing number of students would, while studying for the 
diploma of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, also adoptthe 
curriculum which is necessary to qualify for the university examina- 
tions and obtain the degree of bachelor of science. To provide 
equipment for the higher studies required for the university degree, 
the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries in 1906 made a grant to 
the college of £800 per annum. At this school post-graduate instruc- 
tion isgivenon the principles of bacteriological research, vaccination 
and protective inoculation, the preparation of toxins and vaccines 
and the bacteriology of the specific diseases of animals. 

The London Veterinary School has been the parent of other schools 
in Great Britain, one of which, the first in Scotland, was founded by 
Professor Dick, a student under Coleman,_ and a man of great per- 
severance and ability. Beginning at Edinburgh in 1819-20 with 
only one student, in three years he gained the patronage of the 
Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, which placed a small 
gum of money at the disposal of a committee appointed by itself 

to take charge of a department of veterinary surgery it had formed. 
This patronage, and very much in the way of material assistance 
and encouragement, were continued to the time of Dick's death in 
1866. During the long period in which he presided over the school 
considerable progress was made in diffusing a sound knowledge of 
veterinary medicine in Scotland and beyond it For many years 
his examining board, whijh gave certificates of proficiency under the 
auspices of the Highland and Agricultural Society, waa composed of 
the most distinguished medical men in Scotland, such as Goodsii; 
Syme, Lizars, Ballingall, Simpson and Knox. By his will Dick 
vested the college in the lord provost and town council of Edinburgh 
as trustees, and left a large portion of the fortune he had made to 
maintain it for the purposes for which it was founded. In 1859 
another veterinary school w r as established in Edinburgh by John 
Gamgee, and the Veterinary College, Glasgow, was founded in 1863 
by James McCalL Gamgee's school was discontinued m 1865; 
and William Williams established in 1873 the "New Veterinary 
College," Edinburgh. This school was transferred in 1904 to the 
university, Liverpool. In 1900 a veterinary school was founded in 

In 1844 the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (to be carefully 
distinguished from the Royal Veterinary College) obtained its 
charter of incorporation. The functions of this body were until 
1881 limited almost entirely to examining students taught in the 
veterinary schools, and bestowing diplomas of membership on those 
who successfully passed the examinations conducted by the boards 
which sat in London and Edinburgh. Soon after the Royal College 
of Veterinary Surgeons obtained its charter of incorporation, a 
difference arose between the college and Dick, which resulted in the 
latter seceding altogether from the union that had been established, 
and forming an independent examining board, the Highland and 
Agricultural Society of Scotland granting certificates of proficiency 
to those students w r ho were deemed competent. This schism 
operated very injuriously on the progress of veterinary education 
and on professional advancement, as the competition engendered 
was of a rather deteriorating nature. After the death of Dick in 
1866, the dualism in veterinary licensing was suppressed and the 
Highland Society ceased to grant certificates. Now there is only 
one portal of entry into the profession, and the veterinary students 
of England, Ireland and Scotland must satisfy the examiners 
appointed by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons before they 
can practise their profession. 

Before beginning their professional studies students of veterinary 
medicine must pass an examination in general education equivalent 
in every respect to that required of students of human medicine. 
The minimum length of the professional training is four years of 
three terms each, and during that course four searching examinations 
must be passed before the student obtains his diploma or licence to 

Kractise as a veterinary surgeon. The subjects taught in the schools 
ave been increased in numbers conformably with the requirements 
of ever extending science, and the teaching is more thorough and 
practical. During the four years' curriculum, besides the pre- 
liminary technical training essential to every scientist, the student 
must study the anatomy and physiology of the domesticated animals, 
the pathology and bacteriology of the diseases to which these animals 
are exposed, medicine, surgery, hygiene, dietetics and meat inspec- 
tion, and learn to know the results of disease as seen post mortem or 
in the slaughter-house. 

In 1881 an act of parliament was obtained protecting the title of 
the graduates of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons and 
conferring other advantages, not the least of which is the power 
granted to the college to remove the names of unworthy members 
from its register. In some respects the Veterinary Surgeons Act is 
superior to the Medical Act, while it places the profession on the 
same level as other learned bodies, and prevents the public being 
misled hy empirics and imposters. 

In 1876 the college instituted a higher degree than membership — 
that of fellow (F.R.C.V.S.), which can only be obtained after the 
graduate has been five years in practice, and by furnishing a thesis 
and passing a severe written and oral examination en pathology and 
bacteriology, hygiene and-sanitary science, and veterinary medicine 
and surgery. Only fellows can be elected members of. the examining 
boards for the membership and fellowship diplomas. The graduates 
of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons registered from its 
foundation in 1844 until 1907 numbered about 6000. 

In the British army a veterinary service was first instituted at the 
beginning of the 19th century, when veterinary surgeons with the 
relative rank of lieutenant were appointed to regiments of cavalry, 
the royal artillery and the royal wagon train. After the Crimean 
War, and consequent on the abolition of the East India Company 
(which then possessed its own veterinary service), the number of 
veterinary surgeons employed was increased, and in 1878 they were 
constituted a " department, " with distinctive uniform, instead of 
being regimental officers as was previously the case. At the same 
time they were all brought on to a general roster for foreign service, 
so that every one in turn has to serve abroad. In 1903 the officers 
of the department were given substantive rank, and in 1904 were 
constituted a " corps, " with a small number of non-commissioned 
officers and men under their command and specially trained by them. 
In 1907 the Army Veterinary Corps consisted of 167 officers, and 220, 



non-commissioned officers and men. The men are stationed at the 
veterinary hospitals, Woolwich depot, Aldershot, Bulford and the 
Curragh, but when trained arc available for duty under veterinary 
officers at any station, and a proportion of them are employed at 
the various hospitals in South Africa. Owing to their liability to 
service abroad in rotation, it follows that every officer spends a 
considerable portion of his service in India, Burma, Egypt or South 
Africa. Each tour abroad is five years, and the average length of 
service abroad is about one-half the total. This offers a wide and 
varied field for the professional activities of the corps, but naturally 
entails a corresponding strain on the individuals. Commissions 
us lieutenants are obtained by examination, the candidates having 
previously qualified as members of the Royal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons. Promotion to captain and major is granted at five and 
fifteen years' service respectively, and subsequently, by selection, 
to lieutenant-colonel and colonel, as vacancies occur. The director- 
general has the honorary rank of major-general. 

The Indian civil veterinary department was at first recruited 
from the A. V. Corps, but candidates who qualified as members of 
. ., the R.C.V.S. were subsequently granted direct appoint- 

ments by the India Office, by selection. The service is 
paid and pensioned on the lines of the other Indian civil services, 
and offers an excellent professional career to those whose constitu- 
tion permits them to live in the tropics. The work comprises the 
investigation of disease in animals and the management of studs 
and farms, in addition to the clinical practice which falls to the share 
of all veterinary surgeons. 

In India there are schools for the training of natives as veterinary 
surgeons in Bombay, Lahore, Ajmere and Bengal. The courses 
extend aver two and three years, and the instruction is very thorough. 
The professors are officers of the Indian civil veterinary depart- 
ment, and graduates are given subordinate appointments in that 
service, or find ready employment in the native cavalry or in civil 

In the United States of America, veterinary science made very 
slow progress until 1884, when the Bureau of Animal Industry 
was established in connexion with the Department of 
Agriculture at Washington. The immediate cause of the 
formation of the bureau was the urgent need by the 
Federal government of official information concerning the nature 
and prevalence of animal diseases, and of the means required to 
control and eradicate them, and also the necessity of having an 
executive agency to carry out the measures necessary to stop the 
spread of disease and to prevent the Importation of contagion into 
the country, as well as to conduct investigations through which 
further knowledge might be obtained. In 1907 the bureau consisted 
of ten divisions, employing the services of 815 veterinary surgeons. 
It deals with the investigation, control and eradication of contagious 
diseases of animals, the inspection and quarantine of live stock, 
horse-breeding, experiments in feeding, diseases of poultry and the 
inspection of meat and dairy produce. It makes original investiga- 
tions as to the nature, cause and prevention of communicable 
diseases of live stock, and takes measures for their repression, 
frequently in conjunction with state and territorial authorities. It 
prepares tuberculin and mallein, and supplies these substances free 
of charge to public health officers, conducts experiments with 
immunizing agents, and prepares vaccines, sera and antitoxins for 
the protection of animals against disease. It prepares and publishes 
reports of scientific investigations and treatises on various subjects 
relating to live stock. The diseases which claim most attention are 
Texas fever, sheep scab, cattle mange, venereal disease of horses, 
tuberculosis of cattle and pigs, hog cholera, glanders, anthrax, 
black-quarter, and parasitic diseases of cattle, sheep and horses. 
The effect of the work of the bureau on the health and value of 
farm animals and their products is well known, and the people of 
the United States now realize the immense importance of veterinary 

Veterinary schools were established in New York City in 1846, 
Boston in 1848, Chicago in 1883, and subsequently in Kansas 
City and elsewhere, but these, like those of Great Britain, were 
private institutions. The American Veterinary College, N.Y., 
founded in 1875, is connected with New York University, and the 
N.Y. State Veterinary College forms a department of Cornell 
University at Ithaca. Other veterinary schools attached to state 
universities or agricultural colleges are those in Philadelphia, Pa.-; 
Columbus, Ohio; Ames, Iowa; Pullman, Washington; Auburn, 
Alabama; Manhattan, Kansas; and Fort Collins, Colorado. Other 
veterinary colleges are in San Francisco; Washington, D.C. (two) ; 
Grand Rapids, Michigan; St Joseph, Missouri; and Cincinnati, Ohio. 
In Canada a veterinary schocl was founded at Toronto in 1862, 
and four years later another school was established at Montreal. 
_ . For some years the Montreal school formed a department 

*"* of McGill University, but in 1902 the veterinary branch 
was discontinued. Veterinary instruction in French is given by 
the faculty of comparative medicine at Laval University. _ The 
Canadian Department of Agriculture possesses a fully equipped 
veterinary sanitary service employing about 400 qualified 
veterinary surgeons as inspectors of live stock, meat and dairy 



In the Australian commonwealth there is only one veterinary 
school, which was established in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1888. 
The Public Health Departments of New South Wales, „ 

Western Australia, Tasmania and the other states employ A " str *'ta' 
qualified veterinary surgeons as inspectors of live stock, cowsheds, 
meat and dairy produce. 

There is no veterinary school in New Zealand, but the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has arranged to establish one at Wellington 
in connexion with the investigation laboratory and farm 
of the division of veterinary science at Waflaceville. The 
government employs about forty qualified veterinarians 
as inspectors of live stock, abattoirs, meat-works and dairies. 

In Egypt a veterinary school with French teachers was founded 
in 1830 at Abu-Zabel, near Cairo, by Clot-Bey, a doctor of medicine. 
This school was discontinued in 1842, The Public Health Etrvot 

Department in 1901 established at Cairo a new veterinary ^syP • 

school for the instruction of natives. Ten qualified veterinary 
surgeons are employed in the sanitary service. 

Each of the colonics Natal, Cape Colony, Transvaal, Orange River 
Colony, Swaziland, Bechuanaland and Rhodesia has a veterinary 
sanitary police service engaged in dealing with the 
contagious diseases of animals. Laboratories for the 
investigation of disease and the preparation of antitoxins 
and protective sera have been established at Grahamstown, Pretoria 
and Pictermaritzburg. 

Characteristics of Veterinary Medicine. 

Veterinary medicine has been far less exposed to the vagaries 
of theoretical doctrines and systems than human medicine. 
The explanation may perhaps be that the successful practice 
of this branch of medicine more clearly than in any other 
depends upon the careful observation of facts and the rational 
deductions to be made therefrom. No special doctrines seem, 
in later times at least, to have been adopted, and the dominating 
sentiment in regard to disease and its treatment has been a 
medical eclecticism, based on practical experience and anatomico- 
pathological investigation, rarely indeed on philosophical 01 
abstract theories. In this way veterinary science has become 
pre-eminently a science of observation. At times indeed it has 
to some extent been influenced by the doctrines which have 
controlled the practice of human medicine — such as those of 
Broussais, Hahnemann, Brown, Rasori, Rademacher and others 
— yet this has not been for long: experience of them when 
tested upon dumb unimaginative animals soon exposed their 
fallacies and compelled their discontinuance. 

Of more moment than the cure of disease is its prevention, 
and this is now considered the most important object in con- 
nexion with veterinary science. More especially is this the case 
with those contagious disorders that depend for their existence 
and extension upon the presence of an infecting agent, and 
whose ravages for so many centuries are written largely in the 
history of civilization. Every advance made in human medicine 
affects the progress of veterinary science, and the invaluable 
investigations of Davaine, Pasteur, Chauveau, Lister and 
Koch have created as great a revolution in veterinary prac- 
tice as in the medicine of man. In " preventive medicine " 
the benefits derived from the application of the germ theory 
are new realized to be immense; and the sanitary police 
measures based on this knowledge, if carried rigorously into 
operation, must eventually lead to the extinction of animal 
plagues. Bacteriology has thrown much light on the nature, 
diagnosis and cure of disease both in man and animals, and it 
has developed the beneficent practice of aseptic and antiseptic 
surgery, enabling the practitioner to prevent exhausting 
suppuration and wound infection with its attendant septic 
fever, to ensure the rapid healing of wounds, and to undertake 
the more serious operations with greater confidence of a success- 
ful result. 

The medicine of the lower animals differs from that of man 
in no particular so much, perhaps, as in the application it makes 
of utilitarian principles. The life of man is sacred; but in the 
case of animals, when there are doubts as to complete restora- 
tion to health or usefulness, pecuniary considerations gener- 
ally decide against the adoption of remedial measures. This 
feature in the medicine of domesticated animals brings very 
prominently before us the value of the old adage that " pre- 
vention is better than cure." In Great Britain the value of 


veterinary pathology in the relations it bears to human medicine, 
to the public health and wealth, as well as to agriculture, has not 
been sufficiently appreciated; and in consequence but little 
allowance has been made for the difficulties with which the 
practitioner of animal medicine has to contend. The rare 
instances in which animals can be seen by the veterinary surgeon 
in the earliest stages of disease, and when this would prove 
most amenable to medical treatment; delay, generally due to 
the inability of those who have the care of animals to perceive 
these early stages; the fact that animals cannot, except in a 
negative manner, tell their woes, describe their sensations or 
indicate what and where they suffer; the absence of those 
comforts and conveniences of the sick-room which cannot be 
called in to ameliorate their condition; the violence or stupor, 
as well as the attitude and structural peculiarities of the sick 
creatures, which only too frequently render favourable positions 
for recovery impossible; the slender means generally afforded 
for carrying out recommendations, together with the oftentimes 
intractable nature of their diseases; and the utilitarian in- 
fluences alluded to above — all these considerations, in the great 
majority of instances, militate against the adoption of curative 
treatment, or at least greatly increase its difficulties. But 
notwithstanding these difficulties, veterinary science has made 
greater strides since 1877 than at any previous period in its 
history. Every branch of veterinary knowledge has shared in 
this advance, but in none has the progress been so marked as 
in the domain of pathology, led by Nocard in France, Schiitz 
and Kitt in Germany, Bang in Denmark, and McFadyean 
in England. Bacteriological research has discovered new dis- 
eases, has revolutionized the views formerly held regarding 
many others, and has pointed the way to new methods of 
prevention and cure. Tuberculosis, anthrax, black- quarter, 
glanders, strangles and tetanus furnish ready examples of the 
progress of knowledge concerning the nature and causation of 
disease. These diseases, formerly attributed to the most varied 
causes — including climatic changes, dietetic errors, peculiar 
condition of the tissues, heredity, exposure, close breeding, 
overcrowding and even spontaneous origin — have been proved 
beyond the possibility of doubt to be due to infection by 
specific bacteria or germs. 

In the United Kingdom veterinary science has gained distinc- 
tion by the eradication of contagious animal diseases. For 
many years prior to 1865, when a government veterinary 
department was formed, destructive plagues of animals had 
prevailed almost continuously in the British islands, and 
scarcely any attempt had been made to check or extirpate them. 
Two exotic bovine diseases alone (contagious pleuro -pneumonia 
or lung plague and foot-and-mouth disease) are estimated to 
have caused the death, during the first thirty years of their 
prevalence in the United Kingdom, of 5,549,780 cattle, roughly 
valued at £83,616,854; while the invasion of cattle plague 
(rinderpest) in 1865-66 was calculated to have caused a money 
loss of from £5,000,000 to £8,000,000. The depredations made 
in South Africa and Australia by the lung plague alone are quite 
appalling; and in India the loss brought about by contagious 
diseases among animals has been stated at not less than 
£6,000,000 annually. The damage done by tuberculosis — a 
contagious disease of cattle, transmissible to other animals 
and tq man by means of the milk and flesh of diseased beasts — 
cannot be even guessed at; but it must be enormous considering 
how widely this malady is diffused. But that terrible pest of 
all ages, cattle plague, has been promptly suppressed in England 
with comparatively trifling loss. Foot-and-mouth disease, 
which frequently proved a heavy infliction to agriculture, has 
been completely extirpated. Rabies may now be included, 
with rinderpest, lung plague and sheep-pox, in the category 
of extinct diseases; and new measures have been adopted for 
the suppression of glanders and swine fever. To combat such 
diseases as depend for their continuance on germs derived from 
the soil or herbage, which cannot be directly controlled by 
veterinary sanitary measures, recourse has been had to pro- 
tective inoculation with attenuated virus or antitoxic sera. 

The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries has an efficient staff, 
of trained veterinary inspectors, who devote their whole time 
to the work in connexion with the scheduled diseases of animals, 
and are frequently employed to inquire into other diseases of 
an apparently contagious nature, where the circumstances are 
of general importance to agriculturists. 

Veterinary science can offer much assistance in the study 
and prevention of the diseases to which mankind are liable. 
Some grave maladies of the human species are certainly derived 
from animals, and others may yet be added to the list. In 
the training of the physician great benefit would be derived 
from the study of disease in animals — a fact which has been 
strangely overlooked in England, as those can testify who 
understand how closely the health of man may depend upon 
the health of the creatures he has domesticated and derives 
subsistence from, and how much more advantageously morbid 
processes can be studied in animals than in our own species. 

Although as yet few chairs of comparative pathology have 
been established in British universities, on the European 
continent such chairs are now looked upon as almost indis- 
pensable to every university. Bourgelat, towards the middle 
of the 1 8th century, in speaking of the veterinary schools he 
had been instrumental in forming, urged that " leurs portes 
soient sans cesse ouvertes a ceux qui, charges par l'etat de la 
conservation des hommes, auront acquis par le nom qu'ils 
se seront fait le droit d'interroger la nature, chercher de& 
analogies, et verifier des idees dont la conformation ne peut etre 
qu'utile a l'espece humaine." And the benefits to be mutually 
derived from this association of the two branches of medicine 
inspired Vicq d'Azyr to elaborate his Nouveau plan de la 
constitution de la mtdecine en France, which he presented in 
the National Assembly in 1790. , His fundamental idea was to 
make veterinary teaching a preliminary {le premier degrg) and, 
as it were, the principle of instruction in human medicine. His 
proposal went so far as to insist upon a veterinary school being 
annexed to every medical college established in France. This 
idea was reproduced in the Rapport sur Vinstruction publique 
which Talleyrand read before the National Assembly in 1790. 
In this project veterinary teaching was to form part of the 
National Institution at Paris. The idea was to initiate students 
of medicine into a knowledge of diseases by observing those of 
animals. The suffering animal always appears exactly as it 
is and feels, without the intervention of mind obscuring the 
symptomatology, the symptoms being really and truly the 
rigorous expression of its diseased condition. From this point 
of view, the dumb animal, when it is ill, offers the same diffi- 
culties in diagnosis as does the ailing infant or the comatose 

Of the other objects of veterinary science there is only one 
to which allusion need here be made: that is the perfectioning 
of the domestic animals in everything that is likely to make 
them more valuable to man. This is in an especial manner 
the province of this science, the knowledge of the anatomy, 
physiology and other matters connected with these animals 
by its students being essential for such improvement. 

Diseases of Domestic Animals. 

Considerations of space forbid a complete or detailed descrip- 
tion of all the diseases, medical and surgical, to which the 
domesticated animals are liable. Separate articles are devoted 
to the principal plagues, or murrains, which affect animals — 
Rinderpest, Foot -and- Mouth Disease, Pleuro- Pneumonia, 
Anthrax, &c. Reference will be made here only to the more 
important other disorders of animals which are of a communic- 
able nature. 

Diseases of the Horse. 

Every horseman should know something of the injuries, lame- 
nesses and diseases to which the horse is liable. Unfortunately 
not very much can be done in this direction by book instruction; 
indeed, there is generally too much doctoring and too little nursing 
of sick animals. Even in slight and favourable cases of illness 
recovery is often retarded by too zealous and injudicious medication ; 
the object to be always kept in view in the treatment of animal 
patients is to place them in those conditions which allow nature to 


operate most freely in restoring health. This can best be rendered 
in the form of nursing, which sick animals greatly appreciate. How- 
ever indifferent a horse may be to caressing or kind atten- 
Nurslag. t ; on during health, when ill he certainly appreciates both, 
and when in pain will often apparently endeavour to attract notice 
and seek relief from those with whom he is familiar. Fresh air and 
cleanliness, quiet and comfort, should always be secured, if passible. 
The stable or loose-box should be warm, without being close, and 
free from draughts. If the weather is cold, and especially if the 
horse is suffering from inflammation of the air-passages, it may be 
necessary to keep up the temperature by artificial means ; but great 
care should be taken that this does not render the air too dry to 
breathe. The surface of the body can be kept warm by rugs, and 
the legs by woollen bandages. Yet a sick horse is easily fatigued 
and annoyed by toe much clothing, and therefore it is better to 
resort to artificial heating of the stable than to overload the body 
or impede movement by heavy wrappings. If blankets are used, it 
is well to place a cotton or linen sheet under them, should the horse 
have an irritable skin. For bedding, long straw should be employed 
as little as possible, since it hampers movement. Clean old litter, 
sawdust or peat-moss litter is the best. If the hoofs are strong, 
and the horse likely to be confined for some w r ecks, it affords relief 
to take off Lhe shoes. Tying up should he avoided, if possible, 
unless it is urgently required, the horse being allowed to move 
about or lie down as he may prefer. 

When a sick horse has lost his appetite, he should be tempted to 
eat by offering him such food as will be enticing to him. It should 
be given frequently and in small quantities, but should not 
Food for k c | urcec [ on him; food will often be taken if offered from 
* sfc * the hand, when it will not be eaten out of the manger. 

horse. Whether the animal be fed from a bucket or from a 

manger, any food that is left should be thrown away, and the 
receptacle well cleaned out after each meal. As a rule, during 
sickness a horse requires laxative food, in order to allay fever 
or inflammatory symptoms, while supporting the strength. The 
following list comprises the usual laxative foods employed: green 
grass, green wheat, oats and barley, lucerne, carrots, parsnips, 
gruel, bran mash, linseed and bran mash, boiled barley, linseed tea, 
hay tea and linseed oil. Green grass, lucerne, and similar articles 
of food if cut when in a wet state, should be dried before being given. 
Boiled grain should be cooked with very little water, so that it may 
be floury and comparatively dry when ready; a little salt should be 
mixed with it. One gallon of good gruel may be made with a pound 
of meal and cold water, which should be stirred till it boils, and 
afterwards permitted to simmer over a gentle fire till the fluid is 
quite thick. To make a bran mash, scald a stable bucket, throw 
out the water, put in 3 lb of bran and I oz. of salt, add i\ 
pints of boiling water, stir up well, cover over and allow 
the mash to stand for fifteen or twenty minutes until it is well 
cooked. For a bran and Unseed mash, boil slowly for two or three 
hours 1 lb of linseed, so as to have about a couple of quarts of 
thick fluid, to which 2 lb of bran' and I oz. of salt may be 
added. The whole should be stirred up, covered over and allowed 
to steam as before described. The thicker the mash the more readily 
will the horse eat it. I.inseed tea is made by boiling I lb of lin- 
seed in a couple of gallons of water until the grains are quite soft. 
It may be economically made by using less water to cook the linseed, 
and afterwards making up the quantity of water to about a gallon 
and a half. Hay tea may be prepared by filling a bucket, after 
scalding it, with good sweet hay, pouring in as much boiling water 
as the bucket will hold, covering it over, and allowing it to stand 
until cold, when the fluid may be strained off and given to the horse. 
This forms a refreshing drink. Linseed oil, in quantities of from 
1 oz. to 6 oz. daily, may be mixed with the food; it keeps the 
bowels in a lax condition, has a good effect on the skin and air- 
passages, and is useful as an article of diet. When debility has to 
be combated, as in low fever or other weakening diseases, strengthen- 
ing and other easily digested food must be administered, though 
some of the foods already mentioned, such as boiled grain, answer 
this purpose to a certain extent. Milk, eggs, bread and biscuits, 
malt, corn, Sec, are often prescribed with this object. Milk may be 
given skimmed or unskimmed; a little sugar may be mixed with it; 
and one or two gallons may be given daily, according to circum- 
stances. One or two eggs may be given beaten up with a little sugar 
and mixed with milk, three or four times a day, or more frequently; 
or they may be boiled hard and powdered, and mixed in the milk. 
A quart of stout, ale or porter may be given two or three times a day, 
or a half to one bottle of port wine daily. Scalded oats, with a little 
salt added, are very useful when convalescence is nearly completed. 
As a rule, a sick horse should have as much water as he likes to drink, 
though it may be necessary in certain cases to restrict the quantity, 
and to have the chill taken off; but it should never be warmer than 
75 to 8o°. 

As little grooming as possible should be allowed when a horse is 
very weak; it should be limited to sponging the mouth, nostrils, 
eyes and forehead with clean water, to which a little eucalyptus 
or sanitas may be added. Rub the legs and ears with the hand, 
take off the clothing, and shake or change it once a day, and if 
agreeable rub over the body with a soft cloth. Exercise is of course 

not required during sickness or injury, and the period at which it is 
allowed will depend upon circumstances. Care must be taken that 
it is not ordered too early, or carried too far at first. 

Much care is required in administering medicines in the form of 
ball or bolus; and practice, as well as courage and tact, is needed 
in order to give it without danger to the administrator or 
the animal. The ball should be held between the fingers ^ d ™ /s " 
of the right hand, the tips of the first and_ fourth being "[JJ 
brought together below the second and third, which are me ae ' 
placed on the upper side of the ball; the right hand is thus made 
as small as possible, so as to admit of ready insertion into the mouth. 
The left hand grasps the horse's tongue, gently pulls it out and 
places it on that part of the right side of the lower jaw which is 
bare of teeth. With the right hand the ball is placed at the root 
of the tongue. The moment the right hand is withdrawn, the tongue 
should be released. This causes the ball to be carried still farther 
back. The operator then closes the mouth and. watches the left 
side of the neck, to note the passage of the ball down the gullet. 
Many horses keep a ball in the mouth a considerable time before 
they will allow it to go down. A mouthful of water or a handful 
of food will generally make them swallow it readily. It is most 
essential to have the ball moderately soft ; nothing can be more 
dangerous than a hard one. 

To administer a drink or drench requires as much care as giving 
a ball, in order to avoid choking the horse, though it is unattended 
with risk to the administrator. An ordinary glass or stone bottle 
may be used, providing there are no sharp points around the mouth ; 
but cither the usual drenching- horn or a tin vessel with a narrow 
mouth or spout is safer. It is necessary to raise the horse's head, 
so that the nose may be a little higher than the horizontal line. 
The drink must be given by a person standing on the right side 
(the attendant being in front or on the left side of the horse), the 
cheek being pulled out a little, to form a sack or funnel, into which 
the medicine is poured, a little at a time, allowing an interval now 
and again for the horse to swallow. If any of the fluid gets into the 
windpipe (which it is liable to do if the head is held too high), it 
will cause coughing, whereupon the head should be instantly lowered. 
Neither the tongue nor the nostrils should be interfered with. 
Powders may be given in a little mash or gruel, well stirred up, or 
in the drinking water. 

If a wide surface is to be fomented (as the chest, abdomen or 
loins), a blanket or other large woollen cloth should be dipped in 
water as hot as the hand can comfortably bear it, moderately wrung 
out and applied to the part, the heat and moisture being retained 
by covering it with a waterproof sheet or dry rug. When it has 
lost some of its heat, it should be removed, dipped in warm water 
and again applied. In cases of acute inflammation, it may be 
necessary to have the water a little hotter; and, to avoid the 
inconvenience of removing the blanket, or the danger of chill when 
it is removed, it may be secured round the body by skewers or twine, 
the hot water being poured on the outside of the top part of the 
blanket by any convenient vessel. To foment the feet, they should be 
placed in a bucket or tub (the latter with the bottom resting wholly 
on the ground) containing warm water; a quantity of moss litter put 
in the tub or bucket prevents splashing and retains the heat longer. 

Poultices are used for allaying pain, softening horn or other 
tissues, and, when antiseptic, cleansing and promoting healthy 
action in wounds. To be beneficial they should be large 
and always kept moist. For applying poultices to the feet, ^o""*^ 8 * 
a piece of sacking, or better a poultice-boot, supplied by saddlers, 
may be used with advantage. Poultices are usually made with 
bran, though this has the disadvantage of drying quickly, to prevent 
which it. may be mixed with linseed meal or a little linseed oil. 
Antiseptic poultices containing lysol, izal, carbolic acid or creolin, 
are very useful in the early treatment of foul and punctured wounds. 
A charcoal poultice is sometimes employed when there is an offensive 
smell to be got rid of. It is made by mixing linseed meal with 
boiling water and stirring until a soft mass is produced; with this 
some wood charcoal in powder is mixed, and when ready to be 
applied some more charcoal is sprinkled on the surface. It may be 
noted that, in lieu of these materials for poultices, spongiopiline 
can be usefully employed. A piece ol sufficient size is steeped 
in hot water, applied to the part, covered with oiled silk or water- 
proof sheeting, and secured by tapes. Even an ordinary sponge, 
steeped in hot water and covered with waterproof material, makes 
a good poulticing medium; it is well adapted for the throat, the 
space between the branches of the lower jaw, as well as for the lower 
joints of the Umbs. 

Enemata or clysters are given in fevers, constipation, colic, &c, 
to empty the posterior part of the bowels. They can be administered 
by a large syringe capable of containing a quart or more 
of water, with a nozzle about 12 in. long, or by a large Enemata 
funnel with a long nozzle at aright angle. Water, soap and 

water, or oil may be employed. To administer an enema, 


one of the horse's fore feet should be held up, while the operator 
introduces the nozzle, smeared with oil or lard, very gently and 
steadily into the rectum, then injects the water. The quantity 
injected will depend on the nature of the malady and the size of 
the horse; from 2 or 3 quarts to several gallons may be used. 



The epizootic diseases affecting the horse are not numerous, and 
may generally be considered as sp'ecific and infectious or contagious 
in their nature, circumstances of a favourable kind leading 

and con- 

to their extension by propagation of the agent upon which 

their existence depends. This agent, in most of the 
diseases ma ' a dies, has been proved to be a micro-organism, and 

there can be little doubt that it is so for all of them. 

Glanders (q.v.), or equinia, one of the most serious maladies of 

the horse, ass and mule, prevails in nearly every part of the world. 

Glanders- ^ * s a contagious, inoculable disease, caused by the bacillus 

farcv ' wwittei, and specially affects the lungs, respiratory mucous 

membrane and the lymphatic system. The virulent 
agent of glanders appears to establish itself most easily among 
horses kept in foul, crowded, badly ventilated stables, or among 
such as are over-worked, barliy fed or debilitated. Glanders, 
however, is always due to contagion, and in natural infection it 
may be contracted by inhalation of the bacilli, by ingestion of the 
virus with food or water, or by inoculation of a wound of the skin 
or a mucous membrane. Carnivorous animals — lions, tigers, dogs 
and cats — have become infected through eating the flesh of glandered 
horses; and men attending diseased horses are liable to be infected, 
especially if they have sores on the exposed parts of their bodies. 
Though in man infection through wounds is the readiest way of 
receiving the disease, the bacillus may also obtain access through 
the digestive organs, the lungs and mucous membranes of the eyes, 
nose and lips. 

In descriptions of the equine disease sometimes a distinction is 
made between glanders with nasal ulcers and other symptoms of 
respiratory disease, and glanders of the skin, or farcy, but there is 
no essential difference between them. Glanders and farcy are due 
to the same causal organism, and both may be acute or chronic. 
Acute glanders is always rapidly fatal, and chronic glanders may 
become acute or it may terminate by apparent recovery. 

The symptoms of acute glanders are initial fever with its accom- 
paniments, thirst, loss of appetite, hurried pulse and respiration, 
emaciation, languor and disinclination to move. Sometimes the legs 
or joints are swollen and the horse is stiff; but the characteristic 
symptoms are a greyish -yellow viscid discharge from one or both 
nostrils, a peculiar enlarged and nodulated condition of one or both 
submaxillary lymphatic glands, which though they may be painful 
very rarely suppurate, and on the nasal membrane small yellow 
pimples or pustules, running into deep, ragged-edged ulcers, and 
sometimes on the septum large patches of deep ulceration. The 
discharge from the nose adheres to the nostrils and upper lip, and 
the infiltrated nasal lining, impeding breathing, causes snuffling 
and frequent snorting. The lymphatic vessels of the face are often 
involved and appear as painful subcutaneous " cords " passing 
across the cheek. These vessels sometimes present nodules which 
break and discharge a glutinous pus. As the disease progresses, 
the ulcers on the nose increase in number, enlarge or become con- 
fluent, extend in depth and sometimes completely perforate the 
septum. The nasal discharge, now more abundant and tenacious, 
is streaked with blood and offensive, the respiration is noisy or 
roaring, and there may be coughing with bleeding from the nose. 
Painful oedematous swellings appear on the muzzle, throat, between 
the fore legs, at the flank or on the limbs, and ; ' farcy buds " may 
form on some of the swollen parts. Symptoms of congestion of 
the lungs, or pneumonia and pleurisy, with extreme prostration, 
diarrhoea and gasping respiration, precede death, which is due to 
asphyxia or to exhaustion. 

Chronic or latent glanders generally presents few definite symptoms. 
The suspected animal may have a discharge from the nose, or an 
enlarged submaxillary gland, or both, and small unbroken nodules 
may exist on the septum, but usually there is no visible ulceration 
of the nasal membrane. In some horses suspicion of glanders may 
be excited by lameness and sudden swelling of a joint, by profuse 
staling, sluggishness, loss of condition and general unthriftiness, 
or by refusal of food, rise of temperature, swollen fetlocks, with 
dry hacking cough, nasal catarrh and other symptoms of a common 
cold. With rest in the stable the horse improves, but a one-sided 
nasal discharge continues, the submaxillary gland enlarges, and, 
after an interval, ulcers appear in the nose or " farcy buds " form 
on a swollen leg. In occult glanders the horse may appear to be 
in good health and be able to perform ordinary work. In these 
cases the existence of glanders can only be discovered by resorting 
to inoculation or the mallein test. 

In cutaneous glanders, or farcy, symptoms occur on the skin of 
a limb, usually a hind one, or on the body, where the lymphatics 
become inflamed and ulcerated. The limb is much swollen, and 
the animal moves with pain and difficulty. The lymphatic vessels 
appear as prominent lines or "cords, " hard and painful on manipula- 
tion, and along their course arise nodular swellings — the so-called 
"farcy buds. " These small ahscesses break and discharge a yellow, 
glutinous, blood-stained pus, leaving sores which heal very slowly. 
There is a rise of temperature with other symptoms of constitutional 

Medical treatment of glanders or farcy should not be attempted. 
The disease is dealt with under the Contagious Diseases (Animals) 
;\cts. Horses which present suspicious symptoms, or those which 

have been in contact, or have stood in the same stable with glandered 
horses, should be isolated and tested with mallein. Animals which 
are found affected should immediately be destroyed, and their 
harness, clothing and the utensils employed with them thoroughly 
cleansed, while the stalls, horse-boxes and places which the horses 
have frequented should be disinfected. Forage left by glandered 
horses should be burned or fed to cattle. 

Mallein, which is almost indispensable in the diagnosis of latent 
glanders, was discovered in 1888 by Helman, a Russian military 
veterinary surgeon, and the first complete demonstration of its 
diagnostic value was given in 1891 by Kalning, also of Russia. 
Mallein, prepared for the diagnosis of glanders in animals, is the 
sterilized and filtered liquid-culture of glanders bacilli. It there- 
fore does not contain even dead bacilli, but it has in solution certain 
substances which are added to the liquid by the bacilli during their 
growth (McFadyean). Employed under proper precautions and 
subcutaneously injected in a glandered horse, mallein causes a 
marked rise of temperature and an extensive painful swelling at 
the seat of injection. 

Epizootic lymphangitis is a contagious eruptive disease of the 
horse caused by the cryptococcus farciminosus, and characterized 
by nodular swellings and suppuration of the superficial „ . ,. 
lymphatics. Infection can be transmitted by mediate lymohan- 
or immediate contagion. The eruption usually appears ^// 
on the limbs, but it may occur on the body or on the head 
and neck. The symptoms closely resemble those of cutaneous 
glanders or farcy, from which this disease may readily be distin- 
guished by microscopic examination of the pus discharged from the 
sores, or by testing the horse with mallein. Glanders and epizootic 
lymphangitis may coexist in the same animal. It is a scheduled 
disease, and treatment should not be attempted. 

Strangles is a specific contagious eruptive fever peculiar to horses, 
and is more especially incidental to young animals. It is particu- 
larly characterized by the formation of abscesses in the strangles 
lymphatic glands, chiefly those between the branches of * 

the lower jaw (submaxillary). Various causes have been ascribed 
for its production, such as change of young horses from field to 
stable, from grass to dry feeding, from idleness to hard work, 
irritation of teething, and change of locality and climate. But the 
sole cause is infection by the strangles streptococcus. Languor and 
feverishness, diminution of appetite, cough, redness of the nasal 
membrane, with discharge from the eyes and nose, and thirst are 
among the earliest symptoms. Then there is difficulty in swallowing, 
coincident with the development of swelling between the branches 
of the lower jaw, which often causes the water in drinking to be 
returned through the nose and the masticated food to be dropped 
from the mouth. The swelling is hot and tender, diffused, and uni- 
formly rounded and smooth; at first it is hard, with soft, doughy 
margins; but later it becomes soft in the centre, where an abscess 
is forming, and soon "points " and hursts, giving exit to a quantity 
of pus. Relief is now experienced by the animal ; the symptoms 
subside, and recovery takes place. In some cases the swelling is so 
great or occurs so close to the larynx that the breathing is interfered 
with, and even rendered so difficult that suffocation is threatened. 
In other cases the disease assumes an irregular form, and the swelling, 
instead of softening in the centre, remains hard for an indefinite 
time, or it may subside and abscesses form in various parts of the 
body, sometimes in vital organs, as the brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, 
&c, or in the bronchial or mesenteric glands, where they generally 
produce serious consequences. Not unf requently a pustular eruption 
accompanies the other symptoms. The malady may terminate 
in ten days or be protracted for months, sometimes terminating 
fatally from complications, even when the animal is well nursed and 
kept in a healthy stable. 

Good nursing is the chief part of the treatment. The strength 
should be maintained by soft nutritious food, and the body kept 
warm and comfortable; the stable or loose-box must have plenty of 
fresh air and be kept clean. The swelling may be fomented with 
warm water or poulticed. The poultice may be a little bag con- 
taining bran and. linseed meal mixed with hot water and applied 
warm to the tumefaction, being retained there by a square piece 
of calico, with holes for the ears and eyes, tied down the middle of 
the face and behind the ears. If the breathing is disturbed and 
noisy, the animal may be made to inhale steam from hot water in 
a hucket or from bran mash. If the breathing becomes very difficult, 
the windpifx, must be opened and a tube inserted. Instead of the 
swelling being poulticed, a little blistering ointment is sometimes 
rubbed over it, which hastens pointing of the abscess. When the 
abscess points, it may be lanced, though sometimes it is better to 
allow it to break spontaneously. 

It is important to distinguish strangles from glanders, and the 
distinction can, with certainty, be ascertained by resorting to the 
mallein test for glanders, or by microscopical examination of the 
pus from the strangles abscess. 

Under influenza several diseases are sometimes included, and in 
different invasions it may (and doubtless does) assume vary- 
ing forms. It is a specific fever of a low or asthenic j a ff aenzat 
type, associated with inflammation of the mucous mem- 
brane lining the air-passages, and also sometimes with that of 


other organs. At various times it has prevailed extensively over 
different parts of the world, more especially during the 18th and 
19th centuries. Perhaps one of the most widespread outbreaks 
recorded was that of 1872, on the American continent. It usually 
radiates from the district in which it first appears. The symptoms 
have been enumerated as follows: sudden attack, marked by ex- 
treme debility and stupor, with increased body -tempera litre, quick 
weak pulse, rigors and cold extremities. The head is pendent, the 
eyelids swollen and half closed, eyes lustreless, and tears often 
flowing down the face. There is great disinclination to move ; the 
body sways on the animal attempting to walk; and the limb-joints 
crack.- The appetite is lost and the mouth is hot and dry; the 
bowels are constipated and the urine scanty and high-coloured; 
there is nearly always a deep, painful and harassing cough; on 
auscultation of the chest, crepitation or harsh blowing sounds arc 
audible; and the membrane lining the eyelids and nose assumes 
either a bright pink colour or a dull leaden hue. A white, yellowish 
or greenish-coloured discharge flows from the nostrils. In a few 
days the fever and other symptoms subside, and convalescence 
rapidly sets in. In unfavourable cases the fever increases, as well 
as the prostration, the breathing becomes laboured, the cough more 
painful and deep, and auscultation and percussion indicate that the 
lungs are seriously involved, with perhaps the pleura or the heart. 
Glots sometimes form in the latter organ, and quickly bring about a 
fatal termination. When the lungs do not suffer, the bowels may, 
and with this complication there are, in addition to the stupor and 
torpor, tension and tenderness of the abdominal walls when pressed 
upon, manifestations of colic, great thirst, a coated tongue, yellow- 
ness of the membranes of nose and eyes, high-coloured urine, con- 
stipation, and dry faeces covered with mucus. Sometimes rheu- 
matic swelling and tenderness takes place in the muscles and joints 
of the limbs, which may persist for a long time, often shifting from 
leg to leg, and in\-o!ving the sheaths of tendons. At other times 
acute inflammation of the eyes supervenes, or even paralysis. 

In this disease good nursing is the chief factor in the treatment. 
Comfortable, clean and airy stables or loose-boxes should be pro- 
vided, and the warmth of the body and limbs maintained. Cold 
and damp, foul air and uncleanliness, are as inimical to health and 
as antagonistic to recovery as in the case of mankind. In influenza 
it has been generally found that the less medicine the sick animal 
receives the more likely it is to recover. Nevertheless, it may be 
necessary to adopt such medical measures as the following. For 
constipation administer enemata of warm water or give a dose of 
linseed oil or salines. For fever give quinine or mild febrifuge 
diuretics (as liquor'of acetate of ammonia or spirit of nitrous ether), 
and, if there is cough or nervous excitement, anodynes (such as 
extract of belladonna). When the fever subsides and the prostration 
is great, it may be necessary to give stimulants (carbonate of 
ammonia, nitrous ether, aromatic ammonia) and tonics, both vege- 
table (gentian, quassia, calumba) and mineral (iron, copper, arsenic). 
Some veterinary surgeons administer large and frequent doses of 
quinine from the onset of the disease, and, it is asserted, with 
excellent effect. If the abdominal organs are chiefly involved, 
demulcents may supplement the above (linseed boiled to a jelly, 
to which salt may be added, is the most convenient and best), and 
drugs to allay pain (as opium and chloral hydrate). Olive oil is a 
safe laxative in such cases. When nervous symptoms are mani- 
fested, it may be necessary to apply wet cloths and vinegar to the 
head and neck; even blisters to the neck have been recommended. 
Bromide of potassium has been beneficially employed. To combat 
inflammation of the throat, chest or abdomen, counter-irritants 
may be resorted to, such as mustard, soap liniment or the ordinary 
white liniment composed of oil of turpentine, solution of ammonia 
and olive oil. The food should be soft mashes and gruel of oatmeal, 
with carrots and green food, and small and frequent quantities of 
scalded oats in addition when convalescence has been established. 

Dourine, maladie du coit, or covering disease of horses, is a 
contagious malady caused by the Trypanosoma equiperdum, and 
characterized by specific lesions of the male and female 
Dour- genital organs, the lymphatic and central nervous sys- 

ae ' _° r terns. It occurs in Arabia and continental Europe, and 
^disease ^as recent 'y been carried from France to the United States 
of America (Montana, Nebraska, the Dakotas, Iowa and 
Illinois) and to Canada. In some of its features it resembles human 
syphilis, and it is propagated in the same manner. From one to 
ten days after coitus, or in the stallion not unfrequently after some 
weeks, there is irritation, swelling and a livid redness of the external 
organs of generation (in stallions the penis may shrink), followed 
by unhealthy ulcers, which appear in successive crops, often at 
considerable intervals. In mares these are near the clitoris, which 
is frequently erected, and the animals rub and switch the tail 
about, betraying uneasiness. In horses the eruption is_ on the 
penis and sheath. In the milder forms there is little constitutional 
disturbance, and the patients may recover in a period varying from 
two weeks to two months. In the severe forms the local swell- 
ing increases by intermittent steps. In the mare the vulva is the 
seat of a deep violet congestion and extensive ulceration; pustules 
appear on the perinaeum, tail and between the thighs; the lips of 
the vulva are parted, exposing the irregular, nodular, puckered, 

ulcerated and laraaceous-looking mucous membrane. If the mare 
happen to be pregnant, abortion occurs. In all cases emaciation 
sets in; lameness of one or more limbs occurs; great debility is 
manifested, and this runs on to paralysis, when death ensues after 
a miserable existence of from four or five months to two years. 
In horses swelling of the sheath may be the only symptom for a 
long time, even for a year. Then there may follow dark patches 
of extravasated blood on or swellings of the penis; the testicles 
may become tumefied; a dropsical engorgement extends forward 
beneath the abdomen and chest; the lymphatic glands in different 
parts of the body may be enlarged; pustules and ulcers appear 
on the skin; there is a discharge from the eyes and nose; emacia- 
tion becomes extreme; a weak and vacillating movement of the 
posterior limbs gradually increases, as in the mare, to paralysis ; 
and after from three months to three years death puts an end to 
loathsomeness and great suffering. This malady appears to be 
spread only by the act of coition. The indications for its suppres- 
sion and extinction are therefore obvious. They are (1) to prevent 
diseased animals coming into actual contact, especially per coitum, 
with healthy ones; (2) to destroy the infected; and (3) as an addi- 
tional precautionary measure, to thoroughly cleanse and disinfect 
the stables, clothing, utensils and implements used for the sick 
horse. Various medicines have been tried in the treatment of 
slowly developing cases of dourine, and the most successful remedy 
is atoxyb— a prepaiation of arsenic. 

Horse-pox, which is somewhat rare, is almost, if not quite, identical 
with cow-pox, being undistinguishable when inoculated on men 
and cattle. It most frequently attacks the limbs, though 
it may appear on the face and other parts of the body. rae " 

There is usually slight fever; then swelling, heat and J>ox " 
tenderness are manifest in the part which is to be the seat of erup- 
tion, usually the heels; firm nodules form, increasing to one-third 
or one-half an inch in diameter; the hair becomes erect; and the 
skin, if light-coloured, changes to an intense red. On the ninth to 
the twelfth day a limpid fluid oozes from the surface and mats 
the hairs together in yellowish scabs ; when one of these is removed, 
there is seen a red, raw depression, whereon the scab was fixed. In 
three or four days the crusts fall off, and the sores heal spontaneously. 
No medical treatment is needed, cleanliness being requisite to 
prevent the pocks becoming sloughs. If the inflammation runs 
high, a weak solution of carbolic acid may be employed. 

• Diseases of Cattle. 

The diseases of the bovine species are not so numerous as those 
of the horse, and the more acute contagious maladies are dealt 
with under Rinderpest and other articles already mentioned. 

Tuberculosis is a most formidable and widespread disease of 
cattle, and it is assuming greater proportions every year, in con- 
sequence of the absence of legislative measures for its Taber* 
suppression. It is a specific disease, contracted through cutosis 
cohabitation, and caused by the Bacillus tuberculosis, dis- 
covered by Koch in 1882. Infection takes place by inhalation of 
the bacilli or their spores, derived from the dried expectorate or 
other discharges of tuberculous animals; by ingestion of the 
bacilli carried in food, milk or water, or by inoculation of a wound 
of the skin or of a mucous or serous membrane. Occasionally 
the disease is transmitted by an infected female to the foetus 
in utero. Its infective properties and communicability to other 
species render it a serious danger to mankind through the con- 
sumption of the milk or flesh of tuberculous cows. The organs 
chiefly involved are the lymphatic glands, lungs, liver, intestine 
and the serous membranes — the characteristic tubercles or " grapes " 
varying in size from a millet seed to immense masses weighing 
several pounds. The large diffused nodular growths are found 
principally in the chest and abdomen attached to the membranes 
lining these cavities. 

The symptoms somewhat resemble those of contagious pleuro- 
pneumonia (q-v.) in its chronic form, though tubercles, sometimes 
111 large numbers, are often found after death in the bodies of 
cattle which exhibited no sign of illness during life and which when 
killed were in excellent condition. When the lungs are extensively 
involved there are signs of constitutional disturbance, irregular 
appetite, fever, difficult breathing, dry cough, diarrhoea, wasting 
and debility, with enlarged throat glands, and, in milch cows, 
variation in the quantity of milk. Auscultation of the chest dis- 
covers dullness or absence of respiratory sounds over the affected 
parts of the lungs. If the animal is not killed it becomes more 
and more emaciated from anaemia, respiratory; difficulty, defective 
nutrition and profuse diarrhoea. Tuberculosis of the mammary 
glands usually begins as a slowly developing, painless, nodular 
induration of one quarter of the udder. The milk at first may be 
normal in quantity and quality, but later it becomes thin or watery 
and assumes a blue tint. Cattle with tubercular lesions unaltered 
by retrogressive changes may appear to be in an ordinary state 
of health, and in such animals the existence of _ the disease can 
only be discovered by resorting to the tuberculin test. Tuber- 
culin, as prepared for the purpose of diagnosis, is a sterilized culture 
of tubercle bacilli, and when employed with proper precautions 
it causes a marked rise of temperature in affected cattle, but in 



no n -tuberculous animals it has no appreciable action. Medical 
treatment is of little if any avail. Preventive measures are of the 
utmost importance. Animals proved free of tuberculous taint 
should alone be bred from, and those found diseased should be 
at once completely segregated or slaughtered. Before being used 
as food the flesh should be well cooked, and the milk from tuber- 
culous cows should be boiled or heated to a temperature of 155° F. 

Black-quarter, or black-leg, is a specific, inoculabte disease which 
occurs in young stock from a few months to two years old, in 
Black- various parts of the country, and generally in low-lying 
Quarter damp situations. It was classed with anthrax until 
1879. when its nature was investigated by Arloing, Cor- 
nevua and Thomas, who termed it symptomatic anthrax {Charbon 
symptomatique) — a misleading name for a disease which is perfectly 
distinct from anthrax. This disease is caused by the Bacillus 
Chauvaei, and natural infection takes place through small wounds 
of the legs and feet or other parts. At first it is a local disease 
affecting usually a hind quarter, though sometimes the character- 
istic swelling forms on the shoulder, neck, breast, loins or flank. 
The chief symptoms are sudden loss of appetite, accelerated pulse 
and respiration, high temperature, debility, lameness or stiffness, 
followed by the formation of a small, painful swelling which rapidly 
increases in extent, becomes emphysematous, and in the centre 
cold and painless. Incision of the tumour gives escape to a red, 
frothy, sour-smelling fluid. This disease runs its course very 
rapidly and nearly always terminates fatally, even when medical 
treatment is promptly applied. Infection can be prevented by- 
resorting to protective inoculation by one of the methods intro- 
duced by Arloing, Kitt and others. The natural virus-muscle 
from the lesion, dried, reduced to powder and attenuated by heat 
at a high temperature, and a pure culture of the causal organism, 
are employed as vaccines. The vaccine is introduced subcutane- 
ously at the tip of the tail or behind the shoulder. Immunity lasts 
for about twelve months. 

Abortion, or the expulsion of the foetus before viability, is a 
contagious disease in cows. In a herd a case of abortion or pre- 
Abortloa mature birth from accident or injury sometimes occurs, 
but when a number of pregnant females abort the cause 
is due to specific infection of the womb. The microbe of abortion 
inducescatarrhofthe uterus and the discharge contains the infective 
agent. The virus may be transmitted by the bull, by litter, attendants, 
utensils, or anything which has been contaminated by the discharge 
from an infected cow. Whenever abortion occurs in a shed the 
cow should be at once isolated from the others, if they are pregnant, 
and cleansing and disinfection immediately resorted to, or preferably 
the pregnant cows should be quickly removed out of the shed and 
every care should be taken to keep them away from the affected cow 
and its discharges; the litter and the aborted foetus being burned 
or otherwise completely destroyed, and the cowshed thoroughly 
disinfected with quicklime. To prevent further infection, the hinder 
parts of the in-calf cows should be washed and disinfected from time 
to time. , 

Contagious mammitis is a common disease in milch cows. It 
has been investigated by Nocard and Mollereau, and proved 
Con- to ^ e caused by a streptococcus which is transmitted 

taeious froro one cow to another by the hands of the milkers. 
mammitis. The microbe gains access to the quarter by the teat and 
induces catarrhal inflammation of the milk ducts and 
sinuses, with induration of the gland tissue. This disease develops 
slowly, and except in cases complicated by suppuration, there is 
little or no constitutional disturbance, though sometimes the affected 
cows lose condition. The milk at first preserves its normal appear- 
ance, but is less in quantity; it curdles quickly, is acid, and when 
mixed with good milk produces clotting; then it becomes thin and 
watery, and finally viscous, yellowish and foetid. At the base of 
the teat of the affected quarter induration begins and gradually 
extends upwards, and if not checked the disease passes From one 
quarter to another until the whole udder is attacked. Prevention 
can be secured by washing and disinfecting the udder and teats 
and the milkers' hands before and after milking. Diseased cows 
should be isolated, their milk destroyed or boiled and fed to pigs, 
and after each milking the teats should be injected with a warm 
solution of boracic acid or sodium fluoride. Infected cowsheds 
should be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected. 

Parturient paralysis, or mammary toxaemia, also known as milk 
fever, though neither a febrile nor a contagious malady, was until 
quite recently a very fatal affection of dairy cows. It is 
caused by a nerve poison which is formed in the udder 
soon after parturition; and, according to Schmidt, the 
toxin enters the circulation and affects especially, the central nervous 
system and the muscles, and in a less degree all the organs of the 
body. This disease usually attacks good milking cows within a 
few days of an easy labour and seldom before the third or fourth 
parturition. In twenty-four to forty-eight hours after calving the 
cow becomes excited and restless, strikes at the abdomen with the 
hind feet, whisks the tail, lows, grinds the teeth, staggers, falls, 
makes ineffectual attempts to rise, and eventually lies comatose, 
stretched on her side with the head extended or inclined towards 
the shoulder. The eyes are dull, injected and insensitive ; general 


sensation, voluntary motion and the power of swallowing are lost. 
Secretion of milk fails, digestion is suspended, fermentation of the 
contents of the paunch sets in, with tympany, constipation and 
retention of urine. The pulse becomes feeble or imperceptible. 
Respiration is slow, sometimes stertorous or groaning, and the 
temperature is low or subnormal. If not treated the animal dies 
in two or three days from prolonged coma or heart failure; 

The curative treatment of this disease continued very unsatis- 
factory until 1897, when Schmidt, a veterinarian of Kolding, 
Denmark, introduced the method of injecting the teats with a 
solution of potassium iodide in conjunction with insufflation of 
atmospheric air. The immediate results of this line of treatment 
were astonishing. Rapid recovery became the rule, and in most 
cases the comatose condition disappeared in less than six hours, 
and the average mortality (40 to 60%) was reduced to 6%. 
Afterwards chinosol and other antiseptics were substituted for the 
potassium salt, and later pure oxygen or atmospheric air alone was 
injected into the udder, with the result of increasing the recoveries 
to 99 %. 

Cowpox is a contagious disease of much less frequent occurrence 
now than formerly, probably owing to improved hygienic manage- 
ment. In many localities the disease appears in all cowpox. 
heifers which have recently calved on certain farms. 
There is usually a slight premonitory fever, which i3 generally 
overlooked; this is succeeded by some diminution in the quantity 
of the milk, with some increased coagulability, and by the appear-, 
ance of the eruption or " pox " on the udder and teats. In well- 
observed cases the udder is hot and tender on manipulation for a 
day or two previous to the development of small pale-red nodules 
about the size of peas; these increase in dimensions to from three- 
fourths to one inch in diameter by the eighth or tenth day, when 
their contents have become fluid and they present a depressed 
centre. This fluid, at first clear and limpid, becomes yellowish 
white as it changes to pus, and soon dries up, leaving a hard, button- 
shaped black crust, which gradually becomes detached. On the 
teats, owing to the handling of the milker or to the cow lying on, 
the hard ground or on straw, the vesicles are early ruptured and 
sores are formed, which often prove troublesome and may cause 
inflammation of the udder. 

Actinomycosis, though affecting man, horses, pigs and other 
creatures, is far more common in the bovine species. _ The fungus 
{Actinomyces) may be found in characteristic nodules in 
various parts of the body, but it usually invades the bones mycos'ts 
of the jaws, upper and lower, or the soft parts in the ' 
neighbourhood of .these; as the tongue, cheeks, face, throat and 
glands in its vicinity. About the head the disease appears to com* 
mence with slight sores on the gums or mucous membrane of the 
mouth or with ulcers alongside decaying teeth, and these extend 
slowly into the tissues* If the jaw is affected; a. large rounded 
tumour grows from it, the dense outer bone becoming absorbed 
before the increasing soft growth within. Soon the whole becomes 
ulcerated and purulent discharges take place, in which are found 
the minute, hard, yellow granules which contain the fungus. When 
the tongue is affected, it becomes enlarged and rigid; hence the 
designation of " wooden tongue " given to it by the Germans. In 
the course of time the surface of the organ becomes ulcerated, and 
yellowish masses or nodules may be seen on the surface. Sometimes 
the entire face is involved, the lips and nostrils becoming swollen, 
hard and immovable, often rendering respiration difficult. Around 
the throat there are rounded dense swellings, implicating the glands. 
When the disease is well-defined and of. slight extent, the parts 
involved may be removed by the knife, wholly or partially. If the 
latter only, then the remaining affected tissues should be dressed 
with tincture of iodine or iodized carbolic acid. Chromic acid has 
also been found useful. A course of potassium iodide internally 
is sometimes curative and always beneficial. 

Diseases of Sheep. 

The contagious diseases of the sheep (other than those of foot- 
and-mouth disease, anthrax, rinderpest, black-quarter) are com- 
paratively few. 

The formidable disorder of sheep-pox is confined chiefly to the con- 
tinent of Europe. It is extremely contagious and fatal, and in these 
and some other characteristics resembles human smallpox. : . 

From three to twelve days after being exposed to infec- Mp " 

tinn the sheep appears dull and listless, and eats little, if ^** 
anything; the temperature rises; there are frequent tremblings; 
tears flow from the eyes; and there is a nasal discharge. Red 
patches appear inside the limbs and under the abdomen ; and on 
them, as well as on other parts where the skin is thin, dark red 
spots show themselves, which soon become papules, with a deep 
hard base. These are generally conical, and the apex quickly 
becomes white from the formation of pus. This eruption is char- 
acteristic and unmistakable ; and the vesicles or pustules may 
remain isolated (discrete pox) or coalesce into large patches (con- 
fluent pox). The latter form of the disease is serious. In bad 
cases the eruption may develop on the eyes and in the respiratory 
and digestive passages. The course of the disease lasts about 
three weeks or a month, and the eruption passes through the same 




stages as that of cowpox. The mortality may extend from w% 
in mild outbreaks to 90 or 95 % in very virulent ones. Diseased 
animals should be sheltered, and fed on nourishing food, especially 
gruels of oatmeal flour or linseed; acidulated water may be 
allowed. If there is sloughing of the skin or extensive sores, oxide 
of zinc ointment should be applied. But treatment should not 
be adopted unless there is general infection over a wide extent of 
country. All diseased animals should be destroyed, as well as 
those which have been in contact with them, and thorough disin- 
fection resorted to. 

Foot-rot is a disease of the claws of sheep. It occurs most 
frequently in badly drained, low-lying, marshy land, and is caused 
by the Bacillus necrophorus. Infection appears to be 
Poot-roU transmitted by cohabitation, litter, manure and in- 
fected pastures. The disease begins at the sole or between the 
claws and gradually extends, causing changes in the bones and 
tendons, with suppuration, degeneration of horn and sloughing. 
The symptoms are lameness, foot or feet hot, tender and swollen 
at the coronet; the horn soft and rotten. Affected sheep when 
feeding may rest on the knees, or, if fore and hind feet are involved, 
they lie down. consJ"antly. The claws must be cleansed, loose 
and underrun horn removed, abscesses opened, and the foot thor- 
oughly disinfected and protected from, further infection by an 
appropriate bandage. Some cases require daily dressing, and all 
affected feet should receive frequent attention. When large 
numbers of sheep are attacked they should be slowly driven through 
a foot-bath containing an antiseptic solution. Pastures on which 
foot-rot has been contracted should be avoided, the feet examined 
every month or oftener, and where necessary pared and dressed 
with pine tar. 

Diseases of the Pig. 
The pig may become affected with anthrax, foot-and-mouth 
disease and tuberculosis, and it also has its own particular variola. 
But the contagious diseases which cause enormous destruction of 
pigs are swine fever and swine erysipelas in Great Britain, hog 
cholera and swine plague in the United States, and swine erysipelas 
and swine plague in France, Germany and other countries of the 
European continent. 

Swine fever is an exceedingly infectious disease, caused by a 
bacillus, and associated with ulceration of the intestine, enlarge- 
ment of the lymphatic glands, and limited disease of 
other organs. It is spread with great facility by mediate 
as well as immediate contagion ; the virus can be carried 
by apparently healthy pigs from an infected piggery, by litter, 
manure, food, attendants, dogs, cats, vermin, crates, troughs or 
anything which has been soiled by the discharges from a diseased 
pig. It is generally very rapid in its course, death ensuing in a 
very few days, and when the animal survives, recovery is pro- 
tracted. After exposure to infection the animal^ exhibits signs of 
illness by dullness, weakness, shiverings, burying itself in the litter, 
disinclination to move, staggering gait, great thirst, hot dry snout, 
loss of appetite, and increased pulse, respiration and temperature 
(105 F.). Red and violet patches appearon the skin; there is a 
hacking cough; nausea is followed by vomiting ; diarrhoea ensues; 
the hind legs become paralysed; stupor sets in, and the animal 
perishes. Treatment should not be attempted. Notification of 
the existence of swine fever is compulsory, and outbreaks are 
dealt with by the Board of Agricultnre and Fisheries. To suppress 
the disease kill all affected pigs and those which have been in 
contact with them; burn or deeply bury the carcasses and litter, 
and cover with quicklime. Disinfect everything that may have 
been contaminated with the virus. 

Diseases of the Dog. 
The contagious diseases of the dog are likewise very few, but 
the one which attracts most attention is common and generally 
serious. This is what is popularly known as distemper. 
It is peculiar to the canine species, for there is no evidence 
temper. t ^ at j t can ^ >e convC y ec i to other animals, though the 
different families of Carnivora appear each to be liable to a similar 
disease. Distemper is a specific fever which most frequently 
attacks young dogs, its effects being primarily developed in the 
respiratory passages, though the brain, spinal chord and abdominal 
organs may subsequently be involved. Highly bred and pet dog^s 
suffer more severely than the commoner and hardier kinds. It is 
a most infectious disease, and there is much evidence to prove that 
it owes its existence and prevalence solely to its virulence. One 
attack confers immunity from another. The symptoms are rigors, 
sneezing, dullness, loss of appetite, desire for warmth, and increased 
temperature, respiration and pulse. The eyes are red, and the 
nose, at first dry and harsh, becomes smeared with the discharge 
which soons begins to flow from the nostrils. _ Suppuration also 
begins at the eyes; vision is more or less impaired by the mucus 
and pus, and often the cornea becomes ulcerated, and even per- 
forated. There is a cough, which in some cases is so violent as to 
induce vomiting. Deliihty rapidly ensues, and emaciation is soon 
apparent; diarrhoea in the majority of cases sets in;the body 
emits an unpleasant odour; ulceration of the mouth is noticed; 
the nostrils become obstructed by the discharge from them; con- 

vulsions generally come on; signs of brottchitis, pneumonia, 
jaundice or other complications manifest themselves; and in 
some instances there is a pustular or vesicular eruption on the skin. 
In fatal cases the animal dies in a state of marasmus. Many which 
recover are affected with chorea for a long time afterwards. Here, 
again, good nursing is all-important. Comfort and cleanliness, 
with plenty of fresh air, must be ensured. Debility being the most 
serious feature of the disease, the strength should be maintained 
or restored until the fever has run its course. Light broth, beef 
tea, or bread and milk, or these alternately, may be allowed as 
diet. Preparations of quinine, given from the commencement of 
the attack in a little wine, such as sherry, have proved very bene- 
ficial. Often a mild laxative is required. Complications should be 
treated as they arise. The disease being extremely infectious, pre- 
cautions should be adopted with regard to other dogs. Protective 
vaccines and antidistemper sera have been introduced by Lignieres, 
Copeman, Phisalix and others, but their action is uncertain. 

The formidable affliction known as hydrophobia (q.v.) or rabies is 
treated of under that name. 

Principal Parasites of Domestic A nimals. 
Perhaps the commonest worm infesting the horse is Ascaris 
equorum, or common lumbricoid. The males are from 6 to 8 in. 
long; females 7 to 17 in. They are found in almost i n torse. 
every part of the intestine. When present in considerable 
numbers they produce slight intermittent colicky pains, an 
unthrifty condition of the skin, with staring coat. Although the 
horse feeds well, it does not improve in condition, but is " tucked 
up J ' and anaemic. Among the principal remedies is a mixture of 
tartar emetic, turpentine and linseed oil. Santonin, ferrous sulphate, 
common salt and arsenic are also employed. Sclerostomum equinum 
or palisade worm is a moderate-sized nematode, having a straight 
body with a somewhat globular head — males | to i\ in., females 
1 in. to 2 in. long. This worm is found in the intestines, especially 
the double colon and caecum. The embryos are developed in the 
eggs after their expulsion from the host, and are lodged in moist 
mud, where, according to Cobbold, they change their first skin in 
about three weeks, after which they probably enter the body of 
an intermediate bearer, whence they are conveyed in food or water 
to the digestive canal of the horse, the ultimate host. They then 
penetrate the mucous membrane and enter the blood vessels, where 
they are sexually differentiated and give rise to aneurism. After 
a time they resume their wanderings and reach the large intestine, 
where they form small submucous cysts and rapidly acquire sexual 
maturity.- They are most dangerous when migrating from one 
organ to another. They are found in the anterior mesenteric artery, 
but they alsoj produce aneurism of the coeliac axis and other 
abdominal blood vessels, including the aorta. These parasitic 
aneurisms are a frequent cause of fatal colic in young horses. 

Sclerostomum tetracanthum, or four-spined sclerostome, is about the 
same size as the palisade worm, and like it is found in the colon, 
caecum and small intestine. It finds its way to the bowel in water or 
green fodder swallowed by the horse. It is a true blood-sucker, 
and its development is very similar to that of the S. equinum, except 
that it directly encysts itself in the mucous membrane and does not 
enter the blood vessels. The symptoms of its presence are emacia- 
tion, colicky pains, harsh unthrifty coat, flabby muscles, flatu- 
lence, foetid diarrhoea, anaemia, great weakness and, sometimes, 
haemorrhagic enteritis. Treatment of equine sclerostomiasis fre- 
quently fails, as the remedies cannot reach the encysted parasites. 
As vermicides, thymol, areca, ferrous sulphate, tartar emetic, 
arsenic, sodium chloride, oil of turpentine, lysol, creolin and carbolic 
acid have been found useful. 

Oxyurts curvula, or pin worm, is a common parasite of the large 
intestine. The anterior part of the body is curved and the tail 
sharply pointed. The male is seldom seen. The female measures 
I to I^ in. in length. It is found in the caecum, colon and rectum, 
and it causes pruritus of the anus, from which it may be found pro- 
jecting. This parasite is best treated by means of a cathartic, followed 
by a course of mineral tonics, and repeated rectal injections of sodium 
chloride solution, infusion of quassia or diluted creolin. 

The cestodes or taeniae of the horse are insignificant in size and 
they produce no special symptoms. Three species — Anoplocephala 
perfohata (26-28 mm. long), A. plicata (r^-Scm.) and A. tnamtllana 
(1-3 cm.) — have been described. The first is found in the small 
intestine and caecum, rarely in the colon ; the second occurs in the 
small intestine and stomach; the third in the small intestine. 
Generally a horse may be proved to be infested with tape-worm by 
finding some of the ripe segments or proglottides in the faeces. The 
best remedy is male fern extract with turpentine and linseed oil. , 

Gastrophilus equi, or the common bot-fly, is classed with the 
parasites on account of its larval form living as a parasite. The 
bot-fly deposits its eggs on the fore-arm, knee and shank of the horse 
at pasture. In twenty-four hours the ova are hatched and the 
embryo, crawling on the skin, causes itching, which induces the horse 
to nibble or lick the part, and in this way the embryo is carried by the 
tongue to the mouth and swallowed. In the stomach the embryo 
attaches itself to the mucous membrane, moults three times, in- 
creases in size and changes from a blood-red to a yellowish-brown 



colour. The bot remains in the stomach till the following spring, 
when it detaches itself, passes into the food and is discharged with 
the faeces. When very numerous, bots may cause symptoms of 
indigestion, though frequently their presence in the stomach is not 
indicated by any sign of ill-health. They are difficult to dislodge 
or kill. Green food, iodine, naphthalin, hydrochloric acid and 
vegetable bitters have been recommended ; but the most effective 
remedy is a dose of carbon bisulphide given in a gelatin capsule, 
repeated in twelve hours, and followed twelve hours later by an 
aloetic ball. 

Of the parasites which infest cattle and sheep mention will only 

be made of Distomum hepaticum, or common fluke, which causes 

liver-rot or distomiasis, a very fatal disease of lambs and 

rf h ^eep under two years old. It occurs most frequently 
anas eep* a f ter a we ^ season on low-lying, marshy or undrainedland,- 
but it may be carried to other pastures by sheep which have been 
driven through a fluke-infested country. and sheep allowed to graze 
along ditches by the roadside may contract the parasite. For a 
full description of its anatomy and development see Trematodes. 
Preventive treatment comprises the destruction of flukes and 
snails; avoidance of low-lying, wet pastures draining infested land, 
and top-dressing with salt, gas-lime, lime water or soot; supplying 
sheep with pure drinking water; placing rock-salt in the fields, and 
providing extra food and a tonic lick consisting of salt, aniseed, 
ferrous sulphate, linseed and peas-meal. 

Husk, hoose or verminous bronchitis of calves is caused by 
Strongylus micrurus, or pointed-tailed strongyle, a thread-worm 
i to 3 in. long, and S. piilmonaris, a similar but smaller nematode; 
and the corresponding disease of sheep is due to S. filaria and S. 
rufescens. The male S. filaria is I to 2 in., and the female 2 to 4 in. 
long^. They are white in colour and of the thickness of ordinary 
sewing cotton. The 5". rufescens is thinner and shorter than S. filaria 
and its colour is brownish red. The development of these strongyles 
is not accurately known. When expelled and deposited in water or 
moist earth, the embryos may live for many months. Iloose occurs 
in spring and continues until autumn, when it may be most severe. 
In sheep the symptoms are coughing, at first strong, with long 
intervals, then weak and frequent, leaving the sheep distressed and 
wheezing; discharge from the nose, salivation, occasional retching 
with expulsion of parasites in frothy mucus, advancing emaciation, 
anaemia and weakness. In calves the symptoms are similar but 
less acute. Various methods of cure have been tried. Remedies 
given by the mouth are seldom satisfactory. Good results have 
Followed fumigations with chlorine, burning sulphur, tar, &c, and 
intra-tracheal injections of chloroform, iodine and ether, oil of 
turpentine, carbolic acid, and opium tincture, or chloroform, 
ether, creosote and olive oil. The system should be supported with 
as much good nourishing food as possible. 

The principal parasites which infest the alimentary canal of cattle 
or sheep arc strongyles and taeniae. The strongyles of the fourth 
stomach are S. contortus, or twisted wire-worm (male 10 to 20 mm., 
female 20 to 30 mm. long), S. convoluhis (female ro to 13 mm.), 
S. ceroicornis (female 10 to 12 mm.), S. gracilis (female 3 to 4 mm.), 
and an unnamed species (female 9 mm. long) discovered by 
McFadyean in 1896. In the contents of the stomach the contortus 
may easily be recognized, but the other parasites, owing to their 
small size or situation in the mucous membrane, may be overlooked 
in an ordinary post-mortem examination. The contortus, which 
is best known, may serve as the type. It lives on the blood which 
it abstracts from the mucous membrane, and, according to the state 
of reoletion, its body may be red or white. The ova of this worm 
are discharged m the faeces and spread over the pastures by infected 
sheep. The ova hatch in a few days, and, according to Ransom, 
within a fortnight embryos one-thirtieth of an inch long may be 
found encased in a chUinoid investment, which protects them 
from the effects of excessive cold, heat or moisture. When the 
ground is damp and the temperature not too low, the embryos 
creep up the leaves of grasses and other plants, but when the 
temperature is below 40 F. they are inactive (Ransom). Sheep 
feeding on infected pasture gather the young worms and convey 
them to the fourth stomach, where they attain maturity in two or 
three weeks. In wet weather the embryos may be washed into 
ponds and ditches, and cattle and sheep may swallow them when 
drinking. Strongyles cause loss of appetite, irritation and inflam- 
mation of the stomach and bowel, diarrhoea, anaemia, progressive 
emaciation, and, if not destroyed or expelled, a lingering death from 
exhaustion, The success or failure of medicinal treatment depends 
on the degree of infestation. A change of pasture is always de- 
sirable, and as remedies a few doses of oil of turpentine in linseed 
oil, or a solution of'lysol or cyllin, and a powder consisting of arsenic, 
ferrous sulphate, areca, nux vomica and common salt may be tried. 
The ox may be the bearer of three and the sheep of twelve species 
of taeniae, and of these the commonest is Moniezia {taenia} expanse, 
which is more frequently found in sheep than in cattle. It is the 
longest tapeworm, being from 6 to 30 ft. in sheep and from 40 to 
100 ft. in cattle. Its maximum breadth is f- in.; it is found in the 
small intestine, and sometimes in sufficient numbers in lambs to 
obstruct the bowel. Infested animals are constantly spreading 
the ripe segments over the pastures, from which the ova or embryos 

are gathered by sheep. The symptoms are inappetence, dry harsh 
wool, weakness, anaemia arid diarrhoea with segments of the worms 
in the faeces. Various drugs have been prescribed for the expulsion 
of tapeworms, but the most useful are male fern extract, turpentine, 
kamala, kousso, aloes and linseed oil. Very young animals should 
be supported by dry nourishing food and tonics, including salt and 
ferrous sulphate. 

The principal round-worms of the intestine of ruminants are 
Ascaris vitulorum, or calf ascarid, Strongylus filicollis, S. venlricosus, 
Sderoslomum hyposiomum, Anckylostomum cernuum and Tricho- 
cephalus affinis, or common whip-worm, which sometimes causes 
severe symptoms in sheep. For a full account of the development 
of Cysticercus bovis, or beef measle, the larval form of Taenia saginala 
of the human subject, see Tapeworms. Another bladder-worm, 
found in the peritoneum of sheep and cattle, is Cysticercus tenui- 
collis, or slender-necked hydatid, the larval form of Taenia marginata 
of the dog. It seldom produces serious lesions. An important 
hydatid of ruminants in Coenurus cerebralis, which produces in sheep, 
cattle, goats and deer gid or sturdy, a peculiar affection of the 
central nervous system characterized by congestion, compression of 
the brain, vertigo, inco-ordination, and other symptohis of cerebro- 
spinal paralysis. This bladder-worm is the cystic form of Taenia 
coenurus of the dog. It is found in the cranial cavity, resting on the 
brain, within its substance or at its base, and sometimes in the 
spinal canal. The symptoms vary with the position and number of 
the vesicles. In an ordinary case the animal feeds intermittently 
or not at all, appears unaccountably nervous or very dull, more or 
less blind and deaf, with glazed eye, dilated pupil, the head twisted 
or inclined always to one side — that occupied by the cyst — and when 
moving the sheep constantly tends to turn in the same direction. 
When the vesicle is deep-seated or within the cerebral lobe, the 
sheep carries the head low, brings the feet together and turns round 
and round like a dog preparing to lie down. W r hen the developing 
cyst exerts pressure at the base of the cerebellum, the sheep re- 
peatedly falls and Tolls o\ r er. In other cases the chief symptoms 
may be frequent falling, always on the same side, high trotting 
action with varying length of step, advancing by rearing and leaping, 
complete motor paralysis, and in spinal cases posterior paralysis 
with dragging of the hind limbs. Medicinal treatment is of no avail, 
but in some cases the hydatid can be removed by trephining the 
skull. Gid may be prevented by attending to the treatment of dogs 
infested with the tapeworm. 

The helminthes of the pig, although not very detrimental to the 
animal itself, are nevertheless of great importance as regards the 
entozoa of man. Allusion must be made to Trichinella 
spiralis, which causes trichinosis. The male is rVt-h, fl be 

the female Jth in. long, and the embryos j&th to ^th in. p ™' 

The ova measure TsVT» tn * n - i n their long diameter; they are hatched 
within the body of the female worm. When scraps of trichinqus 
flesh or infested rats have been ingested by the pig, the cysts en- 
closing the larval trichinae arc dissolved by the gastric juice in 
about eighteen hours, and the worms are found free in the intestine. 
In twenty-four to forty-eight hours later these larvae, having under- 
gone certain transformations, become sexually mature; then they 
copulate, and after an interval the embryos leave the body of the 
female worm and immediately begin to penetrate the intestinal 
wall in order to pass into various voluntary muscles, where they 
become encysted. About twelve days elapse from the time they 
begin their wandering. Usually each larva is enveloped in a capsule, 
but two or even three larvae have been found in one investment. 
They have been known to live in their capsules for. eighteen months 
to two years. 

Cysticercus cellulosae is the larval form of Taenia solium of man 
(see Tapeworms). " Measlv pork " is caused by the presence 
in the flesh of the pig of this entozoon, which is bladder-like in 
form. It has also been discovered in the dog. Other important 
parasites of the pig are Stephanurus dentatus, or crown-tailed 
strongyle, Echinorhynchus gigas, or thorn-headed worm, Ascaris 
suis, or pig ascarid, and Strongyloides suis. For these the most 
useful remedies arc castor oil seeds, given with the food, and oil of 
turpentine in milk, followed by a dose of Epsom salts. 

Of all the domesticated animals the dog is by far the most fre- 
quently infested with worms. A very common round-worm is 
Ascaris marginata (3 to 8 in. long), a variety of the ascarid 
(A. mysiax) of the cat. It occurs in the intestine or 
stomach of young dogs. The symptoms arc emaciation, 
drooping belly, irritable skin, irregular appetite, vomiting the 
worms in mucus, colic and diarrhoea. The treatment comprises 
the administration of areca or santonin in milk, followed by a dose 
of purgative medicine. A nematode, Filaria immitis, inhabits the 
heart of the dog, and its larvae may be found in the blood, causing 
endocarditis, obstruction of the vessels, and fits, which often end 
in death. Spiroptera sanguinolenta may be found in the^ dog 
encysted in the wall of the stomach. Other nematodes of the dog 
are Anchylostomuni trigonocephalum, which causes frequent bleeding 
from the nose and pernicious anaemia, and Trichocephalus depressius- 
culus, or whip-worm, which is found in the caecum. The dog 
harbours eight species of taeniae and five species of Bothriocephalus, 
Taenia serrata, about 3 ft. in length, is found in about 10% of 

fa the 



English dogs, most frequently in sporting dogs and those employed 
on farms, owing to their eating the viscera of rabbits, &c, in which 
the larval form (Cysticercus pisiformis) of this tapeworm dwells'. 
T. marginaia is the largest cestode of the dog. It varies in length 
from 5 to 8 ft., and is fuund in the small intestine of 30% of dogs in 
Great Britain ; its cystic form (C. tenuicollis) occurs in the peritoneum 
of sheep. T. coenurus causes gid in sheep as previously stated. It 
seldom exceeds 3 ft. in length. Dogs contract this parasite by eating 
the heads of sheep infested with the bladder- worm (Coenurus 
cerebralis). Dipyiidium caninum, T. cucumerina, or melon seed 
tapeworm, is a very common parasite of dogs. It varies in length 
from 3 to 15 in.; its larval form (Cryptocystis trichodectis et pulicis) 
is found in the abdomen of the dog-flea (Pulex serraiiceps), the dog- 
louse (Trichodectis latus) and in the flea (P. irriians) of the human 
subject. The dog contracts this worm by swallowing fleas or lice 
containing the cryptocysts. T. echinococcus may be distinguished 
from the other tapeworms by its small size. It seldom exceeds 
i in. in length, and consists of four segments including the head. 
The fourth or terminal proglottis when ripe is larger than all the 
rest. Its cystic form is Echinococcus veterinorum, which causes 
hydatid disease of the liver, lunge, and other organs of cattle, pigs, 
sheep, horses, and even man. This affection may not be discovered 
during life. In well-marked cases the liver is much deformed, 
greatly enlarged, and increased in weight; in the ox the hydatid 
liver may weigh from 50 to 100 lb or more. Another tapeworm 
(T. serialis) sometimes occurs in the small intestine. Its cystic 
form is found in rodents. Bothriocephalus latus, or broad tapeworm, 
about 25 ft. long and I in. broad, is found in the intestine of the dog 
and sometimes in man. Its occurrence appears to be confined to 
certain parts of the European continent. Its larval form is met 
with in pike, turbot, tench, perch, and other fishes. The heart- 
shaped bothriocephalus (B. cordatus) infests the dog and man in 
Greenland. For the expulsion of tapeworm male fern extract has 
been found the most effectual agent; areca powder in linseed oil, 
and a combination of areca. colocynth and jalap, the dose varying 
according to the age, size and condition of the dog, have also proved 

The parasites which cause numerous skin affections in the 
domesticated animals may be arranged in two groups, viz. 
_ _ animal parasites or Dermatozoa, and vegetable parasites 

erma- or D ernm [ pfiyi es _ The dermatozoa, or those which 
* produce pruritus, mange, scab, &c, are lice, fleas, ticks, 

acari or mange mites, and the larvae of certain flies. The lice of the 
horse are Haematopinus macrocephalus, Trichodecles pilosus and 
T. pubescens; those of cattle, H. eurysternus, or large ox-louse, 
H. vituli, or calf-louse, and T. scalaris, or small ox-louse; and sheep 
may be attacked by T. sphaerocephalus. or sheep-louse, and by the 
louse-like ked or fag (Melophagus ovinus) which belongs to the 

fmpiparous diptera. Dogs may be infested with two species of 
ice, H. piliferus and T. latus, and the pig with one, II. urius. 

Ticks belong to the family Ixodidae of the order Acarina. A few 
species have been proved responsible for the transmission of diseases 
caused by blood parasites, and this knowledge has greatly increased 
the importance of ticks in veterinary practice. The best known 
ticks are Ixodes ricinus, or castor-bean tick, and I. hexagonus, which 
are found all over Europe, and which attack dogs, cattle, sheep, 
deer and horses. Rhipicephalus annulatus, or Texan fever-tick of 
the United States, Rh. decnloralus, or hlue-tick of South Africa, and 
Rh. australis, or scrub-tick of Australia, transmit the parasite of 
red water or bovine piroplasmosis. Rh. appendiculatus carries the 
germs of East Coast fever, Rh- bursa is the bearer of the parasite 
of ovine piroplasmosis, and Rh. evertsi distributes the germs of 
equine biliary fever. Amblyomma hebraeum conveys the parasite 
of " heart-water " of cattle and sheep, and TIaemaphysalis leachi 
transmits the parasite of canine piroplasmosis. Hyalommaaegyptium, 
or Egyptian tick, Rh. simus and Rh. capensis, are common in most 
parts of Africa. 

The acari of itch, scab or mange are species of Sarcoptes, which 
burrow in the skin; Psoroptes, which puncture the skin and live 
on the surface sheltered by hairs and scurf ; and Chorioptes, which 
live in colonies and simply pierce the epidermis. Representatives 
of these three genera have been found on the horse, ox and sheep ; 
varieties of the first genus (Sarcoptes) cause mange in the dog and 
pig; and Chorioptes cynoiis sometimes invades the ears of the dog 
and cat. These parasites live on the exudation produced by the 
irritation which they excite. Another acarus (Demodex folliculorum) 
invades the dog's skin and sometimes occurs in other animals. It 
inhabits the hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and causes a very 
intractable acariasis — the follicular or demodecic mange of the 
dog (see Mite). A useful remedy for mange in the horse is a mixture 
of sulphur, oil of tar and whale oil, applied daily for three days, 
then washed off and applied again. For the dog, sulphur, olive oil 
and potassium carbonate, or oil of tar and fish oil, may be tried. 
Various approved patent dips are employed for scab in sheep. A 
good remedy for destroying lice may be compounded from Stavesacre 
powder, soft soap and hot water, applied warm to the skin. Follic- 
ular mange is nearly incurable, but recent cases should be treated 
by daily rubbing with an ointment of 5 parts cyllin and 100 parts 
of lanoline. 

The vegetable parasites, or Dermatophytes, which cause tinea 
or ringworm in horses, cattle and dogs, belong to five distinct 
genera: Trichophyton, Microsporum, Eidamella, Achorion 
and Oospora. Ringworm of the horse is either aTricho- Dermato- 
phytosis produced by one of four species of iungi (7'richo- P h y tea * 
phyton mentagropkytes, T. flavum, T. equinum and T. verrucosum) , 
or a Microsporosis caused by Microsporum audouini. Ringworm 
of cattle is always a Trichophytosis, and due to T. mentagropkytes.. 
Four different dermatophytes (J\ caninum, M. audouini var. 
caninum, Eidamella spinosa and Oospora canina) affect the dog, 
producing Trichophytic, Microsporous and Eidamellian ringworm 
and favus. Little is known of ringworm in sheep and swine. 
The fungi attack the roots of the hairs, which after a time lose 
their elasticity and break off, leaving a greyish-yellow, bran-like 
crust of epidermic products, dried blood and sometimes pus. In 
favus the crusts are yellow, cupped, almost entirely composed of 
fungi, and have an odour like that of mouldy cheese. Ringworm 
may affect any part of the skin, but occurs principally on the head, 
face, neck, back and hind quarters. It is very contagious, and 
it may be communicated from one species to another, and from 
animals to man. The affected parts should be carefully scraped 
and the crusts destroyed by burning; then the patches should be 
dressed with iodine tincture, solution of copper sulphate or carbolic 
acid, or with oil of tar. 

Bibliography.— Modern veterinary literature affords striking 
evidence of the progress made by the science; excellent text-books, 
manuals and treatises on every subject belonging to it are numerous, 
and arc published in every European language, while the abundant 
periodical press, with marked ability and discrimination, records 
and distributes the ever- increasing knowledge. The substantial 
advances in veterinary pathology, bacteriology, hygiene, surgery 
and preventive medicine point to a still greater rate of progress. 
The schools in every way are better equipped, the education and 
training — general and technical — of students of veterinary medicine 
are more comprehensive and thorough, and the appliances for 
observation and investigation of disease have been greatly improved. 
Among the numerous modern works in English on the various 
branches of veterinary science, the following may be mentioned; 
McFadvean, Anatomy of the Horse: a Dissection Guide (London, 
1902) ; Chauvcau, Comparative Anatomy of the Domesticated Animals 
(London, 1891); Cuyer, Artistic Anatomy of Animals (London, 
1905) ; Share- Jones, Surgical Anatomy of the Horse (London, 
x 907j; Jowett, Blood-Serum Therapy and Preventive Inoculation 
(London, 1906); Swithinbank and Newman, The Bacteriology of 
Milk (London, 1905); Fleming, Animal Plagues (London, 1882); 
Merillat, Animal Dentistry (London, 1905) ; Liautard, Animal 
Castration (9th ed., London, 1902); Moussu and Dollar, Diseases 
of Cattle, Sheep, Goats and Swine (London, 1905); Reeks, Common 
Colics of the Horse (London, 1905); Sessions, Cattle Tuberculosis 
(London, 1905); Scwell, Dogs: their Management (London, 1897); 
Hobday, Surgical Diseases of the Dog and Cat (London, 1906); 
Hill, Management and Diseases of the Dog (London, 1905); Sewell, 
The Dog's Medical Dictionary (London, 1907); Goubaux and 
Barrier, Exterior of the Horse (London, 1904); Reeks, Diseases of 
the Foot of the Horse (London, 1906); Robcrge, The Foot of the 
Horse (London, 1894); Jensen, Milk Hygiene: a Treatise on 
Dairy and Milk Inspection, &?c. (London, 1907); Smith, Manual 
of Veterinary Hygiene (London, 1 905) ; Fleming, Human and 
Animal Variolae (Condon, 1881); Hunting, The Art of Horse- 
shoeing (London, 1899); Fleming, Horseshoeing (London, 1900) ; 
Dollar and Wheatley, Handbook of Horseshoeing (London, 1898) ; 
Lungwitz, Text-Book of Horseshoeing (London, 1904); Axe, The 
Horse: its Treatment in Health and Disease (9 vols., London, 1905); 
Hayes, The Points of the. Horse (London, 1904); Robertson, Equine 
Medicine (London, 1883); Hayes, Horses on Board Ship (London, 
1902); FitzWygram, Horses and Stables (London, 1901); Liautard, 
Lameness of Horses (London, 1888); Walley, Meat Inspection 
(2nd ed., London, 1901); Osrertag, Handbook of Meat Inspection 
(London, 1907); Courtcnay, Practice of Veterinary Medicine and 
Surgery (London, 1902); Williams, Principles and Practice of 
Veterinary Medicine (8th ed., London, 1897); J. Law, Text-book of 
Veterinary Medicine (5 vols., New r York, 1905); Cadiot and Dollar, 
Clinical Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (London, 1900); Steel, 
Diseases of the Ox (London, 1881); Leblanc, Diseases of the Mam- 
mary Gland (London, 1904); De Bruin, Bovine Obstetrics (London, 
1901); Fleming, Veterinary Obstetrics (London, 1896); Dalrymple, 
Veterinary Obstetrics (London, 1S98); Neumann, Parasites and 
Parasitic Diseases of the Domesticated Animals (London, 1905); 
F. Smith, Veterinary Physiology (3rd ed., London, 1907); Meade 
Smith, Physiology of the Domestic Animals (London, 1889); Kitt, 
Comparative General Pathology (London, 1907); Friedberger and 
Frohncr, Veterinary Pathology (London, 1905); Brown, Atlas of 
the Pig (London, 1900) ; Rush worth , Sheep and their Diseases 
(London, 1903); Fleming, Operative Veterinary Surgery (London, 
r 903); Williams, Principles and Practice of Veterinary Surgery 
(10th ed., London, 1903); Mollcr and Dollar, Practice of Veterinary 
Surgery (London. 1904) ; Frohner, General Veterinary Surgery 
(New York, 1906); Merillat, Principles of Veterinary Surgery ana 
Surgical Pathology (London, 1907); Cadiot and Almy, Surgical 



Therapeutics of Domestic Animals (London, 1906); Hayes, Stable 
Management (London, 1903); Dun, Veterinary Medicines: their 
Actions and Uses (nth ed., Edinburgh, 1906); Tuson, A Pharma- 
copoeia (London, 1904); Hoare, Veterinary Therapeutics and 
Pharmacology (London, 1907); Grcssweil, The Veterinary Pharma- 
copoeia and Manual of Therapeutics (London, 1903) ; Winslow, 
Veterinary Materia Medica and Therapeutics (New York, 1901); 
Nunn, Veterinary Toxicology (London, 1907)1 Lavcran and Mesnil, 
Trypanosomata and the Trypanosomiases (London, 1907); Journal 
of Comparative Pathology and Therapeutics (quarterly, Edinburgh) ; 
The Veterinary Journal (monthly, London); The Veterinary Record 
(weekly, London) ; The Veterinary News (weekly. London). 

(G. Fl.; J. Mac.) 

VETO (Lat. for " I forbid "), generally the right of preventing 
any act, or its actual prohibition; in public law, the constitu- 
tional right of the competent authority, or in republics of the 
whole people in their primary assembly, to protest against a 
legislative or administrative act, and to prevent wholly, or for 
the time being, the validation or execution of the same. 

It is generally stated that this right was called into existence 
in the Roman republic by the tribunicia potestas, because by 
this authority decisions of the senate, and of the consuls and 
other magistrates, could be declared inoperative. Such a state- 
ment must, however, be qualified by reference to the facts that 
intcrdico, interdicimus were the expressions used, and, in general, 
that in ancient Rome every holder of a magistracy would check a 
negotiation set on foot by a colleague, his equal in rank, by his 
opposition and intervention. This was a consequence of the 
position that each of the colleagues possessed the whole power of 
the magistracy, and this right of intervention must have come 
into existence with the introduction of colleagued authorities, 
i.e. with the commencement of the republic. In the Roman 
magistracy a twofold power must be distinguished: the positive 
management of the affairs of the state entrusted to each indi- 
vidual, and the power of restraining the acts of magistrates of 
equal or inferior rank by his protest. As the tribuni plcbis 
possessed this latter negative competence to a great extent, it 
is customary to attribute to them the origin of the veto. 

In the former kingdom of Poland the precedent first set in 
1652 was established by law as a constant right, that in the 
imperial diet a single deputy by his protest " Nie pozwalam," 
i.e. " I do not permit it," could invalidate the decision 
sanctioned by the other members. The king of France received 
the right of a suspensory veto at the commencement of the 
French Revolution, from the National Assembly sitting at Ver- 
sailles in 1789, with regard to the decrees of the latter, which 
was only to be valid for the time being against the decisions 
come to and during the following National Assembly, but during 
the period of the third session it was to lose its power if the 
Assembly persisted in its resolution. By this means it was 
endeavoured to diminish the odium of the measure; but, as is 
well known, the monarchy was soon afterwards entirely abol- 
ished. Similarly the Spanish Constitution of 181 2 prescribed 
that the king might twice refuse his sanction to bills laid twice 
before him by two sessions of the cortes, but if the third session 
repeated the same he could no longer exercise the power of 
veto. The same was the case in the Norwegian Constitution of 

In the French republic the president has no veto strictly so 
called, but he has a power somewhat resembling it. He can, 
when a bill has passed both Chambers, by a message to them, 
refer it back for further deliberation. The king or queen of 
England has the right to withhold sanction from a bill passed 
by both houses of parliament. This royal prerogative has not 
been exercised since 1692 and may now be considered obsolete. 
The governor of -an English colony with a representative legis- 
lature has the power of veto against a bill passed by the legis- 
lative body of a colony. In this case the bill is finally lost, just 
as a bill would be which had been rejected by the colonial council, 
or as a bill passed by the English houses of parliament would 
be if the crown were to exert the prerogative of refusing the 
royal assent. The governor may, however, without refusing his 
assent, reserve the bill for the consideration of the crown. In 
that case the bill does not come into force until it has either 

actually or constructively received the royal assent, which is in 
effect the assent of the English ministry, and therefore indirectly 
of the imperial parliament. Thus the colonial liberty of legisla- 
tion is made legally reconcilable with imperial sovereignty, and 
conflicts between colonial and imperial laws are prevented. 1 

The constitution of the United States of America contains in 
art. i., sect. 7, par. 2, the following order: — 

" Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives 
and the Senate shall, before it become a law, be presented to the 
president of the United States; if he approve, he" shall sign it, if 
not, he shall return it with his objections to that house in which 
it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on 
their journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such recon- 
sideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it 
shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and, if approved by two- 
thirds of that house, it shall become a law. Every order, resolution 
or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) 
shall be presented to the president of the United States, and, before 
the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being dis- 
approved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and 
House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations 
prescribed in the case of a bill." 

In all states of the Union except one the governors, in the 
same manner or to a modified extent, possess the right of 
vetoing bills passed by the legislature. Here, therefore, we 
have again a suspensory veto which is frequently exercised. 

According to the constitution of the German empire of 1871, 
the imperial legislation is executed by the federal council and 
imperial diet; the emperor is not mentioned. In the federal 
council the simple majority of votes decides. But in the case 
of bills concerning the army, the navy and certain specially 
noted taxes, as well as in the case of decisions concerning the 
alteration of orders for the administration, and arrangements 
for the execution of the laws of customs and taxes, the proposal 
of the federal council is only accepted if the Prussian votes are 
on the side of the majority in favour of the same (art. vii., sect. 3). 
Prussia presides in the federal council. The state of things is 
therefore, in fact, as follows: it is not the German emperor, but 
the same monarch as king of Prussia, who has the right of veto 
against bills and decisions of the federal council, and therefore 
can prevent the passing of an imperial law. The superior power 
of the presidential vote obtains, it is true, its due influence enly 
in one legislative body, but in reality it has the same effect as 
the veto of the head of the empire. 

The Swiss federal constitution grants the president of the 
Confederation no superior position at all; neither he nor the 
federal council possesses the power of veto against laws or 
decisions of the federal assembly. But in some cantons, viz, 
St Gall (1831), Basel (1832) and Lucerne (1841), the veto was 
introduced as a right of the people. The citizens had the power to 
submit to a plebiscite laws which had been debated and accepted 
by the cantonal council (the legislative authority), and to reject 
the same. If this plebiscite was not demanded within a certain 
short specified time, the law came into force. But, if the voting 
took place, and if the number of persons voting against the law 
exceeded by one vote half the number of persons entitled to vote 
in the canton, the law was rejected. The absent voters were 
considered as having voted in favour of the law. An attempt 
to introduce the veto in Zurich in 1847 failed, Thurgau and 
SchafThausen accepted it later. Meanwhile another arrangement 
has quite driven it out of the field. This is the so-called " refer- 
endum "—properly speaking, direct legislation by the people — 
which has been introduced into most of the Swiss cantons. 
Formerly in all cantons — with the exception of the small moun- 
tainous districts of Uri, Schwyz, Untcrwaldcn, Zug, Glarus and 
Appenzell — it was not a pure democracy, but a representative 
constitution that prevailed: the great councillors or cantonal 
councillors periodically chosen by the people were the possessors 
of the sovereign power, and after deliberating twice passed the 
bills definitely. Now they have only to discuss the bills, which 

1 A.V. Dicey , Introduction to the Study of the Law of Uie Constitution, 
pp. in seq. (6th ed., London, 1902); Sir H. Jenkyns, British Rule 
and Jurisdiction beyond the Seas, pp. 1 13 seq. (London, 1902). 



aw printed and sent to all voters with an explanatory message; 
then the people on a certain day vote for the acceptance or re- 
jection of the law by writing " yes " or " no " on a printed voting 
paper, which is placed in an urn under official control. In 
some cantons important financial resolutions involving large 
state expenses are also submitted to the decision of the people. 
In the revised federal constitution of 1874, under certain sup- 
positions which have no further interest for us at present^ a 
facultative referendum or Initiative (i.e. the possibility of de- 
manding a plebiscite under exceptional circumstances) was 
introduced for federal laws. Since that period it has often been 
employed and has operated like a veto. It is evident that by 
the compulsory referendum in the cantons the mere veto is 
rendered superfluous. 

In examining the question as to what position the veto occupies 
in jurisprudence, we must separate quite different conceptions which 
are comprised under the same name. 

1. The veto may be a mere right of intervention on the part of a 
magistrate against the order of another official, or against that of an 
authority of equal or inferior rank. This was the case in ancient 
Rome. To this class belong also those cases in which, as in the French 
republic, the president makes his " no " valid against decisions of 
the general councillors, and the prefect does the same against 
decisions of the communal councillors. The use of the expres- 
sion here is quite justifiable, and this veto is not confined to bills, 
but refers particularly to administrative measures. It affords a 
guarantee against the abuse of an official position. _ 

2. The veto may be a safety-valve against precipitate decisions, 
and so a preventive measure. This task is fulfilled by the suspensory 
veto of the president of the United States. Similarly, to this class 
belong the above-mentioned prescriptions of the Spanish and 
Norwegian constitutions, and also the veto of the governor of an 
English colony against decisions of the legislature; for this protest 
is only intended to prevent a certain want of harmony between the 
general and the colonial legislation, by calling forth a renewed 
investigation. This veto is neither an interference with the com- 
petence of an authority, nor a division of the legislative power 
among different factors, but simply a guarantee against precipitancy 
in the case of a purely legislative measure. The wisdom of estab- 
lishing this veto power by the constitution is thus manifest. 

3. It is wrong to apply the term veto to what is merely the negative 
side of the sanctioning of the laws, in other words, an act of sove- 
reignty. It would not be in accordance with the nature of a con- 
stitutional monarchy to declare the monarch's consent to, a law 
unnecessary, or make it a compulsory duty; the legislative power 
is divided between him and the chambers. The sovereign must 
therefore be perfectly at liberty to say " yes " or " no " in each 
single case according to his opinion. If he says the latter, we speak 
of it as his veto, but this — if he possesses an absolute and not merely 
a suspensory veto — is not an intervention and not a preventive 
measure, but the negative side of the exercise of the legislative power, 
and therefore an act of sovereignty. That this right belongs fully 
and entirely to the holder of sovereign power — -however he may be 
called — is self-evident. One chamber can also by protest prevent a 
hill of the other from coming into force. The " placet of the temporal 
power for church affairs — when it occurs — also involves in this manner 
in itself the veto or non placet." Where in pure democracies the 
people in their assembly have the right of veto or referendum, the 
exercise of it is also a result of the sovereign rights of legislature. 
(For the question of the conflict between the two houses of England, 
see Representation.) 

The peculiar power of- veto possessed by the (Prussian) president 
of the federal council of Germany lies on the boundary between 
(2) and (3). (A. v. 0.) 

VETTER [ Vatter or Wetter, often written, with the addition 
of the definite article, Vettern], a lake of southern Sweden, 
80 m. long, and 18 m. in extreme breadth. It has art area of 
733 sq. m., and a drainage area of 2528 sq. m.; its maximum 
depth in 390 ft., and its elevation above sea-level 289 ft. It 
drains eastward by the Motala river to the Baltic. Its waters 
are of remarkable transparency and blueness, its shores pictur- 
esque and steep on the east side, where the Omberg (863 ft.) 
rises abruptly, with furrowed flanks pierced by caves. The 
lake is subject to sudden storms. Its northern part is crossed 
from Karlsborg to Motala (W. to E.) by the Gota canal route. 
At the southern end is the important manufacturing town of 
Jonkoping, and 15 m. N. of it the picturesque island of Vising, 
with a ruined palace of the 17th century and a fine church. 
Vadstena, 8 m. S. of Motala, with a staple industry in lace, 
has a convent (now a hospital) of St Bridget or Birgitta (1383), 
a beautiful monastic church (1395-1424) and a castle of King 

Gustavus Vasa. At Alvastra, 16 m. S. again, are ruins of a 
Cistercian monastery of the nth century. Close to Motala 
are some of the largest mechanical- workshops in Sweden, building 
warships, machinery, bridges, &c. 

VETULONIUM, or Vetulonia (Etruscan Velfuna),a,n ancient 
town of Etruria, Italy, the site of which is probably occupied 
by the modern village of Vetulonia, which up to 1887 bore the 
name of Coionna. It lies 1130 ft. above sea-level, about 10 m. 
direct N.W. of Grosscto, on the N.E. side of the hills which 
project from the flat Maremma and form the promontory of 
Castiglione. The place is little mentioned in ancient literature, 
though Silius Italicus tells us that it was hence that the Romans 
took their magisterial insignia (fasces, curule chair,- purple toga 
and brazen trumpets), and it was undoubtedly one of the twelve 
cities of Etruria. Its site was not identified before 1881, and 
the identification has been denied in various works by C. Dotto 
dei Dauli, who places it on the Poggio Castiglione near Massa 
Marittima, where scanty remains of buildings (possibly of city 
walls) have also been found. This site seems to agree better 
with the indications of medieval documents. But certainly 
an Etruscan city was situated on the hill of Coionna, where there 
are remains of city walls of massive limestone, in almost hori- 
zontal courses. The objects discovered in its extensive necro- 
polis, where over icoo tombs have been excavated, are now 
in the museums of Grosscto and Florence. The most important 
were surrounded by tumuli, which still form a prominent 
feature in the landscape. 

See G. Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (London, 1883), 
ii. 263; Notizie degli Scavi, passim; I. Falchi, Ricerche di Vetulonia 
(Frato, 1881), and other works, especially Vetulonia e la sua 
necropoli antiehissima (Florence, 1891); G. Sordini, Vetulonia 
(Spoleto, 1894) and references. (T. As.) 

VEUILLOT, LOUIS (1813-1883), French journalist and man 
of letters., was born ot humble parents at Boynes (Loiret) on 
the nth of October 1 8 1 3 . When Louis Veuillot was five 
years old his parents removed to Paris. After a very slight 
education he entered a lawyer's office, and was sent in 1830 to 
serve on a Rouen paper, and afterwards to Perigueux. He 
returned to Paris in 1837, and a year later, visited Rome during 
Holy Week. There he embraced extravagant ultramontane 
sentiments, and was from that time an ardent champion of 
Catholicism. The results of his conversion appeared in Peler- 
inage en Suisse (1839), Rome e-t Larette (1841) and other works. 
In 1843 he entered the staff of the Univers religieux. His 
violent methods of journalism had already provoked more than 
one duel, and for his polemics against the university of Paris 
in the Univers he was imprisoned for a short time. In 1848 
he became editor of the paper, which was suppressed in i860, 
but revived in 1867, when Veuillot recommenced his ultra- 
montane propaganda, which brought about a second suppression 
of his journal in 1874. When his paper was suppressed Veuillot 
occupied himself in writing violent pamphlets directed against 
the moderate Catholics, the Second Empire and the Italian 
government. His services to the papal see were fully recog- 
nized by Pius IX., on whom he wrote (1878) a monograph. He 
died on the 7th of March 1S83. 

Some of his scattered papers were collected in Melanges religieux, 
historiques et litteraires (12 vols., 1857-75), and his Correspondance 
(6 vols., 1883-85) has great political interest. His younger brother, 
Eugene Veuillot, published (1901-4) a comprehensive and valuable 
life, Louis Veuillot. 

VEVEY [German Vivis], a small town in the Swiss canton of 
Vaud and near the eastern extremity of the Lake of Geneva. 
It is by rail 12 m. S.E. of Lausanne or 3^ m. N.W. of the Veraex- 
Montreux railway station, while it is well served by steamers 
plying over the Lake of Geneva. In 1900 it had a population 
of 11,781, of whom 8878 were French-speaking, while there 
were 82.77 Protestants to 3424 Romanists and 56 Jews. It is 
the second town in point of population in the canton, coming 
next after Lausanne, though inferior to the " agglomeration " 
known as Montreux. It stands at the mouth of the Veveyse 
and commands fine views of the snowy mountains seen over 
the glassy surface of the lake. The whole of the surrounding 



country is covered with vineyards, which (with the entertain- 
ment of foreign visitors) occupy the inhabitants. Every twenty 
years or so (last in 1889 and 1905) the Fete des Vigncronsis held 
here by an ancient gild of vinedressers, and attracts much 
attention. Besides a railway line that joins the Montreux- 
Bernese Oberland line at Chamby (5 m. from Vevey and i-£ rm 
below Les Avants) there is a funicular railway from Vevey up 
the Mont Pelerin (3557 ft.) to the north-west. 

Vevey was a Roman settlement [Viviscus] and later formed part 
of the barony of Vaud, that was held by the counts and dukes of 
Savoy till 1536, when it was conquered by Bern. In 1798 It was 
freed from Bernese rule and became part of the canton du Leman 
(renamed canton de Vaud in 1803) of the Helvetic Republic. 

(W. A. B. C.) 

VEXILLUM (Lat. dim. of velum, piece of cloth, sail, awning, 
or from vehere, veetum, to carry), the name for a small ensign 
consisting of a square cloth suspended from a cross-piece fixed 
to a spear. The vexillum was strictly the ensign of the maniple, 
as signum was of the cohort, but the term came to be used for 
all standards or ensigns other than the eagle (aqmla) of the 
legion (see Flag). Caesar {B.G. ii. 20) uses the phrase vexillum 
Proponere of the red flag hoisted over the general's tent as a 
signal for the march or battle. The standard-bearer of the 
maniple was styled vexillarius, but by the time of the Empire 
vexillum and vexillarius had gained a new significance. Tacitus 
uses these terms frequently both of a body of soldiers serving 
apart from the legion under a separate standard, and also with 
the addition of some word implying connexion with a legion 
of those soldiers who, after serving sixteen years with the 
legion, continued their service, under their own vexillwn, with 
the legion. The term is also used for the scarf wrapped round 
a bishop's pastoral staff (q.v.). Modern science has adopted 
the word for the web or vein of a feather of a bird and of the 
large upper petal of flowers, such as the pea, whose corolla is 
shaped like a butterfly. 

VEXIO, or Wexio, a town and bishop's see of Sweden, 
capital of the district (l-an) of Kronoberg, 124 m. N.E. of Malm6 
by rail. Pop. (1900) 7365. It is pleasantly situated among 
low wooded hills at the north end of Lake Vexio, and near the 
south end of Lake Helga. Its appearance is modern, for it 
was burnt in 1843. The cathedral of St Siegfrid dates from 
about 1300, but has been restored, the last time in 1898. The 
Smaland Museum has antiquarian and numismatic collections, 
a library and a bust of Linnaeus. There are iron foundries, 
a match factory, &c. At Ostrabo, the episcopal residence 
without the town, the poet Esaias Tegner died in 1846, and he 
is buried in the town cemetery. On the shore of Lake Helga 
is the royal estate of Kronoberg, and on an island in the lake 
the ruins of a former castle of the same name. 

VEZELAY, a village of France, in the department of Yonne, 
10 m. W.S.W. of Avallon by road. Its population, which was 
over Lo,ooo in the middle ages, was 524 in 1906. It is situated 
on the summit and slopes of a hill on the left bank of the Cure, 
and owes its renown to the Madeleine, one of the largest and 
most beautiful basilicas in France. The Madeleine dates from 
the 1 2th century and was skilfully restored by Viollet-le-Duc. 
It consists of a narthex, with nave and aisles; a triple nave, 
without triforium, entered from the narthex by three door- 
ways; transepts; and a choir with triforium. The oldest 
portion of the church is the nave, constructed about 1125. 
Its groined vaulting is supported on wide, low, semicircular 
arches, and on piers and columns, the capitals of which are 
embellished with sculptures full of animation. The narthex 
was probably built about 1140. The central entrance, leading 
from it to the nave, is one of the most remarkable features of 
the church; it consists of two doorways, divided by a central 
pier supporting sculptured figures, and is surmounted by a 
tympanum carved with a representation of Christ bestowing 
the Holy Spirit upon His apostles. The choir and transepts 
are later in date than the rest of the church, which they surpass 
in height and grace of proportion. They resemble the eastern 
portion of the church of St Denis, and were doubtless built in 
place of a Romanesque choir damaged in a fire in 1165. A 

crypt beneath the choir is perhaps the relic of a previous 
Romanesque church which was destroyed by fire in n 20. 
The west facade of the Madeleine has three portals; that in the 
centre is divided by a pier and surmounted by a tympanum 
sculptured with a bas-relief of the Last Judgment. The upper 
portion of this front belongs to the 13th century. Only the 
lower portion of the northernmost of the two flanking towers 
is left, and of the two towers which formerly rose above the 
transept that to the north has disappeared. Of the other 
buildings of the abbey, there remains a chapter-house (13th 
century) adjoining the south transept. Most of the ramparts of 
the town, which have a circuit of over a mile, are still in 
existence. In particular the Porte Neuve, consisting of two 
massive towers flanking a gateway, is in good preservation. 
There are several interesting old houses, among them one in 
which Theodore of Beza was born. Of the old parish church, 
built in the 17th century, the clock-tower alone is left. A mile 
and a half from V£zelay, in the village of St Pere-sous-Vezelay, 
there is a remarkable Burgundian Gothic church, built by the 
monks of Vezelay in the 13th century. The west facade, 
flanked on the north by a fine tower, is richly decorated; its 
lower portion is formed of a projecting porch surmounted by 
pinnacles and adorned with elaborate sculpture. 

The history of Vezelay is bound up with its Benedictine abbey, 
which was founded in the Qth century under the influence of 
the abbey of Cluny. This dependence was soon shaken off 
by the younger monastery, and the acquisition of the relics 
of St Magdalen, soon after its foundation, began to attract 
crowds of pilgrims, whose presence enriched both the monks 
and the town which had grown up round the abbey and ac- 
knowledged its supremacy. At the beginning of the 12th 
century the exactions of the abbot Artaud, who required 
money to defray the expense of the reconstruction of the 
church, and the refusal of the monks to grant political independ- 
ence to the citizens, resulted in an insurrection in which the 
abbey was burnt and the abbot murdered. During the next 
fifty years three similar revolts occurred, fanned by the counts 
of Nevers, who wished to acquire the suzerainty over Vezelay 
for themselves. The monks were, however, aided by the 
influence both of the Pope and of Louis VII., and the towns- 
men were unsuccessful on each occasion. During the 12th 
century Vezelay was the scene of the preaching of the second 
crusade in 1146, and of the assumption of the cross in 1190 by 
Richard Cceur de Lion and Philip Augustus. The influence 
of the abbey began to diminish in 1280 when the Benedictines 
of St Maximin in Provence affirmed that the true body of 
St Magdalen had been discovered in their church; its decline 
was precipitated during the wars of religion of the 16th century, 
when Vezelay suffered great hardships. 

VIANDEN, an ancient town in the grand duchy of Luxem- 
burg, on the banks of the Our, close to the Prussian frontier. 
Pop. (1905) 2350. It possesses one of the oldest charters in 
Europe, granted early in the 14th century by Philip, count of 
Vianden, from whom the family of Nassau- Vianden sprang, 
and who was consequently the ancestor of William of Orange 
and Queen Wilhelmina of Holland. The semi-mythical 
foundress of this family was Bertha, " the White Lady " who 
figures in many German legends. The original name of Vianden 
was Viennensis or Vienna, and its probable derivation is from 
the Celtic Vien (rock). The extensive ruins of the ancient 
castle stand on an eminence of the little town, but the chapel 
which forms part of it was restored in 1849 by Prince Henry 
of the Netherlands. The size and importance of this castle 
in its prime may be gauged from the fact that the Knights* 
Hall could accommodate five hundred men-at-arms. A re- 
markable feature of the chapel is an hexagonal hole in the 
centre of the floor, opening upon a bare subterranean dungeon. 
This has been regarded as an instance of the " double chapel," 
but it seems to have been constructed by order of the crusader 
Count Frederick II. on the model of the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre. In the neighbourhood of Vianden are other ruined 
castles, notably those of Stolzemburg and Falkenstein. The 


r 7 

little town and its pleasant surroundings have been praised 
by many, among others by Victor Hugo, who resided here on 
several occasions. During his last visit he wrote his fine work 
V Annie terrible. In the time of the Romans the Vianden ■ 
valley was covered with vineyards, but at the present day 
its chief source of wealth is derived from the rearing of pigs. 

VIANNA DO CASTELLO, a seaport and the capital of the 
district of Vianna do Castello, Portugal; at the mouth of the 
river Lima, which is here crossed by the iron bridge of the Oporto- 
Vale n pa do Minho railway. Pop. (1900) 10,000. Vianna do 
Castello has manufactures of lace and dairy produce. Its 
fisheries are important. Salmon and lampreys are exported, 
both fresh and preserved. The administrative district of Vianna 
do Castello coincides with the northern part of the ancient 
province of Entre Minho e Douro (q.v.). Pop. (1900) 215^267; 
area, 857 sq. m. 

VIAREGGIO, a maritime town and sea-bathing resort of Tus- 
cany, Italy, in the province of Lucca, on the Mediterranean, 
13 m. N.W. of Pisa by rail, 7 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1006) 
14,863 (town); 21,557 (commune). Being sheltered by dense 
pine-woods on the north, and its malaria having been banished 
by drainage, it is frequented as a winter resort, and in summer 
by some thousands for its sea-bathing. In 1740 the population 
was only 300, and in 1841, 6549. The body of Shelley was 
burned on the shore near Viareggio after his death by drowning 
in 1822. The town possesses a school of navigation and a 
technical school, and carries on some shipbuilding. 

VIATICUM (a Latin word meaning " provision for a journey"; 
Gr. to. k<f>65ia), is often used by early Christian writers to denote 
the sacrament of the Eucharist, and is sometimes also applied 
to baptism. Ultimately it came to be employed in a restricted 
sense to denote the last communion given to the dying. The 
13th canon of the council of Nicaea is to the effect that " none, 
even of the lapsed, shall be deprived of the last and most neces- 
sary viaticum (e<po5tov)," and that the bishop, on examination, 
is to give the oblation to all who desire to partake of the Eucharist 
on the point of death. The same principle still rules the canon 
law, it being of course understood that penitential discipline, 
which in ordinary circumstances would have been due for their 
offence, is to be undergone by lapsed persons who have thus 
received the viaticum, in the event of recovery. In extreme 
cases it is lawful to administer the viaticum to persons not 
fasting, and the same person may receive it frequently if his 
illness be prolonged. The ritual to be observed in its adminis- 
tration does not differ from that laid down in the office for the 
communion of the sick, except in the words of the formula, 
which is " accipe, carissimc frater (carissima soror), viaticum 
corporis nostri Jesu Christ!, quod tc custodial ab hoste maligno, 
protegat te, et perducat te ad vitam aeternam. Amen." After- 
wards the priest rinses his fingers in a little water, which the 
communicant drinks. The viaticum is given before extreme 
unction, a reversal of the medieval practice due to the impor- 
tance of receiving the Eucharist while the mind is still clear. In 
the early centuries the sick, like those in health, generally re- 
ceived both kinds, though there are instances of the viaticum 
being given under one form only, sometimes the bread and 
sometimes, where swallowing was difficult, the wine. In times 
of persecution laymen occasionally carried the viaticum to the 
sick, a practice that persisted into the 9th century, and deacons 
continued to do so even after the Council of Ansa (near Lyons) 
in 990 restricted the function to priests. 

VIBORG, a town of Denmark, capital of the ami (county) 
of its name, lying in the bleak midland district of Jutland, 
though the immediate situation, on the small Viborg lake, is 
picturesque. Pop. (1901) 8623. It has a station on the railway 
running cast and west between Langaa and Vemb. The most 
notable building is the cathedral (1130-1169, restored 1864- 
1876). The Black Friars' church is of the 13th century, and 
the museum possesses specimens of the Stone, Bronze and Iron 
Ages, also medieval antiquities. The Borgevold Park borders 
the lake on the site of a former castle. The industries embrace 
distilleries, iron foundries and manufactures of cloth. The 

country to the south attains to a certain degree of beauty near 
Lake Hald, where the ground is slightly elevated. . 

VIBORG (Finnish Viipuri), capital of a province of the same 
name in Finland, is situated at the head of the Bay of Viborg 
in the Gulf of Finland, at the mouth of the Saima Canal and 
on the railway which connects St Petersburg with Helsingfors. 
Population of the town (1904) 34,672, of the province 458,269. 
The Saima Canal (37 m. long), a fine engineering work, connects 
with the sea Lake Saima— the principal lake of Finland, 249 ft. 
above sea-level— and a series of others, including Puruvcsi, 
Orivesi, Hoytiiinen and Kallavesi, all of which are navigated 
by steamers, as far north as lisalmi in 63 30' N. lat. Viborg is 
thus the seaport of Karelia and eastern Savolaks, with the towns 
of Vilmanstrand (2393 inhabitants in 1904), St Michel (3933), 
Myslott (2687), Kuopio (13,519) and lisalmi, with their numerous 
saw-mills and iron-works. Viborg stands most picturesquely 
on the glaciated and dome-shaped granite hills surrounding the 
bay, which is protected at its entrance by the naval station of 
Bjorkd and at its head by several forts. The castle of Viborg, 
built in 1293 by Marshal Torkel Knutson, was the first centre 
for the spread of Christianity in Karelia, and for establishing 
the power of Sweden; it is now used as a prison. Its lofty and 
elegant tower has fallen into decay. The court-house (1839), 
the town-house, the gymnasium (1641; with an excellent 
library), and the museum are among the principal buildings of 
the city. There are also a lyceum and two higher schools for 
girls, a school of navigation and several primary schools, both 
public and private, a literary and an agricultural society, and 
several benevolent institutions. There are foundries, machine 
works and saw-mills, and a considerable export of timber and 
wood products. The coasting trade is also considerable. 

The environs are most picturesque and are visited by many 
tourists in the summer. The park of Monrepos (Old Viborg), in 
a bay dotted with dome-shaped islands, is specially attractive. 
The scenery of the Saima Canal and of the Finnish lakes with 
the grand as of Pungaharju; the Imatra rapids, by which the 
Vuokscn discharges the water of Lake Saima into Lake Ladoga, 
with the castle of Kexholm at its mouth; Serdobol and Valamo 
monastery on Lake Ladoga — all visited from Viborg — attract 
many tourists from St Petersburg as well as from other parts of 

VIBURNUM, in medicine, the dried bark of the black haw 
or Viburnum prunijolium, grown in India and North America. 
The black haw contains viburnin and valerianic, tannic, gallic, 
citric and malic acids. The British Pharmacopoeial prepara- 
tion is the Exlraclum Vihurni Prunifolii liquidum; the United 
Slates preparation is the fluid extract prepared from the 
Viburnum opulus. The physiological action of viburnum is 
to lower the blood pressure. In overdose it depresses the motor 
functions of the spinal cord and so produces loss of reflex 
and paralysis. Therapeutically the drug is used as an anti- 
spasmodic in dysmenorrhoea and in menorrhagia. 

poet, was born at Belfort on the 25th of January 184S. He 
served in the campaign of 1870, and then settled in Paris to 
practise at the bar, which, however, he soon abandoned for 
literature. His work was twice " crowned " by the Academy, 
and in 1892 he received the cross of the Legion of Honour. Born 
in the Vosges, and a Parisian by adoption, Vicaire remained all 
his life an enthusiastic lover of the country to which his family 
belonged — La Bresse — spending much of his time at Amberieu. 
His freshest and best work is his Emaux bressans (1884), a volume 
of poems full of the gaiety and spirit of the old French chansons. 
Other volumes followed: Le Livre de la pairie, UHeure en- 
change (1S90), A la bonne franquette (1892), Au bois joli (1894) 
and Le Clos des fees (1897). Vicaire wrote in collaboration with 
Jules Truflier two short pieces for the stage, Fleurs d'avril (1890) 
and La Farce du mart refondu (1895); also the Miracle de Saint 
Nicolas (18S8). With his friend Henri Beauclair he produced a 
parody of the Decadents entitled Les Diliquescences and signed 
Adore Floupette. His fame rests on his Ltmaux bressans and on 
his Rabelaisian drinking songs; the religious and fairy poems. 



charming as they often are, carry simplicity to the verge of 
affectation. The poet died in Paris, after a long and painful 
illness, on the 23rd of September 1 900. 

See Henri Corbel, Un Poete, Gabriel Vicaire (1902). 

VICAR (Lat. vicarius, substitute), a title, more especially ecclesi- 
astical, describing various officials acting in some special way 
for a superior. Cicero uses the name vicarius to describe an 
under-slave kept by another as part of his private property. The 
vicarius was an important official in the reorganized empire of 
Diocletian. It remained as a title of secular officials in the 
middle ages, being applied to persons appointed by the Roman 
emperor to judge cases in distant parts of the empire, or to 
wield power in certain districts, or, in the absence of the emperor, 
over the whole empire. The prefects of the city at Rome were 
called Vicani Romae, In the early middle ages the term was 
applied to representatives of a count administering justice for 
him in the country or small towns and dealing with unimportant 
cases, levying taxes, &c. Monasteries and religious houses often 
employed a vicar to answer to their feudal lords for those of their 
lands which did not pass into mortmain. 

The title of i( vicar of Jesus Christ," borne by the popes, was 
introduced as their special designation during the 8th century, in 
place of the older style of " vicar of St Peter " (or vicafius prin- 
cipis apostolorum) . In the early Church other bishops commonly 
described -themselves as vicars of Christ (Du Cange gives an 
example as late as the 9th century from the capitularies of 
Charles the Bald); but there is no proof in their case, or indeed 
in that of " vicar of St Peter " given to the popes, that it was part 
of their formal style. The assumption of the style " vicar of 
Christ ;; by the popes coincided with a tendency on the part of 
the Roman chancery to insist on placing the pontiff's name 
before that of emperors and kings and to refuse to other bishops 
the right to address him as" brother " (MasLatrie, s." Sabinien," 
p. 1047). It was not till the 13th century that the alternative 
style " vicar of St Peter " was definitively forbidden, this pro- 
hibition thus coinciding with the extreme claims of the pope to 
rule the world as the immediate " vicar of God " (see Innocent 


All bishops were looked upon as in some sort vicars of the pope, 
but the title vicarius sedis apostolicae came especially to be ap- 
plied as an alternative to legalus sedis apostolicae to describe papal 
legates to whom in certain places the pope delegated a portion 
of his authority. Pope Benedict XIV. tells us in his treatise 
De synodo dioecesana that the pope often names vicars-apostolic 
for the government of a particular diocese because the episcopal 
see is vacant or, being filled, the titular bishop cannot fulfil 
his functions. The Roman Catholic Church in England was 
governed by vicars-apostolic from 1685 until 1850, when Pope 
Pius IX. re-established the hierarchy. Vicars-apostolic at the 
present day are nearly always titular bishops taking their titles 
from places not acknowledging allegiance to the Roman Catholic 
Church. The title is generally given by the pope to bishops sent 
on Eastern missions. 

A neighbouring bishop was sometimes appointed by the pope 
vicar of a church which happened to be without a pastor. A 
special vicar was appointed by the pope to superintend the 
spiritual affairs of Rome and its suburbs, to visit its churches, 
monasteries, &c, and to correct abuses. It became early a 
custom for the prebendaries and canons of a cathedral to employ 
" pfiest -vicars " or " vicars-choral " as their substitutes when it 
was their turn as hebdomedary to sing High Mass and conduct 
divine office. In the English Church these priest-vicars remain 
in the cathedrals of the old foundations as beneficed clergy on the 
foundation; in the cathedrals of the new foundation they are 
paid by the chapters. " Lay vicars " also were and are employed 
to sing those parts of the office which can be sung by laymen. 

In the early Church the assistant bishops (chorepiscopi) were 
sometimes described as vicarii episcoporum. The employment 
of such vicars was by no means general in the early Church, but 
towards the 13th century it became very general for a bishop to 
employ a vicar-general, often to curb the growing authority of 
the archdeacons. In the middle ages there was not a very clear 

distinction drawn between the vicar and the official of the bishop. 
When the voluntary and contentious jurisdiction came to be dis- 
tinguished, the "former fell generally to the vicars, the latter to 
the officials. In the style of the Roman chancery, official docu- 
ments are addressed to the bishops or their vicars for dioceses 
beyond the Alps, but for French dioceses to the bishops or their 
officials. The institution of vicars- general to help the bishops is 
now general in the Catholic Church, but it is not certain that a 
bishop is obliged to have such an official. He may have two. 
Such a vicar possesses an ordinary and not a delegated juris- 
diction, which he exercises like the bishop. He cannot, however, 
exercise functions which concern the episcopal order, or confer 
benefices without express and particular commission. In the 
Anglican Church a vicar-general is employed by the archbishop 
of Canterbury and some other bishops to assist in such matters 
as ecclesiastical visitations. In the Roman Catholic Church 
bishops sometimes appoint lesser vicars to exercise a more 
limited authority over a limited district. They are called 
" vicars-forane ' " or rural deans. They are entrusted especially 
with the surveillance of the parish priests and other priests of 
their districts, and with matters of ecclesiastical discipline. They 
are charged especially with the care of sick priests and in case of 
death with the celebration of their funerals and the charge of 
their vacant parishes. In canon law priests doing work in 
place of the parish priest are called vicars. Thus in France the 
cure or head priest in a parish church is assisted by several 

Formerly, and especially in England, many churches were 
appropriated to monasteries or colleges of canons, whose custom 
it was to appoint one of their own body to perform divine service 
in such churches, but in the 13th century such corporations were 
obliged to appoint permanent paid vicars who were called 
perpetual vicars. Hence in England the distinction between 
rectors, who draw both the greater and lesser tithes, and vicars, 
who are attached to parishes of which the great tithes, formerly 
held by monasteries, are now drawn by lay rectors. (See Appro- 

See Du Cange, Glossarium mediae el injiniae Laiinitatis, ed, L. 
Favre (Niort, 1883, &c); Migne, Encyclopedic tkeologique, series i. 
vol. 10 (Droit Canon) ; Comte de Mas Latrie, Tresor de chronologic 
(Paris, 1889); and Sir R. J. PhilHmore, Ecclesiastical Law of the 
Church of England (2nd ed. 1895). (E. O'N.) 

VICE. (1) (Through Fr. from Lat. vitium), a fault, blemish, 
more specifically a moral fault, hence depravity, sin, or a par- 
ticular form of depravity. In the medieval morality plays a 
special character who acted as an attendant on the devil was 
styled " the Vice," but sometimes took the name of specific 
vices such as Envy, Fraud, Iniquity and the like. He was 
usually dressed in the garb that is identified with that of the 
domestic fool or jester, and was armed with a wooden sword or 
dagger. (2) (M.E. vyce, vise or vyse; Fr. vis; Lat. vitis, a 
vine, or bryony, i.e. something that twists or winds), a portable 
or fixed tool or appliance which holds or grips an object while 
it is being worked; a special form of clamp. The tool consists 
essentially of movable jaws, either jointed by a hinge or moving 
on slides, and the closing motion is applied by a screw, whence 
the name, as of something which turns or winds, or by a lever, 
ratchet, &c. (see Tools). (3) (Lat. vice, in place of, abl. sing, 
of a noun not found in the nom.), a word chiefly used as a prefix 
in combination with names of office-holders, indicating a position 
subordinate or alternative to the chief office-holder, especially 
one who takes second rank or acts in default of his superior, 
e.g. vice-chairman, vice-admiral, &c. 

VICE-CHANCELLOR, the deputy of a chancellor (q.v.). In 
the English legal system vice-chancellors in equity were 
formerly important officials. The first vice-chancellor was 
appointed in 1813 in order to lighten the work of the lord 
chancellor and the master of the rolls, who were at that time 
the sole judges in equity. Two additional vice-chancellors were 
appointed in 1841. The vice-chancellors sat separately from 
the lord chancellor and the lords justices, to whom there was 
an appeal from their decisions. By the Judicature Act 1873 



they became judges of the High Court of Justice, retaining their 
titles, but it was enacted that on the death or retirement of any 
one his successor was to be styled "judge." Vice-chancellor 
Sir J. Bacon (i 708-1895) was the last to hold the office, resigning 
in 1886. 

Vice-chancellor is also the title given to the judge of the duchy 
court of Lancaster. For the vice-chancellor of a university, 
see Chancellor. 

VICENTE, GIL (1470-1540), the father of the Portuguese 
drama, was born at Guimaraes, but came to Lisbon in boyhood 
and studied jurisprudence at the university without taking a 
degree. In 1493 we find him acting as master of rhetoric to the 
duke of Beja, afterwards King Manoel, a post which gave him 
admission to the court; and the Cancioneiro Geral contains some 
early lyrics of his which show that he took part in the famous 
seroes do paco. The birth of King John III. furnished the 
occasion for his first dramatic essay — The Neatherd's Monologue, 
which he recited on the night of the 7th-8th June 1502 in the 
queen's chamber in the presence of King Manoel and his court. 
It was written in Spanish out of compliment to the queen, a 
daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, and because that language 
was then the fashionable medium with the higher classes. This 
manger-hymn, which was a novelty in Portugal, so pleased the 
king's mother, the infanta D. Beatriz, that she desired Gil 
Vicente to repeat it the following Christmas, but he composed 
instead the Castilian Pastoral Auto, a more developed piece in 
which he introduced six characters. The infanta, pleased 
again, required a further diversion for Twelfth Day, whereupon 
he produced the Auto of the Wise Kings. He had now estab- 
lished his reputation as a playwright, and for the nest thirty 
years he entertained the courts of Kings Manoel and John III., 
accompanying them as they moved frcm place to place, and 
providing by his autos a distraction in times of calamity, and 
in times of rejoicing giving expression to the feelings of the 
people. Though himself both actor and author, Gil Vicente 
had no regular company of players, but it is probable that he 
easily found students and court servants willing to get up a 
part for a small fee, especially as the plays would not ordinarily 
run for more than one night. The Auto of the Sybil Cassandra 
(produced at the monastery of Euxobregas at Christmas 1503), 
the Auto of St Martin (played in the church at Caldas on the 
feast of Corpus Christi 1504), and a mystery play, the Auto of 
the Four Seasons, all belong, like their predecessors, to the 
religious drama, but in 1505 Gil Vicente wrote a comedy of real 
life, Who has Bran to sell? a title given it by the public. It is a 
clever farce depicting an amorous poor squire and his ill-paid 
servants, and opens a rich portrait-gallery in which the dramatist 
includes every type of Portuguese society, depicting the fail- 
ings of each with the freedom of a Rabelais. The next three 
years saw no new play, but in 1506 Gil Vicente delivered before 
the court at Almeirim a sermon in verse on the theme Non vela, 
volo, et deficior, in which he protested against the intolerance 
shown to the Jews, just as in 1531 he interfered to prevent a 
massacre of the " New Christians " at Santarem. The Auto 
of the Soul, a Catholic prototype of Goethe's Faust, containing 
some beautiful lyrics, appeared in 1508, and in 1509 the Auto 
da India, a farce which has the eastern enterprise of his country- 
men for background, while the Auto da Fama (1516) and the 
Exhortation to War (1513) are inspired by the achievements 
that made Portugal a world-power. If the farce of The Old Man 
of the Garden (1514) breathes the influence and spirit of the 
Celestina, the popular trilogy of the Boats of Hell, Purgatory 
and Glory (1517, 1518, 1519) is at once a dance of death, full 
of splendid pageantry and caustic irony, and a kind of Portuguese 
Divina Commedia. The Auto of the Fairies (1516), the Farce 
of the Doctors (1519) and the Comedy of Rubena (1521) ridicule 
unchaste clerics and ignorant physicians with considerable 
freedom and a medieval coarseness of wit, and the Farce of the 
Gipsies is interesting as the first piece of the European theatre 
dealing professedly with that race. Ignes Pereira, usually held 
to be Gil Vicente's masterpiece, was produced in 1523 before 
King John III. at the convent of Christ at Thomar, and owed 

its origin to certain men of bom saber, perhaps envious partisans 
of the classical school. They pretended to doubt his author- 
ship of the autos, and accordingly gave him as a theme for a 
fresh piece the proverb: " I prefer an ass that carries .me to a 
horse that throws me." Gil Vicente accepted the challenge, 
and furnished a triumphant reply to his detractors in this 
comedy of ready wit and lively dialogue. The Beira Judge 
(1526), the Forge of Love (1525) and The Beira Priest (1526) 
satirize the maladministration of justice by ignorant magistrates 
and the lax morals of the regular clergy, and the Farce of the 
Muleteers (1526) dramatizes the type of poor nobleman described 
in Cleynart's Letters. The Comedy of the Arms of the City of 
Coimbra (1527) has a considerable antiquarian interest, and the 
facetious Ship of Love is full of quaint imagery, while the lengthy 
Auto of the Fair (1527), with its twenty-two characters, may 
be described as at once an indictment of the society of the time 
from the standpoint of a practical Christian and a telling appeal 
for the reform of the church. In an oft-quoted passage, Rome 
personified comes to the booth of Mercury and Time, and offers 
her indulgences, saying, " Sell me the peace of heaven, since I 
have power here below "j but Mercury refuses, declaring that 
Rome absolves the whole world and never thinks of her own 
sins. The play concludes with a dance and hymn to the Blessed 
Virgin. The Triumph of Winter (1529) exposes the unskilful 
pilots and ignorant seamen who cause the loss of ships and lives 
on the route to India, and the Auto da Lusilania (1532) portrays 
the household of a poor Jewish tailor, ending with a curious 
dialogue between " All the World " and " Nobody." The 
Pilgrimage of the Aggrieved (1533) is an attack on discontent and 
ambition, lay and clerical. After representing the Auto da 
festa for the Conde de Vimioso (1535), and dramatizing the 
romances of chivalry in D. Duardos and Amadts de Gaula, Gil 
Vicente ended his dramatic career in 1536 with a mirthful 
comedy, The Garden of Deceptions. He spent the evening of 
life in preparing his works for the press at the instance of King 
John III., and died in 1540, his wife Branca Bezerra having 
predeceased him. Four children were born of their union, and 
among them Paula Vicente attained distinction as a member 
of the group of cultured women who formed a sort of female 
academy presided over by the infanta D. Maria. 

The forty-four pieces comprising the theatre of Gil Vicente fall 
from the point of view of language into three groups: (1) those in 
Portuguese only, numbering fourteen; (2) those in Spanish only, 
numbering eleven; and (3) the bilingual, bein£ the remainder, 
nineteen in all. They are also from their nature divisible as follows : 
a. Works of a religious character or of devotion. Most of these 
are a development of the mystery or miracle play of the middle 
ages; and they may be subdivided into (1) Biblical pieces; (2) pieces 
founded on incidents in the life of a saint; and .(3) religious allegories. 
In this department Gil Vicente reaches his highest poetical flights, 
and the Auto of the Soul is a triumph of elevation of idea and feeling 
allied to beauty of expression, b. Aristocratic works, or tragi- 
comedies, the composition of which was the result of his contact 
with the court; these, though often more spectacular than strictly 
dramatic, are remarkable for opulence of invention and sweetness 
of versification, c. The popular theatre, or comedies and farces. 
Gil Vicente's plays contain some evidence of his knowledge and 
appreciation of French poetry; e.g. The Beira Judge wears a general 
likeness to the products of the Geres de la Basoche, and his Testa- 
ment of Maria Parda is reminiscent of the better-known work of 
Francois Villon. Most of the plays are written in the national 
redondilka verse, and are preceded by initial rubrics stating the 
date when, the place where, in whose presence, and on what occasion 
each was first performed, and these make up the annals of the first 
thirty-four years of the Portuguese drama. Most of them were put 
on the stage at the different royal palaces; some, however, were 
played in hospitals, and, it is said, even in churches, though this is 
doubtful; those of which the subjects are liturgical at the great 
festivals of Christmas, Epiphany and Maundy Thursday, others on 
the happening of some event of importance to the royal family or 
the nation. Many of the plays contain songs, either written and 
set to music by the author, or collected by him from popular sources, 
while at the close the characters leave the stage singing and dancing, 
as was the custom in the medieval comedies. 

Though so large a proportion of his pieces are" in Spanish, they 
are all eminently national in idea, texture and subject. No other 
Portuguese writer reflects so faithfully the language, types, customs 
and colour of his age as Gil Vicente, and the rudest of his dramas 
are full of genuine comic feeling. If they never attain to perfect 



art, they possess the supreme gift of life. None of them are, strictly 
speaking, historical, and he never attempted to write a tragedy. 
Himself a man of the people, he would not imitate the products of 
the classical theatre as did Sa de Miranda and Ferreira, but though 
he remained faithful to the Old or Spanish school in form, yet he 
had imbibed the critical spirit and mental ferment of the Renaissance 
without its culture or erudition. Endowed by nature with acute 
observation and considerable powers of analysis, Gil Vicente possessed 
a felicity of phrase and an unmatched knowledge of popular super- 
stitions, language and lore. Above all, he was a moralist, with satire 
and ridicule as his main weapons ; but if his invective is often stinging 
it is rarely bitter, while more than one incident in his career shows 
that he possessed a kindly heart as well as an impartial judgment, 
and a well-balanced outlook on life. If he owed his early inspiration 
to Juan de Encina, he repaid the debt by showing a better way 
to the dramatists of the neighbouring country, so that he may 
truly be called the father of the rich Spanish drama, of Lope de 
Vega and Calderon. Much of his fame abroad is due to his position 
as an innovator, and, as Dr Garnett truly remarked, " One little 
corner of Europe alone possessed in the early 16th century a drama 
at once living, indigenous and admirable as literature." 

Gil Vicente perhaps lacks psychological depth, but he possesses 
a breadth of mental vision and a critical acumen unknown in any- 
medieval dramatist. In his attitude to religion he acts as the 
spokesman of the better men of his age and country. A convinced 
but liberal-minded Catholic, he has no sympathy with attacks on 
the unity of the Church, but he cries out for a reform of morals, 
pillories the corruption and ignorance of the clergy and laity, and 
pens the most bitter things of the popes and their court. He 
strove to take a middle course at a time when moderation was still 
possible, though, had he lived a few years longer, in the reign of 
religious fanaticism inaugurated by the Inquisition, his bold stand 
for religious toleration would have meant his imprisonment or exile, 
if not. a worse fate. He is a great dramatist in embryo, who, if 
he had been born fifty years later and preserved his liberty of thought 
and expression, might with added culture have surpassed Calderon 
and taken his place as the Latin and Catholic rival of Shakespeare. 

Some of the plays were printed in Gil Vicente's lifetime, but the 
first collected edition, which included his lyrics, was published after 
his death by his son Luiz (Lisbon, 1562), with a dedication to King 
Sebastian. A second edition appeared in 1586, with various omissions 
and alterations made at the instance of the Inquisition. A critical 
edition of the text in 3 vols, came out at Hamburg (1834), with a 
glossary and introductory essay on Vicente's life and writings, and 
a poor reprint of this edition is dated Lisbon 1852. He has never 
found a translator, doubtless because of the difficulty of rendering 
his form and explaining his wealth of topical allusions. 

Authorities. — Dr Theophilo Braga, Gil Vicente e as origens do 
tkeatro national (Oporto, 1898); J. I. de Brito Rebello, Gil Vicente 
(Lisbon, 1902); "The Portuguese Drama in the 16th Century — 
Gil Vicente," in the Manchester Quarterly (July and October 1897); 
introduction by the Conde de Sabugosa to his edition of the Auto 
defesta (Lisbon, 1906). (E. Pr.) ■ 

VICENZA, a town and episcopal see of Venetia, Italy, capital 
of the province of Vicenza, 42 m. W. of Venice by rail, 131 ft. 
above sea-level. Pop. (10,01) 32,200 (town); 47,558 (com- 
mune). It lies at the northern base of the Monti Berici, on 
both sides of the Bacchiglione, at its confluence with the Retrone. 
It was surrounded by 13th-century walls, once about 3 m. in 
circumference, but these are now in great part demolished. 
Though many of the streets are narrow and irregular, the town 
has a number of fine buildings, many of them the work of Andrea 
Palladio. The best of these is the town hall, otherwise known 
as the basilica, one of the finest works of the Renaissance period, 
of which Palladic himself said that it might stand comparison 
with any similar work of antiquity. It is especially noteworthy 
owing to the difficulty of the task the architect had to accom- 
plish — that of transforming the exterior of the Palazzo della 
Ragione, a Gothic building of the latter half of the 15th century, 
which the colonnades of the basilica entirely enclose. It was 
begun in 1549, but not finished till 1614, long after his death. 
He also designed many of the fine palaces which give Vicenza 
its individuality; only two of them, the Barbarano and Chieri- 
cati palaces (the latter containing the picture gallery), have two 
orders of architecture, the rest having a heavy rustica basis 
with only one order above it. Many palaces, however, have 
been wrongly attributed to him which are really the work of 
Scamozzi and others of his successors. The famous Teatro 
Olrmpico was begun by him, but only finished after his death; 
it is a remarkable attempt to construct a theatre in the ancient 
style, and the stage, with the representation of streets ascending 
at the back, is curious. The cathedral, which is Italian Gothic, 

dating mainly from the 13th century, consists of a nave with 
eight chapels on each side, and a very high Renaissance domed 
choir; it contains examples of the Montagnas and of Lorenzo 
da Venezia. The churches of S. Lorenzo (1 280-1344) and 
S. Corona (1260-1300), both of brick, are better examples of, 
Gothic than the cathedral; both contain interesting works of 
art—the latter a very fine " Baptism of Christ," by Giovanni 
Bellini. In S. Stefano is an imposing altar-piece by Palma 
Vecchio. The church of SS. Felice e Fortunato was restored 
in a.d. 975, but has been much altered, and was transformed 
in 1613. . The portal is of 1154, and the Lombardesque square 
brick tower of 1160. Under it a mosaic pavement with the 
names of the donors, belonging to the original church of the 
Lombard period (?), was discovered in 1895 (see F. Berchet, 
777. Relazione delV Ujjicio Regionale per la conservazione dei 
monumenti del Venelo, Venice, 1895, p. in). None of the 
churches of Vicenza is the work of Palladio. Of the Palladian 
villas in the neighbourhood, La Rotonda, or Villa Palladiana, 
i£ m. S.E., deserves special mention. It is a square building 
with Ionic colonnades and a central dome, like an ancient 
temple, but curiously unlike a Roman villa. Vicenza also 
contains some interesting remains of the Gothic period besides 
the churches mentioned — the lofty tower of the town hall 
(1174-1311-1446; the Piazza contains two columns of the 
Venetian period, with S. Theodore and the Lion of S. Mark 
on them) and several palaces in the Venetian style. Among 
these may be especially noted the small Casa Pigafetta dating 
from 1481, but still half Gothic, prettily decorated. Some of 
these earlier houses had painted facades. The fine picture 
of " Christ bearing the Cross " (wrongly ascribed to Giorgione), 
according to Burckhardt once in the Palazzo Loschi, is now 
in the Gardner collection at Boston, U.S.A. The most im- 
portant manufacture is that of silk, which employs a large 
proportion of the inhabitants. Great numbers of mulberry 
trees are grown in the neighbourhood. Woollen and linen 
cloth, leather, earthenware, paper, and articles in gold and 
silver are also made in Vicenza, and a considerable trade in 
these articles, as well as in corn and wine, is carried on. 

Vicenza is the ancient Vicelia, an ancient town of Venetia. 
It was of less importance than its neighbours Venetia and 
Patavium, and we hear little of it in history. It no doubt 
acquired Roman citizenship in 49 B.C., and became a muni- 
cipiiw; and is mentioned two years later apropos of a dispute 
between the citizens and their slaves. Remains of a theatre 
and of a late mosaic pavement with hunting scenes have been 
found, three of the bridges across the Bacchiglione and Retrone 
are of Roman origin, and arches of the aqueduct exist outside 
Porta S. Croce. A road diverged here to Opitergium (mod. 
Oderzo) from the main road between Verona and Patavium 
(Padua) : see T, Mommsen in Corp. Inscr. Latin, v. (Berlin, 1883), 
p. 304. It suffered severely in the invasion of whom 
it was laid waste, and in subsequent incursiens. It was for 
some time during the middle ages an independent republic, 
but was subdued by the Venetians in 1405. Towards the end 
of the 15th century it became the seat of a school of painting 
strongly influenced by Mantegna, of which the principal repre- 
sentatives were, besides Bartolomeo Montagna, its founder, 
his son Benedetto Montagna, Giovanni Speranza and Gio- 
vanni Buonconsiglio. Good altar-pieces by the former exist 
in S. Bartolommeo, S. Corona, and the cathedral, and several 
pictures also in the picture gallery; while his son Benedetto 
had greater merits as an engraver than a painter. Some works 
by both of the last two exist at Vicenza — the best is a Pieta 
in tempera in the gallery by Buonconsiglio, by whom is also a 
good Madonna at S. Rocco. Andrea Palladio (1518-1580) was 
a native of Vicenza, as was also a contemporary, Vincenzo 
Scamozzi (1552-1616), who was largely dependent on him, 
but is better known for his work on architecture {ArchitsUura 
universale, i6r5). Palladio inaugurated a school of followers 
who continued to erect similar buildings in Vicenza even down 
to the French Revolution. (T. As.) 

. See G. Pettina, Vicenza (Bergamo, 1905). 



VICEROY (from O. Fr. viceroy, mod. viceroi, i.e. Lat. vice, in 
place of, and roy or roi, king) , the governor of a kingdom or colony 
to whom is delegated by his sovereign the power to exercise 
regal authority in his name. The lord-lieutenant of Ireland 
and the governor-general of India are frequently referred to as 
viceroys, but the title has no official recognition in British 

VICH, a city of north-eastern Spain, in the province of 
Barcelona, on the river Gurri, a small right-hand tributary 
of the Ter, and on the Granollers-Ripoll railway. Pop. (1900) 
11,628. Vich is an ancient episcopal city, with narrow, ill- 
paved streets and many curious old houses irregularly built on 
the slope of a hill, which rises above one of the side valleys of 
the Ter basin. The cathedral, founded about 1040 and built 
chiefly in the 14th century, was to some extent modernized in 
1803. Its Gothic cloisters (1340) are remarkable for the beauti- 
ful tracery in their windows, and there is a fine altar of sculp- 
tured marble. Some valuable manuscripts are preserved in 
the library of the chapter- ho use, and the museum contains 
an interesting archaeological collection, besides statuary, pic- 
tures, &c. The city is locally celebrated for the manufacture 
of sausages; other industries include tanning and the weaving 
of linen and woollen fabrics. 

Vich, the Ausa of the ancient geographers, was the chief 
town of the Ausetani; in the middle ages it was called Ausona 
and Vicus Ausonensis, hence Vic de Osona, and simply Vich. 

VICHY, a town of central France in the department of Allier, 
on the right bank of the Allier, $$ m. S. by E. of Moulins by 
rail. Pop. (1906) 14,520. Vichy owes its importance to its 
mineral waters, which were well known in the time of the 
Romans. They afterwards lost their celebrity and did not regain 
it till the 17th century, in the latter half of which they were 
visited and written of by Madame de Sevigne. Within the 
town or in its immediate vicinity there are between thirty and 
forty springs, twelve of which are state property, four of these 
having been tapped by boring. The waters of those which are 
outside the town are brought in by means of aqueducts. The 
most celebrated and frequented are the Grande Grille, L'H6pital, 
the Celestins, and Lardy. The most copious of all, the Puits 
Carre, is reserved for the baths. All these, whether cold or hot 
{maximum temperature, 113 F.), are largely charged with 
bicarbonate of soda; some also are chalybeate and tonic. The 
waters, which are limpid, have an alkaline taste and emit a 
slight odour of sulphuretted hydrogen. They are recom- 
mended in cases of stomachic and liver complaint, also for 
diabetes, gravel and gout. Large quantities are bottled and 
exported. A luxurious bathing establishment, the property 
of the state, was opened in 1903. In addition to this, Vichy 
has the hydropathic establishments of Lardy, Larbaud and 
L'Hopital, and a large military hospital, founded in 1843. A 
fine casino and two public parks add to its attraction. The 
promenade commands a splendid view of the mountains of 
Auvergne. Cusset, about 1 m. distant, has similar mineral 
waters and a bathing establishment. 

VICKSBURG, a city and the county-seat of Warren county, 
Mississippi, U.S.A., on the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers, 1 44 m. 
by rail W. of Jackson, and 236 m. N. by W. of New Orleans. 
Pop. (1890} 13,373; ( I 9°°) I 4>834, of whom 8147 were 
negroes; (1910 census) 20,814, being the second largest city 
In Mississippi. It is served by the Alabama & Vicksburg, 
the Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific, and the Yazoo & 
Mississippi Valley railways, and by steamboat lines. It is built 
among the Walnut Hills, which rise about 260 ft. above the 
river. Among the principal buildings and institutions are 
the court-house, standing on one of the highest hills, a fine 
Federal building, the city hall, a state charity hospital, an 

1 The channel of the Mississippi has changed greatly: until 1876 
the entire city was on the Mississippi, which made a bend forming 
a tongue of land opposite the city; in 1876 the river cut across 
this tongue and formed an island, making the northern part of the 
city front on the shallow " Lake Centennial." The Federal govern- 
ment, by turning the Yazoo through a canal across the upper end 
of the old channel, gave the city a river front once more. 

infirmary, a sanatorium, a public library, the medical college 
of the university of Mississippi, All Saints' Episcopal College 
(Protestant Episcopal, 1909) for girls, Saint Francis Xavier's 
Academy, and Saint Aloysius College (Roman Catholic). The 
Civil War battle-ground has been converted into a beautiful 
National Military Park, embracing 1283 acres and containing 
numerous markers, memorials and monuments, including one 
(1910) to Lieut. -General Stephen Dill Lee, who was super- 
intendent of the Military Park from 1899 until his death in 1908. 
On the bluffs just beyond the northern limits of the city and ad- 
joining the Military Park is the Vicksburg National Cemetery, in 
which are the graves of 16,892 Federal soldiers (12,769 unknown). 
The principal industry of Vicksburg is the construction and 
repair of rolling stock for steam railways. It has also a dry 
dock and cotton compresses; and among its manufactures are 
cottonseed oil and cake, hardwood lumber, furniture, boxes 
and baskets. In 1905 the factory products were valued at 
$1,887,924. The city has a large trade in long-staple cotton 
grown in the surrounding country. It is a port of entry but 
has practically no foreign trade. 

The French built Fort St Peter near the site of Vicksburg 
early in the 18th century, and on the 2nd of January 1730 its 
garrison was murdered by the Yazoo Indians. As early as 
1783 the Spanish erected Fort Nogales, and in 1798 this was 
taken by some United States troops and renamed Fort McHenry. 
The first permanent settlement in the vicinity was made about 
1811 by Rev. Newell (or Newit) Vick (d. 1819), a Methodist 
preacher. In accordance with his will a town was laid out in 
1824; and Vicksburg was incorporated as a town in 1825, 
and was chartered as a city in 1836. The campaigns of which 
it was the centre in 1862 and 1863 are described below. Vicks- 
burg was the home of Seargent Smith Prentiss from 1832 to 

See H. F. Simrall, " Vicksburg: the City on the Walnut Hills," 
in L. P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Southern States (New York, 

Campaign of 1862-63. — Vicksburg is historically famous as 
being the centre of interest of one of the most important cam- 
paigns of the Civil War. The command of the Mississippi, 
which would imply the severance of the Confederacy into two 
halves, and also the reopening of free commercial navigation 
from St Louis to the sea, was one of the principal objects of 
the Western Union armies from the time that they began 
their southward advance from Illinois, Missouri and Kentucky 
in February 1S62. A series of victories in the spring and 
summer carried them as far as the line Memphis-Corinth, 
but in the autumn they came to a standstill and were called 
upon to repulse the counter-advance of the Southern armies. 
These armies were accompanied by a flotilla of thinly armoured 
but powerful gunboats which had been built on the upper 
Mississippi in the autumn of 1861, and had co-operated with 
the army at Fort Donelson, Shiloh and Island No. 10, besides 
winning a victory on the water at Memphis. 

At the same time a squadron of sea-going vessels under 
Flag-officer Farragut had forced the defences of New Orleans 
(q.v.) and, accompanied by a very small military force, had 
steamed up the great river. On reaching Vicksburg the heavy 
vessels again forced their way past the batteries, but both at 
Vicksburg and at Port Hudson they had to deal, no longer 
with low-sited fortifications, but with inconspicuous earth- 
works on bluffs far above the river-level, and they failed to 
make any impression. Farragut then returned to New Orleans. 
From Helena to Port Hudson the Confederates maintained 
complete control of the Mississippi, the improvised fortresses 
of Vicksburg, Port Hudson and Arkansas Post (near the mouth 
of Arkansas river) being the framework of the defence. It 
was to be the task of Grant's army around Corinth and the 
flotilla at Memphis to break up this system of defences, and, 
by joining hands with Farragut and clearing the whole course 
of the Mississippi, to cut the Confederacy in half. 

The long and painful operations by which this was achieved 
group themselves into four episodes: (a) the Grenada expedition 



of Grant's force, (b) the river column under McClemand and 
Sherman, (c) the operations in the bayoux, and {d) the final 
" overland " campaign from Grand Gulf. The country in 
which these operations took place divides itself sharply into 
two zones, the upland east of the river, upon which it looks 
down from high bluffs, and the levels west of it, which are a 
maze of bayoux, backwaters and side channels, the intervening 
land being kept dry near the river itself by artificial banks 
(levees) but elsewhere swampy. At Vicksburg, it is important 
to observe, the bluffs trend away from the Mississippi to follow 
the course of the Yazoo, rejoining the great river at Memphis. 
Thus there are two obvious lines of advance for the Northern 
army, on the upland (Memphis and Grand Junction on Grenada- 
Jackson), and downstream through the bayou country 
(Memphis-Helena-Vicksburg) . The main army of the defenders, 
who were commanded by Lieut.-General J. C. Pemberton, between 
Vicksburg and Jackson and Grenada, could front either north 
against an advance by Grenada or west along the bluffs above 
and below Vicksburg. 



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The first advance was made at the end of November 1862 
by two columns from Grand Junction and Memphis on Grenada. 
The Confederates in the field, greatly outnumbered, fell back 
without fighting. But Grant's line of supply was one long 
single-line, ill-equipped railway through Grand Junction to 
Columbus, and the opposing cavalry under Van Dorn swept 
round his flank and, by destroying one of his principal magazines 
(at Holly Springs), without further effort compelled the abandon- 
ment of the advance. Meantime one of Grant's subordinates, 
McClemand, was intriguing to be appointed to command an 
expedition by the river-line, and Grant meeting half-way an 
evil which he felt himself unable to prevent, had sent Sherman 
with the flotilla and some 30,000 men to attack Vicksburg 
from the water-side, while he himself should deal with the 
Confederate field army on the high ground. But the scheme 
broke down completely when Van Dorn cut Grant's line of 
supply, and the Confederate army was free to turn on Sherman. 
The latter, ignorant of Grant's retreat, attacked the Yazoo 
bluffs above Vicksburg (battle of Chickasaw Bayou) on Decem- 
ber 29th; but a large portion of Pemberton's field army had 
arrived to help the Vicksburg garrison, and the Federals were 

easily repulsed with a loss of 2000 men. McClernand now 
appeared and took the command out of Sherman's hands, 
informing him at the same time of Grant's retreat. Sherman 
thereupon proposed, before attempting fresh operations against 
Vicksburg, to clear the country behind them by destroying 
the Confederate garrison at Arkansas Post. This expedition 
was completely successful: at a cost of about 1000 men the 
fort and its 5000 defenders were captured on theiith : o£ 
January 1863. McClernand, elated at his ■ victory, would 
have continued to ascend the Arkansas, but such an eccentric 
operation would have been profitless if not dangerous, and 
Grant, authorized , by the general-in-chief, Halleck, per- 
emptorily ordered McClernand back to the Mississippi. 

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Retreating from the upland, Grant sailed down the river 
and joined McClernand and Sherman at Milliken's Bend at 
the beginning of February, and, superseding the resentful 
McClernand, assumed command of the three corps (XIII., 
McClernand; XV. ; Sherman; XVII., McPherson) available. He 
had already imagined the daring solution of his most difficult 
problem which he afterwards put into . execution, but for the 
present he tried a series of less risky expedients to reach the 
high ground beyond Pemberton's flanks, without indeed much 
confidence in their success, yet desirous in these unhealthy 
flats of keeping up the spirits of his army by active work, and 
of avoiding, at a crisis in the fortunes of the war, any appearance 
of discouragement. Three such attempts were made in all, 
with the co-operation of the flotilla under Captain David D. 
Porter. First, Grant endeavoured to cut a canal across the 
bend of the Mississippi at Vicksburg, hoping thus to isolate 
the fortress, to gain a water connection with the lower river, 
and to land an army on the bluffs beyond Pemberton's left 
flank. This was unsuccessful. Next he tried to make a 
practicable channel from the Mississippi to the upper Yazoo, 
and so to turn Pemberton's right, but the Confederates, warned 
in time, constructed a fort at the point where Grant's advance 
emerged from the bayoux. Lastly, an advance through a 
maze of creeks (Steele's Bayou expedition), towards the middie 
Yazoo and Haines's Bluff, encountered the enemy, not on the 
bluffs, but in the low-lying woods and islands, and these so 
harassed and delayed the progress of the expedition that: 
Grant recalled it. Shortly afterwards Grant determined on 
the manoeuvre in rear of Vicksburg which established his repu- 
tation. The troops marched overland from Milliken's Bend 
to New Carthage, and on the 16th of April Porter's gunboat 
flotilla and the transports ran past the Vicksburg batteries. 
All this, which involved careful arrangement and hard work, 
was done by the 24th of April. General Banks, with a Union 
army from New Orleans, was now advancing up the river to 
invest Port Hudson, and by way of diverting attention from 
the Mississippi, a cavalry brigade under Benjamin Grierson 
rode from La Grange to Baton Rouge (600 m. in 16 days), 
destroying railways and magazines and cutting the telegraph 



wires en route. Sherman's XV. corps, too, made vigorous 
demonstrations at Haines's Bluff, and in the confusion and 
uncertainty Pemberton was at a loss. 

On the. 30th of April McClemand and the XIII. corps crossed 
the Mississippi 6 m. below Grand Gulf, followed by McPherson. 
The nearest Confederate brigades, attempting to oppose the 
advance at Port Gibson, were driven back. Grant had now 
deliberately placed himself in the middle of the enemy, and 
although his engineers had opened up a water-line for the 
barges carrying his supplies from Milliken's Bend to New 
Carthage, his long line of supply curving round the enemy's 
flank was very exposed. But his resolute purpose outweighed 
all text-book strategy. Having crossed the Mississippi, he 
collected wheeled transport for five days' rations, and on 
Sherman's arrival cut loose from his base altogether (May 7th). 
Free to move, he aimed north from the Big Black river, so as 
to interpose between the Confederate forces at Vicksburg and 
those at Jackson. A fight took place at Raymond on the 12th 
of May, and Jackson was captured just in time to forestall the 
arrival of reinforcements for Pemberton under General Joseph 
E Johnston. The latter, being in supreme command of the 
Confederates, ordered Pemberton to come out of Vicksburg 
and attack Grant. But Pemberton did not do so until it was 
too late. On May i6th< Grant, with all his forces well in hand, 
defeated him in the battle of Champion Hill with a loss of 
nearly 4000 men, and sharply pursuing him drove him into 
Vicksburg. By the 19th of May Vicksburg and Pemberton's 
army in it was invested by land and water. Grant promptly 
assaulted his works, but was repulsed with loss (May 19th); 
the assault was repeated on the 22nd of May with the same 
result, and Grant found himself compelled to resort to a blockade. 
Reinforcements were hurried up from all quarters, Johnston's 
force (east of Jackson), was held off by a covering corps under 
Blair (afterwards under Sherman), and though another un- 
successful assault was made on the 25th of June, resistance was 
almost at an end. On the 4th of July, the day after, far away in 
Pennsylvania, the great battle of Gettysburg had closed with Lee's 
defeat, the garrison of Vicksburg, 37,000 strong, surrendered. 

VICO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1668-1744), Italian jurist and 
philosopher, was born at Naples on the 23rd of June 1668. 
At the university he made rapid progress, especially in juris- 
prudence, though preferring the study of history, literature, 
juridical science and philosophy. Being appointed tutor to 
the nephews of the bishop of Ischia, G. B. Rocca, he accom- 
panied them to the castle of Vatolla, near Cilento, in the province 
of Salerno. There he passed nine studious years, chiefly de- 
voted to classical reading, Plato and Tacitus being his favourite 
authors, because " the former described the ideal man, and the 
latter man as he really is." On his return to Naples he found 
himself out of touch with the prevailing Cartesianism, and lived 
quietly until in 1697 he gained the professorship of rhetoric at 
the university, with a scanty stipend of 100 scudi On this 
he supported a growing family and gave himself to untiring 
study. Two authors exercised a weighty influence on his 
mind — Francis Bacon and Grotius. He was no follower of 
their ideas; indeed often opposed to them; but he derived 
from Bacon an increasing stimulus towards the investigation 
of certain great problems of history and philosophy, while 
Grotius proved valuable in his study of philosophic jurispru- 
dence. In 170S he published his De ratione sludiorum, in 1710 
De antiquissima Italorum sapientia, in 1720 De universi juris 
uno principle et fine uno, and in 1721 De constantia jurispru- 
dentis. On the strength of these works he offered himself aa 
a candidate for the university chair of jurisprudence, but 
as he had no personal or family influence was not elected. 
With calm courage he returned to his poverty and his favourite 
studies, and in 1725 published the first edition of the work 
that forms the basis of his renown, Principii d } una scienza 
nuova. In 1730 he produced a second edition of the Scienza 
nuova, so much altered in style and with so many substantial 
additions that it was practically a new work. In 1735 Charles 
III. of Naples marked his recognition of Vico's merits by 

appointing him historiographer-royal, with a yearly stipend of 
100 ducats. Soon after his mind began to give way, but during 
frequent intervals of lucidity he made new corrections in his 
great work, of which a third edition appeard in 1744, prefaced 
by a letter of dedication to Cardinal Trojano Acquaviva. He 
died on the 20th of January of the same year. Fate seemed 
bent on persecuting him to the last. A fierce quarrel arose 
over his burial between the brotherhood of St Stephen, to 
which he had belonged, and the university professors, who 
desired to escort his corpse to the grave. Finally the canons 
of the cathedral, together with the professors, buried the body 
in the church of the Gerolimini. 

Vico has been generally described as a solitary soul, out of harmony 
with the spirit of his time and often directly opposed to it. Yet a 
closer inquiry into the social conditions of Vico's time, and of the 
studies then flourishing, shows him to have been thoroughly in 
touch with them. 

Owing to the historical past of Naples, and its social and economic 
condition at the end of the 17th century, the only study that really 
flourished there was that of law; and this soon penetrated from 
the courts to the university, and was raised to the level of a science. 
A great school of jurisprudence was thus formed, including many 
men of vast learning and great ability, although little known outside 
their immediate surroundings. Three men, however, obtained a 
wider recognition. By his exposition of the political history of the 
kingdom, based on a study of its laws and institutions and of the 
legal conflicts between the state and the court of Rome, Pietro 
Giannone was the initiator of what has been since known as civil 
history. Giovan Vincenzo Gravina wrote a history of Roman law, 
specially distinguished for its accuracy and elegance. Vico raised 
the problem to a higher plane, by tracing the origin of law in the 
human mind and explaining the historical changes of the one by 
those of the other. Thus he made the original discovery of certain 
ideas which constitute the modern psychologico-historic method. 
This problem he proceeded to develop in various works, until in his 
Scienza nuova he arrived at a more complete solution, which may be 
formulated as follows: If the principle of justice and law be one, 
eternal and immutable, why should there be so many different 
codes of legislation? These differences are not caused by difference 
of nationality only, but are to be noted in the history of the same 
people, even in that of the Romans. This problem is touched upon 
in his Orations or Inaugural Addresses {Orazioni Prolusioni) and 
in his Minor Works {Scritti minori). Finally he applied himself 
to its solution in his Universal Law (Diritto universale), which is 
divided into two books. The first of these, De uno et universi 
funs principio et fine uno, was subdivided into two parts; so like 
wise was the second, with the respective titles of De constantia 
philologiae and De constantia jurisprudent's. 

The following is the general idea derived from these researches. 
Vico held God to be the ruler of the world of nations, but ruling, 
not as the providence of the middle ages by means of continued 
miracles, but as He rules nature, by means of natural laws. If, 
therefore, the physicist seeks to discover the laws of nature by 
study of natural phenomena, so the philosopher must seek the laws 
of historical change by the investigation of human events and of the 
human mind. According to Vico, law emanates from the conscience 
of mankind, in whom God has infused a sentiment of justice 
and is therefore in close and continual relation with the human 
mind, and participates in its changes. This sentiment of justice 
is at first confused, uncertain and almost instinctive; — is, as it were, 
a divine and religious inspiration instilled by Heaven into the primi- 
tive tribes of the earth. It is an unconscious, universal sentiment, 
not the personal, conscious and rational sentiment of the superior 
few. Hence the law to which it gives birth is enwrapped in religious 
forms which are likewise visible and palpable, inasmuch as primitive 
man is incapable of abstract, philosophical ideas. This law is not 
the individual work of any philosophical legislator, for no man 
was, or could be, a philosopher at that time. It is first displayed 
in the shape of natural and necessary usages consecrated by religion. 
The names of leading legislators, which we so often find recorded 
in the history of primitive peoples, are symbols and myths, merely 
serving to mark an historic period or epoch by some definite and 
personal denomination. For nations, or rather tribes, were then 
distinguished by personal names only. The first obscure and con- 
fused conception of law gradually becomes clearer and better defined. 
Its visible and religious forms then give way to abstract formulae, 
which in their turn are slowly replaced by the rational manifestation 
of the philosophic principles of law that gains the victory in the 
final stage of development, designated by Vico as that of civil and 
human law. This is the period of individual and philosophic 
legislators. Thus Roman law has passed through three great 
periods — the divine, the heroic and the human — which are like- 
wise the three chief periods of the history of Rome, with which 
it is intimately and intrinsically connected. Nevertheless, on careful 
examination of these three successive stages, it will easily be seen 
that, in spite of the apparent difference between them, all have a 
common foundation, source and purpose. The human and civil 



philosophic law of the third period is assuredly very different in 
form from the primitive law; but in substance it is merely the 
abstract, scientific and philosophic manifestation of the same senti- 
ment of justice and the same principles which were vaguely felt in 
primitive times. Hence one development of law may be easily 
translated into another. Thus in the varied manifestations of law 
Vico was able to discover a single and enduring principle (De unimrsi 
juris uno principio etfine uno). On these grounds it na3 been sought 
to establish a close relation between Vico and Grotius. The latter 
clearly distinguished between a positive law differing in different 
nations and a natural law based on a general and unchanging prin- 
ciple of human nature, and therefore obligatory upon all. But Vico 
was opposed to Grotius, especially as regards his conception of the 
origin of society, and therefore of law. Grotius holds that its origin 
was not divine, but human, and neither collective, spontaneous 
nor unconscious, but personal, rational and conscious. He believed, 
moreover, that natural law and positive law moved on almost constant 
and immutable parallel lines. But Vico maintained that the one 
was continually progressing towards the other, positive law showing 
an increasing tendency to draw nearer to natural and rational law. 
Hence the conception that law is of necessity a spontaneous birth, 
not the creation of any individual legislator; and hence the idea 
that it necessarily proceeds by a natural and logical process of evolu- 
tion constituting its history. Vico may have derived from Grotius 
the idea of natural law; but his discovery of the historic evolution 
of law was first suggested to him by his study of Roman law. He 
saw that the history of Roman jurisprudence was a continuous 
progress of the narrow, rigorous, primitive and almost iron law of 
the XII. Tables towards tiie wider, more general and more humane 
jus gentium. Having once derived this conception from Roman 
history, he was easily and indeed necessarily carried on to the next— 
that the positive law of all nations, throughout history, is a continual 
advance, keeping pace with the progress of civilization, towards the 
philosophic and natural law founded on the principles of human 
nature and human reason. 

As already stated, the Scienza nuova appeared in three different 
editions. The third may be disregarded ; but the first and second 
editions are almost distinct works. In the former the author sets 
forth the analytical process by which the laws he discovered were 
deduced from facts. In the second he not only enlarges his matter 
and gives multiplied applications of his ideas, but also follows 
the synthetic method, first expounding the laws he had dis- 
covered and then proving them by the facts to which they arc 
applied. In this edition the fragmentary and jerky arrangement, 
the intricate style, and a peculiar and often purely conventional 
terminology seriously checked the diffusion of the work, which 
accordingly was little studied in Italy and remained almost un- 
known to the rest of Europe. Its fundamental idea consists in 
that which Vico, in his peculiar terminology, styles " poetical 
wisdom " (sapienza poetica) and " occult wisdom " {sapienza riposta), 
and in the historical process by which the one is merged in the 
other. He frequently declares that this discovery was the result 
of the literary labours of his whole life. 

Vico was the first thinker who asked, Why have we a science of 
nature, but no science of history? Because our glance can easily 
be turned outwards and survey the exterior world; but it is far 
harder to turn the mind's eye inwards and contemplate the world 
of the spirit. All our errors in explaining the origin of human 
society arise from our obstinacy in believing that primitive man 
was entirely similar to ourselves, who are civilized, i.e. developed 
by the results of a lengthy process of anterior historic evolution. 
We must learn to issue from ourselves, transport ourselves back 
to other times, and become children again in order to comprehend 
the infancy of the human race. As in children, imagination and 
the senses prevailed in those men of the past. They had no abstract 
ideas ; in their minds all was concrete, visible and tangible. All 
the phenomena, forces and laws of nature, together with mental 
conceptions, were alike personified. To suppose that all mythical 
stories are fables invented by the philosophers is to write history 
backwards and confound the instinctive, impersonal, poetic wisdom 
of the earliest times with the civilized, rational and abstract occult 
wisdom of our own day. But how can we explain the formation 
of this poetic wisdom, which, albeit the work of ignorant, men, has 
so deep and intrinsic a philosophic value? The only possible 
reply is that already given when treating of the origin of law. 
Providence has instilled into the heart of man a sentiment of justice 
and goodness, of beauty and of truth, that is manifested differently 
at different times. The ideal truth within us, constituting the inner 
life that is studied by philosophers, becomes transmuted by the 
facts of history into assured reality. For Vico psychology and 
history were the two poles of the new world he discovered. After 
having extolled the work of God and proclaimed Him the source of 
all knowledge, he adds that a great truth is continually flashed on us 
and proved to us by history, namely, " that this world of nations is 
the work of man, and its explanation therefore only to be found in 
the mind of man." Thus poetical wisdom, appearing as a spon- 
taneous emanation of the human conscience, is almost the product 
of divine inspiration. From this, by the aid of civilization, reason 
and philosophy, there is gradually developed the civil, cccult 

wisdom. The continual, slow arid laborious progress from the one 
to the other is that which really constitutes history, and man be- 
comes civilized by rendering himself the conscious and independent 
possessor of all that in poetical wisdom remained impersonal, 
unconscious, that came, as it were, from without by divine afflatus. 

Vico gives many applications of this fundamental idea. .The 
religion of primitive peoples is no less mythical than their history, 
since they could only conceive of it by means of myths. On these 
lines he interprets the whole history of primitive Rome. One book 
of the second edition of the Scienza nuova h devoted to " The 
Discovery of the True Homer." Why all the cities of Greece dispute 
the honour of being his birthplace is because the Iliad and the 
Odyssey are not the work of one, but of many popular poets, and a 
true creation of the Greek people which is in every city of Greece. 
And because the primitive peoples are unconscious and self -ignorant 
Horner is represented as being blind. In all parts of history in 
which he was best versed Vico pursues a stricter and more scientific 
method, and arrives at safer conclusions. This is the case in Roman 
history, especially in such portions as related to the history of law. 
Here he sometimes attains, even in details, to divinations of the 
truth afterwards confirmed by new documents and later research. 
The aristocratic origin of Rome, the struggle between the patricians 
and the plebeians, the laws of the XII. Tables, not, as tradition 
would have it, imported from Greece, but the natural and spon- 
taneous product of ancient Roman customs, and many other similar 
theories were discovered by Vieo, and expounded with his usual 
originality, though not always without blunders and exaggerations. ; 

Vico may be said to base his considerations on the history of two 
nations. The greater part of his ideas on poetical wisdom were 
derived from Greece. Nearly all the rest, more especially the transi- 
tion from poetical to occult wisdom, was derived from Rome. 
Having once formulated his idea, he made it more general in order 
to apply it to the histpry of all nations. From the savage state, 
through the terror that gives birth to religions, through the creation 
of families by marriage, through burial rites and ■ piety towards 
the dead, men approach civilization with the 'aid of poetic wisdom, 
and pass through three periods — the divine, heroic and. human— •- 
in which they have three forms of government, language, litera- 
ture, jurisprudence and civilization. The primary government is 
aristocratic. Patrician tyranny rouses the populace to revolt, 
and then democratic equality is established under a republic. 
Democratic excesses cause the rise of an empire,; which, becoming 
corrupt, declines into barbarism, and, again emerging from it, re- 
traces the same course. This is the 'law of cycles, constituting that 
which is designated by Vico as the " eternal ideal 'history,- or rather 
course of humanity, invariably followed by all nations." It must 
not be held to imply that one nation imitates the course pursued by 
another, nor that the points of resemblance between them are 
transmitted by tradition from one to the other, but merely that 
all are subject to one law, inasmuch as this is based on the human 
nature common to all alike. Thus, while on the one hand the 
various cycles traced and retraced by all nations are similar and 
yet independent, on the other hand, being actually derived from 
Roman history, they become converted in the Scienza nudva 
into a bed of Procrustes, to which the history of all nations 
has to be fitted by force. And wherever Vico's historical^ know- 
ledge failed he was led into increased error by this artificial and 
arbitrary effort. 

It has been justly observed by many that this continuous cyclical 
movement entirely excludes the progress of humanity towards a 
better future. It has been replied that these cvcles are similar 
without being identical, and that, if one might differ from another, 
the idea of progress was not necessarily excluded by the law of 
cycles. Vico undoubtedly considered the poetic wisdorh of the 
Middle Ages to be different from that of the Greeks and Romans, 
and Christianity to be very superior to the pagan religion. But he 
never investigated the question whether, since there is a law of 
progressive evolution in the history of different nations, separately 
examined, there may not likewise be another law ruling the general 
history of these nations, every one of which must. have rcpresenteil 
a new period, as it were, in the history of humanity at. large. There- 
fore, although the Scienza nuova cannot be said absolutely to deny 
the law of progress, it must be allowed that Vico not only failed to 
solve the problem but even shrank from attacking it. 

Vico founded no school, and though during his lifetime and for 
a while after his death he had many admirers both in Naples and 
the northern cities, his fame and name were soon obscured, especially 
as the Kantian system dominated the world of thought. At the 
beginning of the 19th century, however, some Neapolitan exiles at 
Milan called attention to the merits of their great countryman, and 
his reinstatement was completed by Michelet, who in. 1827 translated 
the Scienza nuova and other works with a laudatory introduction. 
Vico's writings suffer through their author's not having followed a 
regular course of studies, and his style is very involved. He was a 
deeply religious man, but his exemption of Jewish origins from the 
canons of historical inquiry which he elsewhere applied was probably 
due to the conditions of his age, which preceded the dawn of Semitic 
investigation and regarded the Old Testament and the Hebrew 
religion as sui generis. 



For Vico's personal history see his autobiography, written at 
the request of the Conte di Forcia, and his letters; also Cantom, 
G. B. Vico, Studii Critici e Comparative (Turin, 1867); R. Flint, 
Vico (Edinburgh and London, 1884). For editions of Vico's own 
works, see Opere, ed. Giuseppe Ferrari, with introductory essay, 
" La Mentc de Vico " (6 vols., Milan, 1834-35), and Michelet, 
CEuvres Chais-ies de Vico (2 vols., Paris, 1835). A full list is given 
in B. Croce, Bibliograjla Vickiana (Naples, 1904J. See also O. 
Kle mm , G. B. Vico als Gesch icktsph ilosoph und V olkerpsycholog 
(Leipzig. 1906) ; M. H. Rafferty in Journal of the Society of Com- 
parative Legislation, New Series, xvii., xx. 

VICTOR, the name taken by three popes and two antipopes. 

Victor I. was bishop of Rome from about 190 to 198. He 
submitted to the opinion of the episcopate in the various parts 
of Christendom the divergence between the Easter usage of 
Rome and that of the bishops of Asia. The bishops, particu- 
larly St Ircnacus of Lyons, declared themselves in favour 
of the usage of Rome, but refused to associate themselves 
with the excommunication pronounced by Victor against 
their Asiatic colleagues. At Rome Victor excommunicated 
Theodotus of Byzantium on account of his doctrine as to the 
person of Christ. St Jerome attributes to Victor some opuscula 
in Latin, which are believed to be recognized in certain apo- 
cryphal treatises of St Cyprian. 

Victor II., the successor of Leo IX., was consecrated in 
St Peter's, Rome, on the 13th of April 1055. His father was 
a Swabian baron, Count Hartwig von Calw, and his own 
baptismal name was Gebhard. At the instance of Gebhard, 
bishop of Regensburg, uncle of the emperor Henry III., he had 
been appointed while still a young man to the see of Eichstadt; 
in this position his great talents soon enabled him to render 
important services to Henry, whose chief adviser he ultimately 
became. His nomination to the papacy by Henry, at Mainz, 
in September 1054, was made at the instance of a Roman 
deputation headed by Hildebrand, 'whose policy doubtless was 
to detach from the imperial interest one of its ablest supporters. 
In June 1055 Victor met the emperor at Florence, and held a 
council, which anew condemned clerical marriages, simony 
and the alienation of the estates of the church. In the. follow- 
ing year he was summoned to Germany to the side of the 
emperor, and was with him when he died at Botfeld in the 
Harz on the 5th of October 1056. As guardian of Henry's 
infant son, and adviser of the empress Agnes, Victor now wielded 
enormous power, which he began to use with much tact for 
the maintenance of peace throughout the empire and for 
strengthening the papacy against the aggressions of the barons. 
He died shortly after his return to Italy, at Arezzo, on the 
28th of July 1057. His successor was Stephen IX. (Frederick 
of Lorraine). (L. D.*) 

Victor III. (Dauferius Epifani), pope from the 24th of May 
1086 to the 16th of September 1087, was the successor of 
Gregory VII. He was a son of Landolfo V., prince of Bene- 
vento, and was born in 1027. After studying in various 
monasteries he became provost of St Benedict at Capua, 
and in 1055 obtained permission from Victor II. to enter the 
cloister at Monte Cassino, changing his name to Desiderius. 
He succeeded Stephen IX. as abbot in 1057, and his rule 
marks the golden age of that celebrated monastery; he 
promoted literary activity, and established an important 
school of mosaic. Desiderius was crealed cardinal priest of 
Sta Cecilia by Nicholas II. in 1059, and as papal vicar in 
south Italy conducted frequent negotiations between the 
Normans and the pope. Among the four men suggested by 
Gregory VII. on his death-bed as most worthy to succeed 
him was Desiderius, who was favoured by the cardinals because 
of his great learning, his connexion with the Normans and 
his diplomatic ability. The abbot, however, declined the 
papal crown, and the year 1085 passed without an election. 
The cardinals at length proclaimed him pope against his will 
on the 24th of May 1086, but he was driven from Rome by 
imperialists before his consecration was complete, and, laying 
aside the papal insignia at Terracina, he retired to his beloved 
monastery. As vicar of the Holy See he convened a synod 
at Capua on the 7th of March 1087, resumed the papal insignia 

on the 2 1 st of March, and received tardy consecration at Rome 
on the 9th of May. Owing to the presence of the antipope, 
Clement III. (Guibert of Ravenna), who had powerful partisans, 
his stay at Rome was brief. He sent an army to Tunis, which 
defeated the Saracens and compelled the sultan to pay tribute 
to the papal see. In August 1087 he held a synod at Bene- 
vento, which renewed the excommunication of Guibert; 
banned Archbishop Hugo of Lyons and Abbot Richard of 
Marseilles as schismatics; and confirmed the prohibition of 
lay investiture. Falling ill at the synod, Vicar returned to 
Monte Cassino, where he died on the 16th of September 1087. 
He was buried at the monastery and is accounted a saint by 
the Benedictine order. His successor was Urban II. 

Victor III., while abbot of Monte Cassino contributed personally 
to the literary activity of the monastery. He wrote Dialogi de 
miraculis S. Benedicii, which, along with his Epistolae, are in J. P. 
Migne, Patrol, hat. vol. 149, and an account of the miracles of Leo IX. 
(in Acta Sanctorum, 39th of April). The chief sources for his life 
are the " Chronica monasterii Casincnsis," in the Mon. Germ. hist. 
Script vu., and the Vitae in J. P. Migne, Patrol, hat. vol. 149, 
and in J. M. Wattcrich, Pontif. Roman. Vitae. 

See J. Langen, Geschichte defromischen Kirche von Gregor VII. 
bis Innocenz III. (Bonn, 1893); F. Grcgorovius, Rome in the Middle 
Ages, vol. 4, trans, by Mrs G. W. Hamilton (London, 1900-2); 
K. J. von Hcfele, Conciliengeschichte (2nd cd., 1873-90), vol. 5; 
Hirsch, " Desiderius von Monte Cassino als Papst Victor III.," in 
Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, vol. 7 (Gottingen, 1867); 
H. II. Milman, History of Latin Christianity, vol. 3 (repub. London, 

Victor IV. was a title taken by two antipopes. (1) Gregorio 
Conti, cardinal priest of Santi Dodici Apostoli, was chosen by a 
party opposed to Innocent II. in succession to the antipope 
Anacletus II., on the 15th of March IJ38, but through the in- 
fluence of Bernard of Clairvaux he was induced to make his 
submission on the 29th of May. (2) Octavian, count of Tusculum 
and cardinal deacon of St Nicola in carcere Tulliano, the Ghi- 
belline antipope, was elected at Rome on the 7th of September 
1159, m opposition to Alexander III., and supported by the 
emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Consecrated at Farfa on the 
4th of October, Victor was the first of the series of antipopes 
supported by Frederick against Alexander III. Though the 
excommunication of Frederick by Alexander in March 1160 
made only a slight impression in Germany, this pope was never- 
theless able to gain the support of the rest of western Europe, 
because since the days of Hildebrand the power of the pope 
over the church in the various countries had increased so greatly 
that the kings of France and of England could not view with 
indifference a revival of such imperial control of the papacy as 
had been exercised by the emperor Henry III. He died at 
Lucca on the 20th of April 1164 and was succeeded by the anti- 
pope Paschal III. (1 164-1 168) . 

See M. Meyer, Die Wahl Alexanders III. und Victors IV. n$Q 
(Gottingen, 1871); and A. Hauck, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands, 
Band iv. (C. H. Ha.) 

VICTOR, GAIUS JULIUS (4th cent, a.d.), Roman writer 
on rhetoric, possibly of Gallic origin. His extant manual (in 
C. Halm's Rketores Latini Minores, 1863) is of some importance 
as facilitating the textual criticism of Quintilian, whom he 
closely follows in many places. 

VICTOR, SEXTUS AURELIUS, prefect of Pannonia about 
360 (Amm. Marc. xxi. 10), possibly the same as the consul 
(jointly with Valentinian) in 373 and as the prefect of the city 
who is mentioned in an inscription of the time of Theodosius. 
Four small historical works have been ascribed to him on more or 
less doubtful grounds — (1) Origo Gcntis Rotnanae, (2) De Viribus 
Illustrious Romas, (3) De Caesaribus, (4) De Vita et Moribtts 
Imperatorum Romanorum execrpta ex Libris Sex. Aur. Victoris. 
The four have generally been published together under the name 
Historia Romana, but the fourth piece is a rechauffe of the third. 
The second was first printed at Naples about 1472, in 4to, under 
the name of Pliny (the younger), and the fourth at Strassburg 
in 1505. 

The first edition of all four was (hat of A. Schottus (8vo, Ant- 
werp, 1579). The most recent edition of the De Caesaribus is by 
F. Pichlmayr (Munich, 1892). 



VICTOR AMEDEUS II. (1666-1732), duke of Savoy and first 
king of Sardinia, was the son of Duke Charles Emmanuel II. 
and Jeanne de Savoie-Nemours. Born at Turin, he lost his 
father in 167s, and spent his youth under the regency of his 
mother, known as " Madama Reale " (madame royale), an able 
but ambitious and overbearing woman. He assumed the reins 
of government at the age of sixteen, and married Princess Anne, 
daughter of rhilip of Orleans and Henrietta of England, and niece 
of Louis XIV., king of France. That sovereign was determined 
to dominate the young duke of Savoy, who from the first resented 
the monarch's insolent bearing. In 1685 Victor was forced by 
Louis to persecute his Waldensian subjects, because they had 
given shelter to the French Huguenot refugees after the revoca- 
tion of the edict of Nantes. With the unwelcome help of a 
French army under Marshal Catinat, he invaded the Waldensian 
valleys, and after a difficult campaign, characterized by great 
cruelty, he subjugated them. Nevertheless, he became more 
anxious than ever to emancipate himself from French thraldom, 
and his first sign of independence was his visit to Venice in 
16S7, where he conferred on political affairs with Prince Eugene 
of Savoy and other personages, without consulting Louis. About 
this time the duke plunged into a whirl of dissipation, and chose 
the beautiful but unscrupulous Contessa di Verrua as his mistress, 
neglecting his faithful and devoted wife. Louis having dis- 
covered Victor's intrigues with the emperor, tried to precipitate 
hostilities by demanding his participation in a second expedi- 
tion against the Waldensians. The duke unwillingly complied, 
but when the French entered Piedmont and demanded the 
cession of the fortresses of Turin and Verrua, he refused, and 
while still professing to negotiate with Louis, joined the league 
of Austria, Spain and Venice. War was declared in 1690, but at 
the battle of Staffarda (18th of August 1691), Victor, in spite 
of his great courage and skill, was defeated by the French under 
Catinat. Other reverses followed, but the attack on Cuneo was 
heroically repulsed by the citizens. The war dragged on with 
varying success, until the severe defeat of the allies at Marsiglia 
and their selfish neglect of Victor's interests induced him to 
open negotiations with France once more. Louis agreed to 
restore most of the fortresses he had captured and to make 
other concessions; a treaty was signed in 1696, and Victor 
appointed generalissimo of the Franco-Piedmontese; forces in 
Italy operating against the imperialists. By the treaty of 
Ryswick (1697) a general peace was concluded. On the out- 
break of the war of the Spanish Succession in 1700 the duke was 
again on the French side, but the insolence of Louis and of 
Philip V. of Spain towards him induced him, at the end of the 
two years for which he had bound himself to them, to go over, 
to the imperialists (1704). At first the French were successful 
and captured several Piedmontese fortresses, but after besieging 
Turin, which was skilfully defended by the duke, for several 
months, they were completely defeated by Victor and Prince 
Eugene of Savoy (1706), and eventually driven out of the other 
towns they had captured. By the peace of Utrecht (17 13) the 
Powers conferred the kingdom of Sicily on Victor Amedeus, whose 
government proved efficient and at first popular. But after a 
brief stay in the island he returned to Piedmont and left his 
new possessions to a viceroy, which caused much discontent 
among the Sicilians; and when the Quadruple Alliance decreed 
in 1718 that Sicily should be restored to Spain, Victor was unable 
to offer any opposition, and had to content himself with receiving 
Sardinia in exchange. 

The last years of Victor Amedeus's life were saddened by 
domestic troubles. In 1715 his eldest son died, and in 1728 he 
lost his queen. After her death, much against the advice of his 
remaining son and heir, Carlino (afterwards Charles Emmanuel 
III.), he married the Contessa di San Sebastiano, whom he 
created Marchesa di Spigno, abdicated the crown and retired to 
Chambery to end his days (1730). But his second wife, an 
ambitious intrigante, soon tired of her quiet life, and induced 
him to return to Turin and attempt to revoke his abdication. 
This led to a quarrel with his son, who with quite unnecessary 
harshness, partly due to his minister the Marquis d'Ormea, 

arrested his father and confined him at Rivoli and later at Mon- 
calieri; there Victor, overwhelmed with sorrow, died on the 
31st of October 1732. 

Victor Amedeus, although accused not without reason of bad 
faith in his diplomatic dealings and of cruelty, was undoubtedly 
a great soldier and a still greater administrator. He not only 
won for his country a high place in the council of nations, but he 
doubled its revenues and increased its prosperity and industries, 
and he also emphasized its character as an Italian state. His 
infidelity to his wife and his harshness towards his son Carlino 
are blemishes on a splendid career, but he more than expiated 
these faults by his tragic end. 

See D. Carutti, Storia del Regno di Vittorio Amedeo II. (Turin, 
1856); and E. Parri, Vittorio Amedio II. ed Eugenio di Savoia 
(Milan, 1888). The Marchesa VitcUeschi's work, The Romance of 
Savoy (2 vols., London, 1905), is based on original authorities, ana 
is the most complete monograph on the subject. 

VICTOR EMMANUEL II. (1820-1878), king of Sardinia and 
first king of Italy, was born at Turin on the 14th of March 
1830, and was the son of Charles Albert, prince of Savoy- 
Carignano, who became king of Sardinia in 1831. Brought up 
in the bigoted and chilling atmosphere of the Piedmontese court, 
he received a rigid military and religious training, but little 
intellectual education. In 1842 he was married to Adelaide, 
daughter of the Austrian Archduke Rainer, as the king desired 
at that time to improve his relations with Austria. The young 
couple led a somewhat dreary life, hidebound by court etiquette, 
which Victor Emmanuel hated. He played no part in polities 
during his father's lifetime, but took an active interest in military 
matters. When the war with Austria broke out in 1848, he was 
delighted at the prospect of distinguishing himself, and was 
given the command of a division. At Goito he was slightly 
wounded and displayed great bravery, and after Custozza 
defended the rearguard to the last (25th of July 1848). In 
the campaign of March 1849 he commanded the same division. 
After the disastrous defeat at Novara on the 23rd of March, 
Charles Albert, having rejected the peace terms offered by the 
Austrian field-marshal Radetzky, abdicated in favour of his 
son, and withdrew to a monastery in Portugal, where he died 
a few months later. Victor Emmanuel repaired to Radetzky's 
camp, where he was received with every sign of respect, and 
the field-marshal offered not only to waive the claim that 
Austria should occupy a part of Piedmont, but to give him 
an extension of territory, provided he revoked the constitution 
and substituted the old blue Piedmontese flag for the Italian 
tricolour, which savoured too much of revolution. But although 
the young king had not yet sworn to observe the charter, and 
in any cage the other Italian princes had all violated their 
constitutional promises, he rejected the offer. Consequently 
he had to agree to the temporary Austrian occupation of the 
territory comprised within the Po, the Sesia and the Ticino, 
and of half the citadel of Alessandria, to disband his Lombard, 
Polish and Hungarian volunteers, and to withdraw his fleet 
from the Adriatic; but he secured an amnesty for all the Lom- 
bards compromised in the recent revolution, having even 
threatened to go to war again if it were not granted. It was 
the maintenance of the constitution in the face of the over- 
whelming tide of reaction that established his position as the 
champion of Italian freedom and earned him the sobriquet of 
Re Galanluomo (the honest king). But the task entrusted to 
him was a most difficult one: the army disorganized, the 
treasury empty, the people despondent if not actively disloyal, 
and he himself reviled, misunderstood, and, like his father, 
accused of treachery. Parliament having rejected the peace 
treaty, the king dissolved the assembly; in the famous pro- 
clamation from Moncalieri he appealed to the people's loyalty, 
and the new Chamber ratified the treaty (9th of January 1850). 
This same year, Cavour (q.v.) was appointed minister of agri- 
culture in D'Azeglio's cabinet, and in 1852, after the fall of the 
latter, he became prime minister, a post which with brief in- 
terruptions he held until his death. 

In having Cavour as his chief adviser Victor Emmanuel was 



most fortunate, and but for that statesman's astounding 
diplomatic genius the liberation of Italy would have been 
impossible. The years from 1850 to 1859 were devoted to restor- 
ing the shattered finances of Sardinia, reorganizing the army 
and modernizing the anLiquated institutions of the kingdom. 
Among other reforms the abolition of the foro ecclesiastico 
(privileged ecclesiastical courts) brought down a storm of 
hostility from the Church both on the king and on Cavour, 
but both remained firm in sustaining the prerogatives of the 
civil power. When the Crimean War broke out, the king strongly 
supported Cavour in the proposal that Piedmont should join 
France and England against Russia so as to secure a place in 
the councils of the great Powers and establish a claim on them 
for eventual assistance in Italian affairs (1854). The following 
year Victor Emmanuel was stricken with a threefold family 
misfortune; for his mother, the Queen Dowager Maria Teresa, 
his wife, Queen Adelaide, and his brother Ferdinand, duke of 
Genoa, died within a few weeks of each other. The clerical 
party were not slow to point to this circumstance as a judgment 
on the king for what they deemed his sacrilegious policy. At 
the end of 1855, while the allied troops were still in the East, 
Victor Emmanuel visited Paris and London, where he was 
warmly welcomed by the emperor Napoleon III. and Queen 
Victoria, as well as by the peoples of the two countries. 

Victor Emmanuel's object now was the expulsion of the 
Austrians from Italy and the expansion of Piedmont into a 
North Italian kingdom, but he did not regard the idea of Italian 
unity as coming within the sphere of practical politics for the 
time being, although a movement to that end was already 
beginning to gain ground. He was in communication with some 
of the conspirators, especially with La Farina, the leader of 
the Societd, Nazionale, an association the object of which was 
to unite Italy under the king of Sardinia, and he even com>- 
municatcd with Mazzini and the republicans, both in Italy and 
abroad, whenever he thought that they could help in the 
expulsion of the Austrians from Italy. In 1859 Cavour's 
diplomacy succeeded in drawing Napoleon III. into an alliance, 
against Austria, although the king had to agree to the cession 
of Savoy and possibly of Nice and to the marriage of his daughter 
Clothilde to Prince Napoleon: These conditions were very 
painful to him, for Savoy was the hereditary home of his family, 
and he was greatly attached to Princess Clothilde and disliked 
the idea of marrying her to a man who gave little promise of 
proving a good husband. But he was always ready to sacrifice 
his own personal feelings for the good of his country. He had an 
interview with Garibaldi and appointed him commander of 
the newly raised volunteer corps, the Cacciatori delle Alpi. 
Even then Napoleon would not decide on immediate hostilities, 
and it required all Cavour's genius to bring him to the point and 
lead Austria into a declaration of war (April 1859). Although 
the Franco -Sardinian forces were successful in the field, Napoloon, 
fearing an attack by Prussia and disliking the idea of a too 
powerful Italian kingdom on the frontiers of France, insisted on 
making peace with Austria, while Venetia still remained to be 
freed. Victor Emmanuel, realizing that he could not continue 
the campaign alone, agreed most unwillingly to the armistice of 
Villafranca. When Cavour heard the news he hurried to the 
king's headquarters at Monzambano, and in violent, almost 
disrespectful language implored him to continue the campaign 
at all hazards, relying on his own army and the revolutionary 
movement in the rest of Italy. But the king on this occasion 
showed more political insight than his great minister and saw 
that by adopting the heroic course proposed by the latter he 
ran the risk of finding Napoleon on the side of the enemy, 
whereas by waiting all might be gained. Cavour resigned 
office, and by the peace of Zurich (10th of November 1859) 
Austria ceded Lombardy to Piedmont but retained Venetia; 
the central Italian princes who had been deposed by the revolu- 
tion were to be reinstated, and Italy formed into a confederation 
of independent states. But this solution was most unacceptable 
to Italian public opinion, and both the king and Cavour deter- 
mined to assist the people in preventing its realization, and 

consequently entered into secret relations with the revolutionary 
governments of Tuscany, the duchies and of Romagna. As 
a result of the events of 1859-60, those provinces were all 
annexed to Piedmont, and when Garibaldi decided oil the 
Sicilian expedition Victor Emmanuel assisted him in various 
ways. He had considerable influence with Garibaldi, who, 
although in theory a republican, was greatly attached to the 
bluff soldier-king, and on several occasions restrained him 
from too foolhardy courses. When Garibaldi having conquered 
Sicily was determined to invade the mainland possessions of 
Francis II. of Naples, Victor Emmanuel foreseeing international 
difficulties wrote to the chief of the red shirts asking him not to 
cross the Straits; but Garibaldi, although acting throughout 
in the name of His Majesty, refused to obey and continued 
his victorious march, for he knew that the king's letter was 
dictated by diplomatic considerations rather tharr by his own 
personal desire. Then, on Cavour's advice, King Victor decided 
to participate himself in the occupation of Neapolitan, territory, 
lest Garibaldi's entourage should proclaim the republic of 
create anarchy. When he accepted the annexation of Romagna 
offered by the inhabitants themselves the pope excommunicated 
him, but. although a devout Catholic, he continued in his 
course undeterred by ecclesiastical thunders, and led his army 
in person through the Papal States, occupying the Marches 
and Umbria, to Naples. On the 29th of October he met 
Garibaldi, who handed over his conquests to the king. The 
whole peninsula, except Rome and Venice, was now annexed 
to Piedmont, and on the 1 8th of February 1861 the parliament 
proclaimed Victor Emmanuel king of united Italy. 

The next few years were occupied with preparations for the 
liberation of Venice, and the king corresponded with Mazzini; 
Klapka, Tiirr and other conspirators against Austria in Venetia 
itself, Hungary, Poland and elsewhere, keeping his activity 
secret even from his own ministers. The alliance with Prussia 
and the war with Austria of 1866, although fortune did not 
favour Italian arms, added Venetia to his dominions.. 

The Roman question yet remained unsolved, for Napoleon, 
although he. had assisted Piedmont in 1859 and had reluctantly 
consented to the annexation of the central and southern 
provinces, and of part of the Papal States, would not permit 
Rome to be occupied, and maintained a French garrison there 
to protect the pope. When war with Prussia appeared imminent 
he tried to obtain Italian assistance, and Victor Emmanuel 
was very anxious to fly to the assistance of the man who had 
helped him to expel the Austrians from Italy, but he could not 
do so unless Napoleon gave him a free hand in Rome. This 
the emperor would not do until it was too late. Even after 
the first French defeats the chivalrous king, in spite of the 
advice of his more prudent councillors, wiahed to go to the 
rescue, and asked Thiers, the French representative who was 
imploring him for help, if with 100,000 Italian troops France 
could be saved, but Thiers could give no such undertaking 
and Italy remained neutral. On the 20th of September 1870, 
the French troops having been withdrawn, the Italian army 
entered Rome, and on the 2nd of July i87r Victor Emmanuel 
made his solemn entry into the Eternal City, which then be- 
came the capital of Italy. 

The pope refused to recognize the new kingdom even before 
the occupation of Rdme, and the latter event rendered relations 
between church and state for many years extremelysdelicate: 
The king himself was anxious to be reconciled with the Vatican; 
but the pope, or rather his entourage, rejected all overtures, 
and the two sovereigns dwelt side by side in Rome until death 
without ever meeting. Victor Emmanuel devoted himself 
to his duties as a constitutional king with great conscientious- 
ness, but he took more interest in foreign than in domestic 
politics and contributed not a little to improving Italy's inter- 
national position. In 1873 he visited the emperor Francis 
Joseph at Vienna and the emperor William at Berlin. He 
received an enthusiastic welcome in both capitals,: but the 
visit to Vienna was never returned in Rome, for Francis Joseph 
as a Catholic sovereign feared to offend the pope, a circumstance 



which served to embitter Austro-Italian relations. On the 
9th of January 1878, Victor Emmanuel died of fever in Rome, 
and was buried in the Pantheon. He was succeeded by his 
son Humbert. 

Bluff, hearty, good-natured and simple in his habits, yet 
he always had a high idea of his own kingly dignity, and his 
really statesmanlike qualities often surprised foreign diplomats, 
who were deceived by his homely exterior. As a soldier he 
was very brave, but he did not show great qualities as a military 
leader in the campaign of 1S66. He was a keen sportsman 
and would spend many days at a time pursuing chamcis or 
stcinbock in the Alpine fastnesses of Piedmont with nothing 
but bread and cheese to eat. He always used the dialect of 
Piedmont when conversing with natives of that country, and 
he had a vast fund of humorous anecdotes and proverbs with 
which to illustrate his arguments. He had a great weakness 
for female society, and kept several mistresses; one of them, 
the beautiful Rosa Vercellone, he created Countess Mirariori e 
Fontanafredda and married morganatically in 1869; she bore 
him one son. 

Bibliography. — Besides the general works on Italy and Savoy 
see V. Bersezio, // di Vittorio Emanuele II. (8 vols., Turin, 
1869); G. Massari, La Vita ed il Regno di Vittorio Emanuele II. 
(2 vols., Milan, 1878); N. Bianchi, Storia deila Diplomazia Europea 
in Italia (8 vols., Turin, 1865). (L. V.*) 

VICTOR EMMANUEL III. (1869- ), king of Italy, son 
of King Humbert I. and Queen Margherita of Savoy, was born 
at Naples on the nth of November 1869. Carefully educated 
by his mother and under the direction of Colonel Osio, he 
outgrew the weakness of his childhood and became expert in 
horsemanship and military exercises. Entering the army 
at an early age he passed through the various grades and, 
soon after attaining his majority, was appointed to the command 
of the Florence Army Corps. During frequent journeys to 
Germany he enlarged his military experience, and upon his 
appointment to the command of the Naples Army Corps in 
1896 displayed sound military and administrative capacity. 
A keen huntsman, and passionately fond of the sea, he extended 
his yachting and hunting excursions as far east as Syria and 
as far north as Spitsbergen. As representative of King 
Humbert he attended the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II. in 
1896, the Victorian Jubilee celebrations of 1897, and the 
festivities connected with the coming of age of the German 
crown prince in 1900. The prince's intellectual and artistic 
leanings were well known; in particular, he has made a magnifi- 
cent collection of historic Italian coins, on which subject he 
became a recognized authority. At the time of the assassina- 
tion of his father, King Humbert (the 29th of July 1900), he was 
returning from a yachting cruise in the eastern Mediterranean. 
Landing at Reggio di Calabria he hastened to Monza, where he 
conducted with firmness and tact the preparations for the 
burial of King Humbert and for his own formal accession, 
which took place on the 9th and nth of August 1900. On the 
24th of October 1896 he married Princess Elena of Montenegro, 
who, on the 1st of June i9or, bore him a daughter named 
Yolanda Margherita, on the 19th of November 1902 a second 
daughter named Mafalda, and on the 15th of September 1904 
a son, Prince Humbert. 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of 
India (1819-1901), only child of Edward, duke of Kent, fourth 
son of King George III., and of Princess Victoria Mary Louisa 
of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (widow of Prince Emich Karl of Lein- 
ingen, by whom she already had two children), was born at 
Kensington Palace on the 24th of May 1819. The duke and 
duchess of Kent had been living at Amorbach, in Franconia, 
owing to their straitened circumstances, but they returned to 
London on purpose that their child should be born in England. 
In 181 7 the death of Princess Charlotte (only child of the prince 
regent, afterwards George IV., and wife of Prince Leopold of 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, afterwards king of the Belgians), had left 
the ultimate succession to the throne of England, in the younger 

generation, so uncertain that the three unmarried sons of 
George III., the dukes of Clarence (afterwards William IV.), 
Kent and Cambridge, all married in the following year, the 
two elder on the same day. All three had children, but the 
duke of Clarence's two baby daughters died in infancy, in 1819 
and 1821; and the duke of Cambridge's son George, born on 
the 26th of March 1819, was only two months old when the 
birth of the duke of Kent's daughter put her before him in the 
succession. The question as to what name the child should 
bear was not settled without bickerings. The duke of Kent 
wished her to be christened Elizabeth, and the prince regent 
wanted Georgiana, while the tsar Alexander I., who had 
promised to stand sponsor, stipulated for Alexandrina. - The 
baptism was performed in a drawing-room of Kensington 
Palace on the 24th of June by Dr Manners Sutton, archbishop 
of Canterbury. The prince regent, who was present, named 
the child Alexandrina; then, being requested by the duke of 
Kent to give a second name, he said, rather abruptly, " Let 
her be called Victoria, after her mother, but this name must 
come after the other." 1 Six weeks after her christening the 
princess was vaccinated, this being the first occasion on which 
a member of the royal family underwent the operation. 

In January 1820 the duke of Kent died, five days before his 
brother succeeded to the throne as George IV. The widowed 
duchess of Kent was now a woman of thirty-four, handsome, 
homely, a German at heart, and with little liking for English 
ways. But she was a woman of experience, and shrewd; and 
fortunately she had a safe and affectionate adviser in her brother, 
Prince Leopold of Coburg, afterwards (1831) king of the Belgians, 
who as the husband of the late Princess Charlotte had once been 
a prospective prince consort of England. His former doctor and 
private secretary, Baron Stockmar (q.v.), a man of encyclopaedic 
information and remarkable judgment, who had given special 
attention to the problems of a sovereign's position in England, was 
afterwards to play an important r61e in Queen Victoria's life; 
and Leopold himself took a fatherly interest in the young 
princess's education, and contributed some thousands of pounds 
annually to the duchess of Kent's income. Prince Leopold 
still lived at this time at Claremont, where Princess Charlotte 
had died, and this became the duchess of Kent's occasional 
English home; but she was much addicted to travelling, and 
spent several months every year in visits to watering-places. 
It was said at court that she liked the demonstrative homage 
of crowds; but she had good reason to fear lest her child should 
be taken away from her to be educated according to the views 
of George IV. Between the king and his sister-in-law there was 
little love, and when the death of the duke of Clarence's second 
infant daughter Elizabeth in 1821 made it pretty certain that 
Princess Victoria would eventually become queen, the duchess 
felt that the king might possibly obtain the support of his 
ministers if he insisted that the future sovereign should be 
brought up under masters and mistresses designated by himself. 
The little princess could not have received a better education 
than that which was given her under Prince Leopold's direction. 
Her uncle considered that she ought to be kept as long as 
possible from the knowledge of her position, which might raise 
a large growth of pride or vanity in her and make her un- 
manageable; so Victoria was twelve years old before she 
knew that she was to wear a crown. Until she became queen 
she never slept a night away from her mother's room, and she 
was not allowed to converse with any grown-up person, friend, 
tutor or servant without the duchess of Kent or the Baroness 
Lehzen, her private governess, being present. Louise Lehzen, 
a native of Coburg, had come to England as governess to the 
Princess Fecdore of Leiningen, the duchess of Kent's daughter 

1 The question of her name, as that of one who was to be queen, 
remained even up to her accession to the throne a much-debated 
one. In August 1831, in a discussion in parliament upon a grant 
to the duchess of Kent, Sir M. W, Ridley suggested changing it to 
Elizabeth as " more accordant to the feelings of the people " ; 
and the idea of a change seems to have been powerfully, supported. 
In 1836 William IV. approved of a proposal to change it to 
Charlotte ; but, to the princess's own delight, it was given up. 



by her first husband, and she became teacher to the Princess 
Victoria when the latter was five years old. George IV. in 1827 
made her a baroness of Hanover, and she continued as lady-in- 
attendance after the duchess of Northumberland was appointed 
official governess in 1S30, but actually performed the functions 
first of governess and then of private secretary till 1842, when 
she left the court and returned to Germany, where she died in 
1870. The Rev. George Davys, afterwards bishop of Peter- 
borough, taught the princess Latin; Mr J. B. Sale, music; 
Mr West all, history; and Mr Thomas Steward, the writing 
master of Westminster School, instructed her in penmanship. 

In 1830 George IV. died, and the duke of York (George III.'s 
second son) having died childless in 1827, the duke of Clarence 
became king as William IV. Princess Victoria now became the 
direct heir to the throne. William IV. cherished affectionate 
feelings towards his niece; unfortunately he took offence at 
the duchess of Kent for declining to let her child come and live 
at his court for several months in each year, and through the 
whole of his reign there was strife between the two; and 
Prince Leopold was no longer in England to act as peacemaker. 

In the early hours of the 20th of June 1S37, William IV. died. 
His thoughts had dwelt often on his niece, and he repeatedly 
said that he was sure she would be " a good woman and a good 
queen. It will touch every sailor's heart to have a girl queen 
to fight for. They'll be tattooing her face on their arms, and 
I'll be bound they'll all think she was christened after Nelson's 
ship." Dr Howley, archbishop of Canterbury, and the marquis 
of Conyngham, bearing the news of the king's death, started in 
a landau with four horses for Kensington, which they reached 
at five o'clock. Their servants rang, knocked and thumped; 
and when at last admittance was gained, the primate and the 
marquis were shown into a lower room and there left to wait. 
Presently a maid appeared and said that the Princess Victoria 
was " in a sweet sleep and could not be disturbed." Dr Howley, 
who was nothing if not pompous, answered that he had come 
on state business, to which everything, even sleep, must give 
place. The princess was accordingly roused, and quickly came 
downstairs in a dressing-gown, her fair hair flowing loose over 
her shoulders. Her own account of this interview, written the 
same day in her journal (Letters, i. p. 97), shows her to have 
been quite prepared. 

The privy council assembled at Kensington in the morning; 
and the usual oaths were administered to the queen by Lord 
Chancellor Cottenham, after which all present did homage. 
There was a touching incident when the queen's uncles, the 
dukes of Cumberland and Sussex, two old men, came forward 
to perform their obeisance. The queen blushed, and descending 
from her throne, kissed them both, without allowing them to 
kneel. By the death of William IV., the duke of Cumberland 
had become King Ernest of Hanover, and immediately after 
the ceremony he made haste to reach his kingdom. Had 
Queen Victoria died without issue, this prince, who was arro-' 
gant, ill-tempered and rash, would have become king of Great 
Britain; and, as nothing but mischief could have resulted from 
this, the young queen's life became very precious in the sight 
of her people. She, of course, retained the late king's ministers 
in their offices, and it was under Lord Melbourne's direction 
that the privy council drew up their declaration to the kingdom. 
This document described the queen as Alexandrina Victoria, 
and all the peers who subscribed the roll in the House of Lords 
on the 20th of June swore allegiance to her under those names. 
It was not till the following day that the sovereign's style was 
altered to Victoria simply, and this necessitated the issuing of a 
new declaration and a re-signing of the peers' roll. The public 
proclamation of the queen took place on the 21st at St James's 
Palace with great pomp. 

The queen opened her first parliament in person, and in a 
well-written speech, which she read with much feeling, adverted 
to her youth and to the necessity which existed for her being 
guided by enlightened advisers. When both houses had voted 
loyal addresses, the question of the Civil List was considered, 
and a week or two later a message was brought to parliament 

requesting an increase of the grant formerly made to the duchess 
of Kent. Government recommended an addition of £30,000 a 
year, which was voted, and before the close of the year a Civil 
List Bill was passed, settling £385,000 a year on the queen. 

The duchess of Kent and her brothers, King Leopold and the 
duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, had always hoped to arrange that 
the queen should marry her cousin, Albert (q.v.) of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha, and the prince himself had been made acquainted with 
this plan from his earliest years. In 1836 Prince Albert, who 
was born in the same year as his future wife, had come on a visit 
to England with his father and with his brother, Prince Ernest, 
and his handsome face, gentle disposition and playful humour 
had produced a favourable impression on the princess. The 
duchess of Kent had communicated her projects to Lord Mel- 
bourne, and they were known to many other statesmen, and to 
persons in society; but the gossip of drawing-rooms during the 
years 1837-38 continually represented that the young queen 
had fallen in love with Prince This or Lord That, and the more 
imaginative babblers hinted at post-chaises waiting outside Ken- 
sington Gardens in the night, private marriages and so forth. 

The coronation took place on the 28th of June 1838. No more 
touching ceremony of the kind had ever been performed in 
Westminster Abbey. Anne was a middle-aged married 
woman at the time of her coronation; she waddled M y 0fl , 
and wheezed, and made no majestic appearance upon 
her throne. Mary was odious to her Protestant subjects, Eliza- 
beth to those of the unreformed religion, and both these queens 
succeeded to the crown in times of general sadness; but the 
youthful Queen Victoria had no enemies except a few Chartists, 
and the land was peaceful and prosperous when she began to 
reign over it. The cost of George IV. 's coronation amounted 
to £240,000; that of William IV. had amounted to £50,000 only; 
and in asking £70,000 the government had judged that things 
could be done with suitable luxury, but without waste. The 
traditional banquet in Westminster Hall, with the throwing 
down of the glove by the king's champion in armour, had been 
dispensed with at the coronation of William IV., and it was 
resolved not to revive it. But it was arranged that the sove- 
reign's procession to the abbey through the streets should be 
made a finer show than on previous occasions; and it drew to 
London 400,000 country visitors. Three ambassadors for different 
reasons became objects of great interest on the occasion. Marshal 
Soult, Wellington's old foe, received a hearty popular welcome 
as a military hero; Prince Esterhazy, who represented Austria, 
dazzled society by his Magyar uniform, which was encrusted 
all over, even to the boots, with pearls and diamonds; while 
the Turkish ambassador, Sarim Effendi, caused much diversion 
by his bewilderment. He was so wonder-struck that he could 
not walk to his place, but stood as if he had lost his senses, 
and kept muttering, " All this for a woman I " 

Within a year the court was brought into sudden disfavour 
with the country by two events of unequal importance, but both 
exciting. The first was the case of Lady Flora Hastings. The 
In February 1830 this young lady, a daughter of the "Bed- 
marquis of Hastings, and a maid of honour to the ^5 a f n ,* er 
duchess of Kent, was accused by certain ladies of 
the bedchamber of immoral conduct. The charge having been 
laid before Lord Melbourne, he communicated it to Sir James 
Clark, the queen's physician, and the result was that Lady Flora 
was subjected to the indignity of a medical examination, which, 
while it cleared her character, seriously affected her health. 
In fact, she died in the following July, and it was then discovered 
that the physical appearances which first provoked suspicion 
against her had been due to enlargement of the liver. The 
queen's conduct towards Lady Flora was kind and sisterly 
from the beginning to the end of this painful business; but the 
scandal was made public through some indignant letters which 
the marchioness of Hastings addressed to Lord Melbourne pray- 
ing for the punishment of her daughter's traducers, and the 
general opinion was that Lady Flora had been grossly treated 
at the instigation of some private court enemies. While the 
agitation about the affair was yet unappeased, the political 



crisis known as the " Bedchamber Plot " occurred. The Whig 
ministry had introduced a bill suspending the Constitution of 
Jamaica because the Assembly in that colony had refused to 
adopt the Prisons Act passed by the Imperial Legislature. Sir 
Robert Peel moved an amendment, which, on a division (6th 
May), was defeated by a majority of five only in a house of 
583, and ministers thereupon resigned. The duke of Wellington 
was first sent for, but he advised that the task of forming an 
administration should be entrusted to Sir Robert Peel. Sir 
Robert was ready to form a cabinet in which the duke of Welling- 
ton, Lords Lyndhurst, Aberdeen and Stanley, and Sir James 
Graham would have served; but he stipulated that the mistress 
of the robes and the ladies of the bedchamber appointed by the 
Whig administration should be removed, and to this the queen 
would not consent. On the 10th of May she wrote curtly that 
the course proposed by Sir Robert Peel was contrary to usage 
and repugnant to her feelings; the Tory leader then had to 
inform the House of Commons that, having failed to obtain the 
proof which he desired of her majesty's confidence, it was im- 
possible for him to accept office. The ladies of the bedchamber 
were so unpopular in consequence of their behaviour to Lady 
Flora Hastings that the public took alarm at the notion that the 
queen had fallen into the hands of an intriguing coterie; and 
Lord Melbourne, who was accused of wishing to rule on the 
strength of court favour, resumed office with diminished prestige. 
The Tories thus felt aggrieved; and the Chartists were so prompt 
to make political capital out of the affair that large numbers 
were added to their ranks. On the 14th of June Mr Attwood, 
M.P. for Birmingham, presented to the House of Commons a 
Chartist petition alleged to have been signed by 1,280,000 people. 
It was a cylinder of parchment of about the diameter of a coach- 
wheel, and was literally rolled up on the floor of the house. On 
the day after this curious document had furnished both amuse- 
ment and uneasiness to the Commons, a woman, describing 
herself as Sophia Elizabeth Guelph Sims, made application at 
the Mansion House for advice and assistance to prove herself 
the lawful child of George IV. and Mrs Fitzherbert; and this 
incident, trumpery as it was, added fuel to the disloyal flame 
then raging. Going in state to Ascot the queen was hissed by 
some ladies as her carriage drove on to the course, and two 
peeresses, one of them a Tory duchess, were openly accused of 
this unseemly act. Meanwhile some monster Chartist demon- 
strations were being organized, and they commenced on the 4th 
of July with riots at Birmingham. It was an untoward coinci- 
dence that Lady Flora Hastings died on the 5th of July, for though 
she repeated on her deathbed, and wished it to be published, that 
the queen had taken no part whatever in the proceedings which 
had shortened her life, it was remarked that the ladies who were 
believed to have persecuted her still retained the sovereign's 
favour. The riots at Birmingham lasted ten days, and had to 
be put down by armed force. They were followed by others at 
Newcastle, Manchester, Bolton, Chester and Macclesfield. 

These troublous events had the effect of hastening the queen's 
marriage. Lord Melbourne ascertained that the queen's dis- 
The positions towards her cousin, Prince Albert, were un- 

queen's changed, and he advised King Leopold, through M. 
marriage. y an <j er Weyer, the Belgian minister, that the prince 
should come to England and press his suit. The prince 
arrived with his brother on a visit to Windsor on the 10th of 
October 1839. On the 12th the queen wrote to King Leopold: 
" Albert's beauty is most striking, and he is so amiable and 
unaffected — in short, very fascinating." On the 15th all was 
settled; and the queen wrote to her uncle, " I love him more 
than I can say." The queen's public announcement of her 
betrothal was enthusiastically received. But the royal lovers 
still had some parliamentary mortifications to undergo. The 
government proposed that Prince Albert should receive an 
annuity of £50,000, but an amendment of Colonel Sibthorp — 
a politician of no great repute — for making the annuity £30,000 
was carried against ministers by 262 votes to 158, the Tories and 
Radicals going into the same lobby, and many ministerialists 
taking no part in' the division. Prince Albert had not been 

described, in the queen 's declaration to the privy council, as a 
Protestant prince; and Lord Palmerston was obliged to ask 
Baron Stockmar for assurance that Prince Albert did not belong 
to any 3ect of Protestants whose rules might prevent him from 
taking the Sacrament according to the ritual of the English 
Church. He got an answer couched in somewhat ironical terms 
to the effect that Protestantism owed its existence in a measure to 
the house of Saxony, from which the prince descended, seeing that 
this house and that of the landgrave of Hesse. had stood quite 
alone against Europe in upholding Luther and his cause. Even 
after this certain High Churchmen held that a Lutheran was a 
" dissenter," and that the prince should be asked to subscribe 
to the Thirty-Nine Articles. 

The queen was particularly concerned by the question of 
the prince's future status as an Englishman. It was impractic- 
able for him to receive the title of king consort; but the queen 
naturally desired that her husband should be placed by act of 
parliament in a position which would secure to him precedence, 
not only in England, but in foreign courts. Lord Melbourne 
sought to effect this by a clause introduced in a naturalization 
bill; but he found himself obliged to drop the clause, and to 
leave the queen to confer what precedence she pleased by 
letters-patent. This was a lame way out of the difficulty, for 
the queen could only confer precedence within her own realms, 
whereas an act of parliament bestowing the title of prince 
consort would have made the prince's right to rank above all 
royal imperial highnesses quite clear, and would have left no 
room for such disputes as afterwards occurred when foreign 
princes chose to treat Prince Albert as having mere courtesy 
rank in his wife's kingdom. The result of these political diffi- 
culties was to make the queen more than ever disgusted with 
the Tories. But there was no other (law in the happiness of 
the marriage, which was solemnized on the 10th of February 
1840 in the Chapel Royal, St James's. It is interesting to note 
that the queen was dressed entirely in articles of British manu- 
facture. Her dress was of Spitalfields silk; her veil of Honiton 
lace; her ribbons came from Coventry; even her gloves had 
been made in London of English kid — a novel thing in days 
when the French had a monopoly in the finer kinds of gloves. 

From the time of the queen's marriage the crown played an 
increasingly active part in the affairs of state. Previously, 
ministers had tried to spare the queen all disagree- 
able and fatiguing details. Lord Melbourne saw her affairs. 
every day, whether she was in London or at Windsor, 
and he used to explain all current business in a- benevolent, 
chatty manner, which offered a pleasant contrast to the style 
of his two principal colleagues, Lord John Russell and Lord 
Palmerston. A statesman of firmer mould than Lord Melbourne 
would hardly have succeeded so well as he did in making rough 
places smooth for Prince Albert. Lord John Russell and Lord 
Palmerston were naturally jealous of the prince's interference 
— and of King Leopold's and Baron Stockmar 's-^in state 
affairs; but Lord Melbourne took the common-sense view that 
a husband will control his wife whether people wish it cr not. 
Ably advised by his private secretary, George Anson, and by 
Stockmar, the prince thus soon took the de facto place of the 
sovereign's private secretary, though he had no official status 
as such; and his system of classifying and annotating the 
queen's papers and letters resulted in the preservation of what 
the editors of the Letters of Queen Victoria (1907) describe as 
" probably the most extraordinary collection of state documents 
in the world " — those up to 1861 being contained in between 
500 and 600 bound volumes at Windsor. To confer on Prince 
Albert every honour that the crown could bestow, and to let him 
make his way gradually into public favour by his own tact, 
was the advice which Lord Melbourne gave; and the prince 
acted upon it so well, avoiding every appearance of intrusion, 
and treating men of all parties and degrees with urbanity, that 
within five months of his marriage he obtained a signal mark 
of the public confidence. In expectation of the queen becoming 
a mother, a bill was passed through parliament providing for 
the appointment of Prince Albert as sole regent in case the 


queen, after giving birth to a child, died before her son or 

daughter came of age. 

The Kegency Bill had been hurried on in consequence of the 

attempt of a crazy pot-boy, Edward Oxford, to take the queen's 

... 4 life. On ioth June 1840. the queen and Prince Albert 
Attempts ... ~ . . xT-ii • 

on the were driving up Constitution Hill in an open carriage, 

q wen's when Oxford tired two pistols, the bullets from which 
Iife ' flew, it is said, close by the prince's head. He was 

arrested on the spot, and when his lodgings were searched a 
quantity of powder and shot was found, with the rules 
of a secret society, called " Young England," whose members 
were pledged to meet, " carrying swords and pistols and wearing 
crape masks." These discoveries raised the surmise that 
Oxford was the tool of a widespread Chartist conspiracy — ■ 
or, as the Irish pretended, of a conspiracy of Orangemen to 
set the duke of Cumberland on the throne; and while these 
delusions were fresh, they threw well-disposed persons into a 
paroxysm of loyalty. Even the London street dogs, as Sydney 
Smith said, joined with O'Connell in barking " God save the 
Queen." Oxford seems to have been craving for notoriety; 
but it may be doubted whether the jury who tried him did 
right to pronounce his acquittal on the ground of insanity. 
He feigned madness at his trial, but during the forty years of 
his subsequent confinement at Bedlam he talked and acted 
like a rational being, and when he was at length released and 
sent to Australia he earned his living there as a house painter, 
and used to declare that he had never been mad at all. His 
acquittal was to be deprecated as establishing a dangerous 
precedent in regard to outrages on the sovereign. It was always 
Prince Albert's opinion that if Oxford had been flogged the 
attempt of Francis on the queen in 1842 and of Bean in 
the same year would never have been perpetrated. After 
the attempt of Bean — who was a hunchback, really insane — 
parliament passed a bill empowering judges to order whipping 
as a punishment for those who molested the queen; but some- 
how this salutary act was never enforced. In 1S50 a half-pay 
officer, named Pate, assaulted the queen by striking her with 
a stick, and crushing her bonnet. He was sentenced to seven 
years' transportation; but the judge. Baron Alderson, excused 
him the flogging. In 1869 an Irish lad, O'Connor, was sentenced 
to eighteen months' imprisonment and a whipping for presenting 
a pistol at the queen, with a petition, in St James's Park; but 
this time it was the queen herself who privately remitted the 
corporal punishment, and she even pushed clemency to the 
length of sending her aggressor to Australia at her own expense. 
The series of attempts on the queen was closed in 1S82 by 
Maclean, who fired a pistol at her majesty as she was leaving 
the Great Western Railway station at Windsor, He, like Bean, 
was a genuine madman, and was relegated to Broadmoor. 

The birth of the princess royal, on the 21st of November 
1840, removing the unpopular King Ernest of Hanover from 
Birth ^ e P os ftion of heir-presumptive to the British crown, 

of the was a subject of loud congratulations to the people. 

ptiocesa A curious scare was occasioned at Buckingham Palace, 
royal. when the little princess was a fortnight old, by the 

discovery of a boy named Jones concealed under a bed in the 
royal nursery. Jones had a mania for palace-breaking. Three 
times he effected a clandestine entry into the queen's residence, 
and twice he managed to spend. several days there. By day he 
concealed himself in cupboards or under furniture, and by night 
he groped his way into the royal kitchen to cat whatever he could 
find. After his third capture, in March 1841, he coolly boasted 
that he had lain under a sofa, and listened to a private con- 
versation between the queen and Prince Albert. This third 
time he was not punished, but sent to sea, and turned out 
very well. The incident strengthened Prince Albert's hands in 
trying to carry out sundry domestic reforms which were being 
stoutly resisted by vested interests. The royal residences and 
grounds used to be under the control of four different officials — 
the lord chamberlain, the lord steward, the master of the horse 
and the commissioners of woods and forests. Baron Stockmar, 
describing the confusion fostered by this state of things, said — 


"The lord steward finds the fuel and lays the lire; the lord 
chamberlain lights it. The lord chamberlain provides the lamps; 
the lord steward must clean, trim and light them. The inside 
cleaning of windows belongs to the lord chamberlain's depart- 
ment, but the outer parts must be attended to by the office of 
woods and forests, so that windows remain dirty unless the two 
departments can come to an understanding." 

It took Prince Albert four years of firmness and diplomacy 
before in 1845 he was able to bring the queen's home under 
the efficient control of a master of the household. 

At the general election of 1841 the Whigs returned in a 
minority of seventy-six, and Lord Melbourne was defeated on 
the Address and resigned. The queen was affected sir Robert 
to tears at parting with him; but the crisis had been Peel's 
fully expected and prepared for by confidential com- mmtstr y^ 
munications between Mr Anson and Sir Robert Peel, who 
now became prime minister (see Letters of Queen Victoria, 
i. 341 et seq.). The old difficulty as to the appointments to 
tho royal household was tactfully removed, and Tory appoint- 
ments were made, which were agreeable both to the queen 
and to Peel. The only temporary embarrassment was the 
queen's continued private correspondence with Lord Melbourne, 
which led Stockmar to remonstrate with him; but Melbourne 
used his influence sensibly; moreover, he gradually dropped 
out of politics, and the queen got used to his not being indis- 
pensable. On Prince Albert's position the change had a 
marked effect, for in the absence of Melbourne the queen relied 
more particularly on his advice, and Peel himself at once dis- 
covered and recognized the prince's unusual charm and capacity. 
One of the Tory premier's first acts was to propose that a royal 
commission should be appointed to consider the best means for 
promoting art and science in the kingdom, and he nominated 
Prince Albert as president. The International Exhibition 
of 1851, the creation of .the Museum and Science and Art 
Department at South Kensington, the founding of art schools 
and picture galleries all over the country, the spread of musical 
taste and the fostering of technical education may be attri- 
buted, more or less directly, to the commission of distinguished 
men which began its labours under Prince Albert's auspices. 

The queen's second child, the prince of Wales (see 
Edward VII.) , was born on the 9th of November 1:841; and 
this event " filled the measure of the queen's domestic Birth of 
happiness," as she said in her speech from the throne the prince 
at the opening of the session of 1842. It is unnecessary of WaIe f' 
from this point onwards to go seriatim through the domestic 
history of the reign, which is given in the article English 
History. At this time there was much political unrest at 
home, and serious difficulties abroad. As regards internal 
politics, it may be remarked that the queen and Prince Albert 
were much relieved when Peel, who had come in as the leader 
of the Protectionist party, adopted Free Trade and re- 
pealed the Corn Laws, for it closed a dangerous agitation which 
gave them much anxiety. When the country was in distress, 
the queen felt a womanly repugnance for festivities; and yet 
it was undesirable that the court should incur the The court 
reproach of living meanly to save money. There and the 
was a conversation between the queen and Sir Robert couatr y* 
Peel on this subject in the early days of the Tory adminis- 
tration, and the queen talked of reducing her establishment 
in order that she might give away larger sums in charities. 
" I am afraid the people would only say that your majesty 
was returning them change for their pounds in halfpence," 
answered Peel. " Your majesty is not perhaps aware that the 
most unpopular person in the parish is the relieving officer, and 
if the queen were to constitute herself a relieving officer for all 
the parishes in the kingdom she would find her money go a very 
little way, and she would provoke more grumbling than thanks." 
Peel added that a sovereign must do all things in order, not 
seeking praise for doing one particular thing well, but striving 
to be an example in all respects, even in dinner-giving. 

Meanwhile the year 1842 was ushered in by splendid fetes in 
honour of the king of Prussia, who held the prince of Wales at 
the font. In the spring there was a fancy-dress ball at Bucking- 
ham Palace, which remained memorable owing to the offence 



which it gave in France. Prince Albert was costumed as 
Edward III., the queen as Queen Philippa, and all the gentle- 
men of the court as knights of Poitiers. The French chose to 
view this as an. unfriendly demonstration, and there was some 
talk of getting up a counter-ball in Paris, the duke of Orleans 
to figure as William the Conqueror. In June the queen took 
her first railway journey, travelling from Windsor to Paddington 
on the Great Western line. The master of the horse, 
queen's whose business it was to provide for the queen's 
first rail- ordinary journeys by road, was much put out by this 
Y ay innovation. He marched into the station several 

tourney. ^ ours before the start to inspect the engine, as he would 
have examined a steed; but greater merriment was occasioned by 
the queen's coachman, who insisted that, as a matter of form, 
he ought to make-believe to drive the engine. After some 
dispute, he was told that he might climb on to the pilot engine 
which was to precede the royal train; but his scarlet livery, 
white gloves and wig suffered so much from soot and sparks 
that he made no more fuss about his rights in after trips. The 
motion of the train was found to be so pleasant I hat the queen 
readily trusted herself to the railway for a longer journey a 
few weeks later, when she paid her first visit to Scotland. 
A report by Sir James Clark led to the queen's visiting 
Balmoral in 1848, and to the purchase of the Balmoral estate in 
1852, and the queen's diary of her journeys in Scotland shows 
what constant enjoyment she derived from her Highland home. 
Seven years before this the estate of Osborne had been pur- 
chased in the Isle of Wight, in order that the queen might have 
a home of her own. Windsor she considered too stately, and 
the Pavilion at Brighton too uncomfortable. The first stone 
of Osborne House was laid in 1845, and the royal family entered 
into possession in September 1846. 

In August 1843 the queen and Prince Albert paid a visit to 
King Louis Philippe at the chateau d'Eu. They sailed from 
Relations Southampton f° r Treport in a yacht, and, as it hap- 
with pened to be raining hard when they embarked, the 

foreign loyal members of the Southampton Corporation remem- 
bered Raleigh, and spread their robes on the ground 
for the queen to walk over. In 1844 Louis Philippe 
returned the visit by coming to Windsor. It was the first 
visit ever paid by a king of France to a sovereign of England, 
and Louis Philippe was much pleased at receiving the Order 
of the Carter. He said that he did not feel that he belonged 
to the " Club " of European sovereigns until he received this 
decoration. As the father of King Leopold of Belgium's con- 
sort, the queen was much interested in his visit, which went 
off with great success and goodwill. The Isar Nicholas had 
visited Windsor earlier that year, in which also Prince Alfred, 
who was to marry the tsar's grand-daughter, was born. 

In 1846 the affair of the " Spanish marriages " seriously 
troubled the relations between the United Kingdom and 
France. Louis Philippe and Guizot had planned the marriage 
of the duke of Montpensier with the infanta Louisa of Spain, 
younger sister of Queen Isabella, who, it was thought at the 
time, was not likely ever to have children. The intrigue was 
therefore one for placing a son of the French king on the 
Spanish throne. (Sec Spain, History.) As to Queen Victoria's 
intervention on this question and on others, these words, 
written by \V. E. Gladstone in 18755 raay be quoted: — 

"Although the admirable arrangements of the Constitution have 
now shielded the sovereign from personal responsibility, they have 
left ample scope for the exercise of direct and personal influence 
in the whole work of government. . . . The sovereign as compared 
with her ministers has, because she is the sovereign, the advantage 
of long experience, wide survey, elevated position and entire dis- 
connexion from the bias of party. Further, personal and domestic 
relations with the ruling families abroad give openings in delicate 
cases for saying more, and saying it at once more gently and more 
efficaciously, than could be ventured in the formal correspondence 
and rude contacts of government. We know with how much 
truth, fulness and decision, and with how much tact and delicacy, 
the queen, aided by Prince Albert, took a principal part on behalf 
of the nation in the painful question of the Spanish marriages." 

The year 3848, which shook so many continental thrones, 


left that of the United Kingdom unhurt. Revolutions broke 
out in Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Madrid, Rome, Naples, Venice, 
Munich, Dresden and Budapest. The queen and Prince 
Albert were affected in many private ways by the events abroad. 
Panic-stricken princes wrote to them for political assistance 
or pecuniary aid. Louis Philippe abdicated and fled to Eng- 
land almost destitute, being smuggled over the Channel by 
the cleverness of the British consul at Havre, and the queen 
employed Sir Robert Peel as her intermediary for providing him 
with money to meet his immediate wants. Subsequently Clare- 
mont was assigned to the exiled royal family of France as a 
resilience. During a few weeks of 1848 Prince William of Prussia 
(afterwards German emperor) found an asylum in England. 

In August 1849 tne queen and Prince Albert, accompanied 
by the little princess royal and the prince of Wales, paid a visit 
to Ireland, landing at the Cove of Cork, which from 
that day was renamed Queenstown. The recep- I8 S 49 r p * 
tion was enthusiastic, and so was that at Dublin. 
''Such a day of jubilee," wrote The Times, "such a night 
of rejoicing, has never been beheld in the ancient capital of 
Ireland since first it arose on the banks of the Liffey." The 
queen was greatly pleased and touched. The project of estab- 
lishing a royal residence in Ireland was often mooted at this 
time, but the queen's advisers never urged it with sufficient 
warmth. There was no repugnance to the idea on the queen's 
part, but Sir Robert Peel thought unfavourably of it as an 
" empirical " plan, and the question of expense was always 
mooted as a serious consideration. There is no doubt that the 
absence of a royal residence in Ireland was felt as a slur upon 
the Irish people in certain circles. 

During these years the queen's family was rapidly becoming 
larger. Princess Alice (afterwards grand duchess of Hesse) 
was born on the 25th of April 1843; Prince Alfred (afterwards 
duke of Edinburgh and duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha) on the 
6th of August 1844; Princess Helena (Princess Christian) 
on the 25th of May 1846; Princess Louise (duchess of Argyll) 
on the iSth of March 1S4S; and Prince Arthur (duke of Con- 
naught) on the j st of May 1850. 

At the end of 1S51 an important event took place, which ended 
a long-standing grievance on the part of the queen, in Lord 
Palmerston's dismissal from the office of foreign secre- 7tte 
tary on account of his expressing approval of Louis queen and 
Napoleon's coup d'etat in Paris. The circumstances LordPai* 
are of extreme interest for the light they throw on mefstottt 
the queen's estimate of her constitutional position and authority. 
Lord Palmerston had never been persona grata at court. His 
Anglo-Irish nature was not sympathetic with the somewhat 
formal character and German training of Prince Albert; and 
his views of ministerial independence were not at all in accord 
with those of the queen and her husband. The queen had 
more than once to remind her foreign secretary that his des- 
patches must be seen by her before they were sent out, and 
though Palmerston assented, the queen's complaint had to be 
continually repeated. She also protested to the prime minister 
(Lord John Russell) in 1848, 1849 and 1850, against various 
instances in which Palmerston had expressed his own personal 
opinions in matters of foreign affairs, without his despatches 
being properly approved either by herself or by the cabinet. 
Lord John Russell, who did not want to offend his popular 
and headstrong colleague, did his best to smooth things over; 
but the queen remained exceedingly sore, and tried hard to get 
Palmerston removed, without success. On the T2th of August 
1850 the queen wrote to Lord John Russell the following 
important memorandum, which followed in its terms a private 
memorandum drawn up for her by Stockmar a few months 
earlier (Letters, h. 282): — 

" With reference to the conversation about Lord Palmerston 
which the queen had with Lord John Russell the other day, and 
Lord Palmerston's disavowal that he ever intended any disrespect 
to her by the various neglects of which she has had so long and so 
often to complain, she thinks it right, in order to avoid any mis- 
takes for the future, to explain what it is she expects from the 
foreign secretary. 



" She requires — 

" I. That he will distinctly state what he proposes in a given 
case, in order that the queen may know as distinctly to what she 
has given her royal sanction. 

" 2. Having given her sanction to a measure, that it be not 
arbitrarily altered or modified by the minister. Such an act she 
must regard as failing in sincerity to the crown, and justly to be 
visited by the exercise of her constitutional right of dismissing 
that minister. She expects to be kept informed of what passes 
between him and the foreign ministers, before important decisions 
are taken, based upon that intercourse; to receive the foreign 
despatches in good time, and to have the drafts for her approval 
sent her in sufficient time to make herself acquainted with their 
contents before they must be sent off. The queen thinks it best 
that Lord John Russell should show this letter to Lord Palmerston." 

Lord Palmerston took a copy of this letter, and promised to 
attend to its direction. But the queen thoroughly distrusted 
him, and in October 1851 his proposed reception of Kossuth 
nearly led to a crisis. Then finally she discovered (December 13) 
at the time of the coup d' Stat, that he had, of his own initiative, 
given assurances of approval to Count Walewski, which were 
not in accord with the views of the cabinet and with the 
"neutrality which had been enjoined" by the queen. This was too 
much even for Lord John Russell, and after a short and decisive 
correspondence Lord Palmerston resigned the seals of office. 

The death of the duke of Wellington in 1852 deeply affected 
the queen. The duke had acquired a position above parties, 
Death of and was the trusted adviser of all statesmen and of the 
the duke court in emergencies. The queen sadly needed such 
of Wet- a counse ii orj f or Prince Albert's position was one full 
Prince ' °f difficulty, and party malignity was continually 
Albert's putting wrong constructions upon the advice which he 
position, gave, and imputing to him advice which he did not 
give. During the Corn Law agitation offence was taken at 
his having attended a debate in the House of Commons, the 
Tories declaring that he had gone down to overawe the 
house in favour of Peel's measures. After Palmerston's en- 
forced resignation, there was a new and more absurd hubbub. 
A climax was reached when the difficulties with Russia arose 
which led to the Crimean War; the prince was accused by the 
peace party of wanting war, and by the war party of plotting 
surrender; and it came to be publicly rumoured that the queen's 
husband had been found conspiring against the state, and had 
been committed to the Tower. Some said that the queen had 
been arrested too, and the prince wrote to Stockmar: " Thou- 
sands of people surrounded the Tower to see the queen and me 
brought to it." This gave infinite pain to the queen, and at 
length she wrote to Lord Aberdeen on the subject. Eventually, 
on 31st January 1854, Lord John Russell took occasion to deny 
most emphatically that Prince Albert interfered unduly with 
foreign affairs, and in both houses the statesmen of the two 
parties delivered feeling panegyrics of the prince, asserting at 
the same time his entire constitutional right to give private 
advice to the sovereign on matters of state. From this time 
it may be said that Prince Albert's position was established on 
a secure footing. He had declined (1850) to accept the post 
of commander-in-chief at the duke of Wellington's suggestion, 
and he always refused to let himself be placed in any situation 
which would have modified ever so slightly his proper relations 
with the queen. The queen was very anxious that he should 
receive the title of " King Consort," and that the crown should 
be jointly borne as it was by William III. and Mary; but he 
himself never spoke a word for this arrangement. It was only to 
please the queen that he consented to take the title of Prince Con- 
sort (by letters patent of June 25, 1857), and he only did this when 
it was manifest that statesmen of all parties approved the change. 
For the queen and royal family the Crimean War time was 
a very busy and exciting one. Her majesty personally supcr- 
Tbe intended the committees of ladies who organized 

Crimean relief for the wounded; she helped Florence Nightin- 
War - gale in raising bands of trained nurses; she visited 

the crippled soldiers in the hospitals, and it was through 
her resolute complaints of the utter insufficiency of the 
hospital accommodation that Netley Hospital was built. The 
jcxvttt. 2 

distribution of medals to the soldiers and the institution of 
the Victoria Cross (February 1857) as a reward for individual 
instances of merit and valour must also be noted among the 
incidents which occupied the queen's time and thoughts. In 
1855 the emperor and empress of the French visited the queen 
at Windsor Castle, and the same year her majesty and the prince 
consort paid a visit to Paris. 

The queen's family life was most happy. At Balmoral and 
Windsor the court lived in virtual privacy, and the queen and 
the prince consort saw much of their children. Count- j he 
less entries in the queen's diaries testify to the anxious queen 
affection with which the progress of each little member and her 
of the household was watched. Two more children am V' 
had been born to the royal pair. Prince Leopold (duke of Albany) 
on the 7th of April 1853, and on the 14th of April 1857 their last 
child, the princess Beatrice (Princess Henry of Battenberg), 
bringing the royal family up to nine — four sons and five 
daughters. Less than a year after Princess Beatrice's birth 
the princess royal was married to Prince Frederick William of 
Prussia, afterwards the emperor Frederick. The next marriage 
after the princess royal's was that of the princess Alice to 
Prince Louis (afterwards grand duke) of Hesse-Darmstadt in 
1862. In 1863 the prince of Wales married the princess Alex- 
andra of Denmark. In 1866 the princess Helena became the 
wife of Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. In 1871 the 
princess Louise was wedded to the marquis of Lome, eldest son 
of the duke of Argyll. In 1874 Prince Alfred, duke of Edin- 
burgh, married Princess Marie Alexandrovna, only daughter of 
the tsar Alexander II. The duke of Connaught married in 
1879 the princess Louise of Prussia, daughter of the soldier- 
prince Frederick Charles. In 1882 Prince Leopold, duke of 
Albany, wedded the princess Helen of Waldeck-Pyrmont. 
Finally came the marriage of Princess Beatrice in 1885 with 
Prince Henry of Battenberg. 

On the occasion of the coming of age of the queen's sons and 
the marriages of her daughters parliament made provision. 
The prince of Wales, in addition to the revenues of the duchy 
of Cornwall, had £40,000 a year, the princess £io,ooo, and an 
addition of £36,000 a year for their children was granted by 
parliament in 1889. The princess royal received a dowry of 
£40,000 and £8000 a year for life, the younger daughters £30,000 
and £6000 a year each. The dukes of Edinburgh, Connaught 
and Albany were each voted an income of £15,000, and £10,000 
on marrying. 

The dispute with the United States concerning the " Trent " 
affair of 1861 will always be memorable for the part played in 
its settlement by the queen and the prince consort. The 
In 1 86 1 the accession of Abraham Lincoln to the presi- American 
dency of the United States of America caused the Civil War * 
Southern States of the Union to revolt, and the war began. 
During November the British West India steamer " Trent " was 
boarded by a vessel of the Federal Navy, the " San Jacinto," and 
Messrs Slidell and Mason, commissioners for the Confederate 
States, who were on Lheir way to England, were seized. The 
British government were on the point of demanding reparation 
for this act in a peremptory manner which could hardly have 
meant anything but war, but Prince Albert insisted on revising 
Lord Russell's despatch in a way which gave the American 
government an opportunity to concede the surrender of the 
prisoners without humiliation. The memorandum from the 
queen on this point was the prince consort's last political draft. 
The year 1861 was the saddest in the queen's life. On 16th 
March, her mother, the duchess of Kent, died, and on 14th 
December, while the dispute with America about the Death of 
u Trent " affair was yet unsettled, the prince consort the prince 
breathed his last at Windsor. His death left a void cons ^ rt * 
in the queen's life which nothing could ever fill. She built at 
Frogmore a magnificent mausoleum where she might be buried 
with him. 

Never again during her reign did the queen live in London, 
and Buckingham Palace was only used for occasional visits of a 
few days. 



At the time of the prince consort's death the prince of Wales 
was in. his twenty-first year. He had spent several terms at 
Marriage e ^ c ^ °* tne two universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 
of the and he had already travelled much, having visited 

prime of most of Europe, Egypt and the United States. 
Wales, fiis marriage was solemnized at Windsor on the ioth of 
March 1863. The queen witnessed the wedding from the private 
pew or box of St George's Chapel, Windsor, but she wore the deep 
mourning which she was never wholly to put off to the end of 
her life, and she took no part in the festivities of the wedding. 

In foreign imperial affairs, and in the adjustment of serious 
parliamentary difficulties, the queen's dynastic influence abroad 
and her position as above party at home, together with the 
respect due to her character, good sense and experience, still 
remained a powerful element in the British polity, as was shown 
Ausira- on rnore than one occasion. In 1866 the Austro- 
prussiaa Prussian War broke out, and many short-sighted people 
War* were tempted to side with France when, in 1867, 

Napoleon III. sought to obtain a "moral compensation" by 
laying a claim to the duchy of Luxemburg. A conference met 
in London, and the difficulty was settled by neutralizing the 
duchy and ordering the evacuation of the Prussian troops 
who kept garrison there. But this solution, which averted an 
imminent war, was only arrived at through Queen Victoria's 
personal intercession. In the words of a French writer — 

" The queen wrote both to the king of Prussia and to the 
emperor Napoleon. Her letter to the emperor, pervaded with 
the religious and almost mystic sentiments which predominate in 
the queen's mind, particularly since the death of Prince Albert, 
seems to have made a deep impression on the sovereign who, 
amid the struggles of politics, had never completely repudiated the 
philanthropic theories of his youth, and who, on the battlefield of 
Solferino, covered with the dead and wounded, was seized w r ith an 
unspeakable horror of war." 

Moreover, Disraeli's two premierships (1868, 1874-80) did 
a good deal to give new encouragement to a right idea of the 
Disraeli constitutional function of the crown. Disraeli thought 
and that the queen ought to be a power in the state. His 

Glad- notion of duty — at once a loyal and chivalrous one — 

s one. was ^ at k e was obliged to give the queen the best 
of his advice, but that the final decision in any course lay 
with her, and that once she had decided, he was bound, what- 
ever might be his own opinion, to stand up for her decision in 
public. The queen, not unnaturally, came to trust Disraeli 
implicitly, and she frequently showed her friendship for him. 
At his death she paid an exceptional tribute to his " dear 
and honoured memory " from his iC grateful and affectionate 
sovereign and friend." To something like this position Lord 
Salisbury after 1886 succeeded. A somewhat different con- 
ception of the sovereign's functions was that of Disraeli's 
great rival, Gladstone, who, though his respect for the person 
and office of the sovereign was unbounded, not only expected 
all people, the queen included, to agree with him when he 
changed his mind, but to become suddenly enthusiastic about 
his new ideas. The queen consequently never felt safe with him. 
Nor did she like his manner — he spoke to her (she is believed to 
have said) as if she w r ere a public meeting. The queen was 
opposed to the Disestablishment of the Irish Church (1869) — - 
the question which brought Gladstone to be premier— and 
though she yielded with good grace, Gladstone was fretful 
and astonished because she would not pretend to give a 
hearty assent to the measure. Through her secretary, General 
Grey, the queen pointed out that she had not concealed from 
Gladstone " how deeply she deplored " his having felt himself 
under the necessity of raising the question, and how appre- 
hensive she was of the possible consequences of the measure; 
but, when a general election had pronounced on the principle, 
when the bill had been carried through the House of Commons 
by unvarying majorities, she did not see what good could be 
gained by rejecting it in the Lords. Later, when through the 
skilful diplomacy of the primate the Lords had passed the second 
reading by a small but sufficient majority (179 to 146), and after 
amendments had been adopted, the queen licrself wrote — 

" The queen ... is very sensible of the prudence and, at the 
same time, the anxiety for the welfare of the Irish Establishment 
which the archbishop has manifested during the course of the 
debates, and she will be very glad if the amendments which have 
been adopted at his suggestion lead to a settlement of the ques- 
tion ; but to effect this, concessions, the queen believes, will have 
to be made on both sides. The queen must say that she cannot 
view without alarm possible consequences of another year of agita- 
tion on the Irish Church, and she would ask the archbishop seriously 
to consider, in case the concessions to which the government may 
agree should not go so far as he may himself wish, whether the 
postponement of the settlement for another year may not be likely 
to result in worse rather than in better terms for the Church. The 
queen trusts, therefore, that the archbishop will himself consider, 
and, as far as he can, endeavour to induce the others to consider, 
any concessions that may be offered by the House of Commons in 
the most conciliatory spirit." 

The correspondence of which this letter forms a part is one of 
the few published witnesses to the queen's careful and active 
interest in home politics during the latter half of her reign- 
but it is enough to prove how wise, how moderate and how 
steeped in the spirit of the Constitution she was. Another 
instance is that of the County Franchise and Redistribution 
Bills of 1884-85. There, again, a conflict between the two 
houses was imminent, and the queen's wish for a settlement had 
considerable weight in bringing about the curious but effective 
conference of the two parties, of which the first suggestion, it 
is believed, was due to Lord Randolph Churchill. 

In 1876 a bill was introduced into parliament for conferring on 
the queen the title of " Empress of India." It met with much 
opposition, and Disraeli was accused of ministering 
simply to a whim of the sovereign, whereas> in fact, ^JU" 
the title was intended to impress the idea of British 
suzerainty forcibly upon the minds of the native princes, and 
upon the population of Hindustan. The prince of Wales's voyage 
to India in the winter of 1875-76 had brought the heir to the 
throne into personal relationship with the great Indian vassals 
of the British crown, and it was felt that a further demonstra- 
tion of the queen's interest in her magnificent dependency 
would confirm their loyalty. 

The queen's private life during the decade 1870-80 was one of 
quiet, broken only by one great sorrow when the Princess Alice 
died in 1878. In 1867 her majesty had started in author- 
ship by publishing The Early Days ■ of the Prince uf™* 
Consort, compiled by General Grey; in 1869 she gave 
to the world her interesting and simply written diary entitled 
Leaves from the Journal of our Life in the Highlands, and jn 
1874 appeared the first volume of The Life and, Letters of the 
Prince Consort (2nd vol. in 1880), edited by Sir Theodore Martin. 
A second instalment of the Highland journal appeared in 
1885. These literary occupations solaced the hours of a life 
which was mostly spent in privacy. A few trips to the- Continent, 
in which the queen .was always accompanied by her youngest 
daughter, the Princess Beatrice, brought a little variety into 
the home-life, and aided much in keeping up the good health 
which the queen enjoyed almost uninterruptedly. So far as 
public ceremonies were concerned, the prince and princess of 
Wales were now coming forward more and more to represent 
the royal family. People noticed meanwhile that the queen 
had taken a great affection for her Scottish man-servant, John 
Brown, who had been in her service since 1849; she made him 
her constant personal attendant, and looked on him more as 
a friend than as servant. When he died in 1883 the queen's 
grief was intense. 

From 1880 onwards Ireland almost monopolized the field 
of domestic politics. The queen was privately opposed to 
Gladstone's Home Rule policy; but she observed in public 
a constitutional reticence on the subject. In the year, however, 
of the Crimes Act 1887, an event took place which was of more 
intimate personal concern to the queen, and of more attractive 
import to the country and the empire at large. June 
20th was the fiftieth anniversary of her accession to jubilee. 
the throne, and on the following day, for the second 
time in English history, a great Jubilee celebration was held 
to commemorate so happy an event. The country threw 



itself into the celebration with unchecked enthusiasm; large 
sums of money were everywhere subscribed; in every city, 
town and village something was done both in the way of 
rejoicing and in the way of establishing some permanent 
memorial of the event. In London the day itself was kept by 
a solemn service in Westminster Abbey, to which the queen 
went in state, surrounded by the most brilliant, royal, and 
princely escort that had ever accompanied a British sovereign, 
and cheered on her way by the applause of hundreds of thousands 
of her subjects. The queen had already paid a memorable visit 
to the East End, when she opened the People's Palace on the 
14th of May. On the 2nd of July she reviewed at Buckingham 
Palace some 28,000 volunteers of London and the home counties. 
On the 4th of July she laid the foundation stone of the Imperial 
Institute, the building at Kensington to which, at the instance 
of the prince of Wales, it had been determined to devote the 
large sum of money collected as a Jubilee offering, and which 
was opened by the queen in 1S93. On the 9th of July the 
queen reviewed 60,000 men at Aldcrshot; and, last and chief 
of all, on the 23rd of July, one of the most brilliant days of 
a brilliant summer, she reviewed the fleet at Spithead. 

The year 1888 witnessed two events which greatly affected 
European history, and in a minor, though still marked, degree 
Thequeca the life of the English court. On the 9th of March 
and the emperor William I. died at Berlin. He was 

Bismarck. succeec ied by his son, the emperor Frederick III., 
regarded with special affection in England as the husband 
of the princess royal. But at the time he was suffering 
from a malignant disease of the throat, and he died on the 
15th of June, being succeeded by his eldest son, the emperor 
William II., the grandson of the queen. Meanwhile Queen 
Victoria spent some weeks at Florence at the Villa Palmieri, 
and returned home by Darmstadt and Berlin. In spite of the 
illness of the emperor Frederick a certain number of court 
festivities were held in her honour, and she had long con- 
versations with Prince Bismarck, who was deeply impressed 
by her majesty's personality. Just before, the prince, who 
was still chancellor, had taken a very strong line with regard to 
a royal marriage in which the queen was keenly interested— 
the proposal that Prince Alexander of Battenberg, lately ruler 
of Bulgaria, and brother of the queen's son-in-law, Prince Henry, 
should marry Princess Victoria, the eldest daughter of the 
emperor Frederick. Prince Bismarck, who had been anti- 
Battenberg from the beginning, vehemently opposed this mar- 
riage, on the ground that for reasons of state policy it would 
never do for a daughter of the German emperor to marry 
a prince who was personally disliked by the tsar. This affair 
caused no little agitation in royal circles, but in the end state 
reasons were allowed to prevail and the chancellor had his 

The queen had borne so well the fatigue of the Jubilee that 
during the succeeding years she was encouraged to make some- 
what more frequent appearances among her subjects. 
In May 1888 she attended a performance of Sir Arthur 
Sullivan's Golden Legend at the Albert Hall, and in August she 
visited Glasgow to open the magnificent new municipal buildings, 
remaining for a couple of nights at Blythswood, the seat of 
Sir Archibald Campbell. Early in 1889 she received at Windsor 
a special embassy, which was the beginning of a memorable 
chapter of English history: two Matabele chiefs were sent 
by King Lobengula to present his respects to the " great White 
Queen," as to whose very existence, it was said, he had up 
till that time been sceptical. Soon afterwards her majesty 
went to Biarritz, and the occasion was made memorable by a 
visit which she paid to the queen-regent of Spain at San Sebas- 
tian, the only visit that an English reigning sovereign had ever 
paid to the Peninsula. 

The relations between the court and the country formed 
matter in 18S9 for a somewhat sharp discussion in parliament 
and in the press. A royal message was brought by Mr W. PI. 
Smith on the 2nd of July, expressing, on the one hand, the 
queen's desire to provide for Prince Albert Victor of Wales, and, 

on the other, informing the house of the intended marriage of 
the prince of Wales's daughter, the Princess Louise, to the 
earl (afterwards duke) of Fife. On the proposal of 
Mr Smith, seconded by Gladstone, a select committee mentary 
was appointed to consider these messages and to grant to 
report to the house as to the existing practice and as theptince 
to the principles to be adopted for the future. The ° aIld ^ s S 
evidence laid before the committee explained to the 
country for the first time the actual state of the royal income, 
and on the proposal of Gladstone, amending the proposal of 
the government, it was proposed to grant a fixed addition of 
£36,000 per annum to the prince of Wales, out of which he 
should be expected to provide for his children without further 
application to the country. Effect was given to this proposal 
in a bill called " The Prince of Wales's Children's Bill," which 
was carried in spite of the persistent opposition of a small* group 
of Radicals. 

In the spring of 1890 the queen visited Aix-les-Bains in the 
hope that the waters of that health resort might alleviate 
the rheumatism from which she was now frequently tsanni 
suffering. She returned as usual by way of Darmstadt, 
and shortly after her arrival at Windsor paid a visit to Baron 
Ferdinand Rothschild at Waddesdon Manor. In February 
she launched the battleship " Royal Sovereign " at Portsmouth; 
a week later she visited the Horse Show at Islington. Her 
annual spring visit to the South was this year paid to the little 
town of Grasse. 

At the beginning of 1892 a heavy blow fell upon the queen 
in the death of the prince of Wales's eldest son Albert Victor, 
duke of Clarence and Avondale. He had never been jy eat ^ 
of a robust constitution, and after a little more than of the 
a week's illness from pneumonia following influenza; tfuAe of 
he died at Sandringham. The pathos of his death areace. 
was increased by the fact that only a short time before it had 
been announced that the prince was about to marry his second 
cousin, Princess May, daughter of the duke and duchess of 

The death of the young prince threw a gloom over the 
country, and caused the royal family to spend the year in 
such retirement as was possible. The queen this year paid a 
visit to Costebelle, and stayed there for some quiet weeks. 
In 1893 the country, on the expiration of the royal mourning, 
began to take a more than usual interest in the affairs of the 
royal family. On the 19th of February, the queen ■ 

left home for a visit to Florence, and spent it 
in the Villa Palmieri. She was able to display remarkable 
energy in visiting the sights of the city, and even went as 
far afield as San Gimignano; and her visit had a notable 
effect in strengthening the bonds of friendship between the 
United Kingdom and the Italian people. On 28th April 
she arrived home, and a few days later the prince of Wales's 
second son, George, duke of York (see George V.), who by his 
brother's death had been left in the direct line of succession to 
the throne, was betrothed to the Princess May, the marriage 
being celebrated on 6th July in the Chapel Royal of St James's 

In 1894 the queen stayed for some weeks at Florence, and 
on her return she stopped at Coburg to witness the marriage 
between two of her grandchildren, the grand duke - 

of Hesse and the Princess Victoria Melita of Coburg. 
On the next day the emperor William officially announced 
the betrothal of the Cesarevitch (afterwards the tsar Nicholas II.) 
to the princess Alix of Hesse, a granddaughter whom 
the queen had always regarded with special affection. Aftet 
a few weeks in London the queen went northwards and stopped 
at Manchester, where she opened the Ship Canal. Two days 
afterwards she celebrated her seventy-fifth birthday in quiet 
at Balmoral. A month later (June 23) took place the birth 
of a son to the duke and duchess of York, the child receiving 
the thoroughly English name of Edward. 

In 1895 the queen lost her faithful and most efficient private 
secretary, General Sir Henry Ponsonby, who for many years 




had helped her in the management of her most private affairs 
and had acted as an intermediary between her and her ministers 
Death of wu:ri singular ability and success. His successor was 
Prince Sir Arthur Bigge. The following year, 1896, was 

Henry of marked by a loss which touched the queen even more 
nearly and more personally. At his own urgent 
request Prince Henry of Battenberg, the queen's 
son-in-law, was permitted to join the Ashanti expedition, and 
early in January the prince was struck down with fever. He 
was brought to the coast and put on board her majesty's ship 
*' Blonde," where, on the 20th, he died. 

In September 1S96 the queen's reign had reached a point 
at which it exceeded in length that of any other English 
The sovereign; but by her special request all public 

Diamond celebrations of the fact were deferred until the follow- 
Jubiiee. | n g j une? which marked the completion of sixty 
years from her accession. As the time drew on it was 
obvious that the celebrations of this Diamond Jubilee, as 
it was popularly called, would exceed in magnificence those 
of the Jubilee of 1887, Mr Chamberlain, the secretary for the 
colonies, induced his colleagues to seize the opportunity of 
making the jubilee a festival of the British empire. Accordingly, 
the prime ministers of all the self-governing colonics, with 
their families, were invited to come to London as the guests 
of the country to take part in the Jubilee procession; and 
drafts of the troops from every British colony and dependency 
were brought home for the same purpose. The procession 
was, in the strictest sense of the term, unique. Here was a 
display, not only of Englishmen, Scotsmen, Irishmen, Welsh- 
men, but of Mounted Rifles from Victoria and New South 
Wales, from the Cape and from Natal, and from the Dominion 
of Canada. Here were Hausas from the Niger and the Gold 
Coast, coloured men from the West India regiments, zaptiehs 
from Cyprus, Chinamen from Hong Kong, and Dyaks — now 
civilized into military police — from British North Borneo. 
Here, most brilliant sight of all, were the Imperial Service troops 
sent by the native princes of India; while the detachments 
of Sikhs who marched earlier in the procession received their 
full meed of admiration and applause. Altogether the queen 
was in her carriage for more than four hours, in itself an 
extraordinary physical feat for a woman of seventy-eight. 
Her own feelings were shown by the simple but significant 
message she sent to her people throughout the world: " From 
my heart I thank my beloved people. May God bless them." 
The illuminations in London and the great provincial towns 
were magnificent, and all the hills from Ben Nevis to the South 
Downs were crowned with bonfires. The queen herself held 
a great review at Aldershot; but a much more significant 
display was the review by the prince of Wales of the fleet 
at Spithead on Saturday, the 26th of June. No less than 165 
vessels of all classes were drawn up in four lines, extending 
altogether to a length of 30 m. 

The two years that followed the Diamond Jubilee were, as 
regards the queen, comparatively uneventful. Her health 
remained good, and her visit to Cimiez in the spring of 1898 
was as enjoyable and as beneficial as before. In May 1899, 
after another visit to the Riviera, the queen performed what 
proved to be her last ceremonial function in London: she 
proceeded in " semi-state " to South Kensington, and laid the 
foundation stone of the new buildings completing the Museum 
—henceforth to be called the Victoria and Albert Museum — 
which had been planned more than forty years before by the 
prince consort. 

Griefs and anxieties encompassed the queen during the last 
year of her life. But if the South African War proved more 
The serious than had been anticipated, it did more to 

queen's weld the empire together than years of peaceful 
last year, progress might have accomplished. The queen's 
frequent messages of thanks and greeting to her colonies 
and to the troops sent by them, and her reception of 
the latter at Windsor, gave evidence of the heartfelt joy 
with which she saw the sons of the empire giving their lives 

for the defence of its integrity; and the satisfaction which 
she showed in the Federation of the Australian colonies was 
no less keen. The reverses of the first part of the Boer cam- 
paign, together with the loss of so many of her officers and 
soldiers, caused no small part of that " great strain " of which 
the Court Circular spoke in the ominous words which first 
told the country that she was seriously ill. But the queen 
faced the new situation with her usual courage, devotion and 
strength of will. She reviewed the departing regiments; she 
entertained the wives and children of the Windsor soldiers who 
had gone to the war; she showed by frequent messages her 
watchful interest in the course of the campaign and in the 
efforts which were being made throughout the whole empire; 
and her Christmas giFt of a box of chocolate to every soldier in 
South Africa was a touching proof of her sympathy and interest. 
She relinquished her annual holiday on the Riviera, feeling 
that at such a time she ought not to leave her country. Entirely 
on her own initiative, and moved by admiration for the fine 
achievements of " her brave Irish " during the war, the queen 
announced her intention of paying a long visit to Dublin; and 
there, accordingly, she went for the month of April 1900, 
staying in the Viceregal Lodge, receiving many of the leaders 
of Irish society, inspecting some 50,000 school children from 
all parts of Ireland, and taking many a drive amid the charming 
scenery of the neighbourhood of Dublin. She went even further 
than this attempt to conciliate Irish feeling, and to show her 
recognition of the gallantry of the Irish soldiers she issued an 
order for them to wear the shamrock on St Patrick's Day, and 
for a new regiment of Irish Guards to be constituted. 

In the previous November the queen had had the pleasure 
of receiving, on a private visit, her grandson, the German Em- 
peror, who came accompanied by the empress and by two of 
their sons. This visit cheered the queen, and the successes of 
the army which followed the arrival of Lord Roberts in Africa 
occasioned great joy to her, as she testified by many published 
messages. But independently of the public anxieties of the 
war, and of those aroused by the violent and unexpected out- 
break of fanaticism in China, the year brought deep private 
griefs to the queen. In 1899 her grandson, the hereditary prince 
of Coburg, had succumbed to phthisis, and in iqoo his father, 
the duke of Coburg, the queen's second son, previously known 
as the duke of Edinburgh, also died (July 30). Then Prince 
Christian Victor, the queen's grandson, fell a victim to enteric 
fever at Pretoria; and during the autumn it came to be known 
that the empress Frederick, the queen's eldest daughter, was 
very seriously ill. Moreover, just at the end of the year a loss 
which greatly shocked and grieved the queen was experienced 
in the sudden death, at Windsor Castle, of the Dowager Lady 
Churchill, one of her oldest and most intimate friends. These 
losses told upon the queen at her advanced age- Throughout 
her life she had enjoyed excellent health, and even in the last 
few years the only marks of age were rheumatic stiffness of the 
joints, which prevented walking, and a diminished power of 
eyesight. In the autumn of 1900, however, her health began 
definitely to fail, and though arrangements were made Death 
for another holiday in the South, it was plain that her of the 
strength was seriously affected. Still she continued Queen, 
the ordinary routine of her duties and occupations. Before 
Christmas she made her usual journey to Osborne, and there 
on the 2nd of January she received Lord Roberts on his return 
from South Africa and handed to him the insignia of the Garter. 
A fortnight later she commanded a second visit from the field- 
marshal; she continued to transact business, and until a week 
before her death she still took her daily drive. A sudden loss 
of power then supervened, and on Friday evening, the i8th of 
January, the Court Circular published an authoritative announce- 
ment of her illness. On Tuesday, the 22nd of January 1901, 
she died. 

Queen Victoria was a ruler of a new type. When she ascended 
the throne the popular faith in kings and queens was on the 
decline. She revived that faith; she consolidated her throne; 
she not only captivated the affections of the multitude, but 


won the respect of thoughtful men; and all this she achieved 
by methods which to her predecessors would have seemed im- 
practicable — methods which it required no less shrewdness to 
discover than force of character and honesty of heart to adopt 
steadfastly. Whilst all who approached the queen bore witness 
to her candour and reasonableness in relation to her ministers, 
all likewise proclaimed how anxiously she considered advice 
that was submitted to her before letting herself be persuaded 
that she must accept it for the good of her people. 

Though richly endowed with saving common sense, the 
queen was not specially remarkable for high development of 
any specialized intellectual force. Her whole life, public and 
private, was an abiding lesson in the paramount importance 
of character. John Bright said of her that what specially 
struck him was her absolute truthfulness. The extent of 
her family connexions, and the correspondence she maintained 
with foreign sovereigns, together with the confidence inspired 
by her personal character, often enabled her to smooth the 
rugged places of international relations; and she gradually 
became in later years the link between all parts of a demo- 
cratic empire, the citizens of which felt a passionate loyalty for 
their venerable queen. 

By her long reign and unblemished record her name had 
become associated inseparably with British institutions and 
imperial solidarity. Her own life was by choice, and as far 
as her position would admit, one of almost austere simplicity 
and homeliness; and her subjects were proud of a royalty 
which involved none of the mischiefs of caprice or ostentation, 
but set an example alike of motherly sympathy and of queenly 
dignity. She was mourned at her death not by her own country 
only, nor even by all English-speaking people, but by the 
whole world. The funeral in London on the ist and 2nd of 
February, including first the passage of the coffin from the Isle 
of Wight to Gosport between lines of warships, and secondly a 
military procession from London to Windsor, was a memorable 
solemnity: the greatest of English sovereigns, whose name 
would in history mark an age, had gone to her rest. 

There is a good bibliographical note at the end of Mr Sidney Lee's 
article in the National Dictionary of Biography. See also the Letters 
of Queen Victoria (1907), and the obituary published by The Times, 
from which some passages have been borrowed above. (H . Ch.) 


(r. 1540-c. 1013), Spanish musical composer, was born at Avila 
(unless, as Haberl conjectures, his title of Presbyter Abulensis 
refers not to his birthplace but to his parish as priest, so that his 
name would indicate that he was born at Vittoria). In rS73 he 
was appointed as Maestro di Cappella to the Collegium Germani- 
cum at Rome, where he had probably been trained. Victoria 
left Rome in r^Sg, being then appointed vice-master of the Royal 
Chapel at Madrid, a post which he held until 1602. In r6o3 
he composed for the funeral of the empress Maria the greatest 
requiem of the Golden Age, which is his last known work, 
though in 1613 a contemporary speaks of him as still living. 
He was not ostensibly Palestrina's pupil; but Palestrina had 
the main influence upon his art, and the personal relations 
between the two were as intimate as were the artistic. The 
work begun by Morales and perfected by Palestrina left no 
stumbling-blocks in Victoria's path and he was able from the 
outset to express the purity of his ideals of religious music 
without having to sift the good from the bad in that Flemish 
tradition which had entangled Palestrina's path while it enlarged 
his stvlc. From Victoria's first publication in 1572 to his last 
requiem (the Ojjkium Defunctorum of 1605) there is practically 
no change of style, all being pure church music of unswerving 
loftiness and showing no inequality except in concentration 
of thought. Like his countryman and predecessor Morales, he 
wrote no secular music; 1 yet he differs from Morales, perhaps 
more than can be accounted for by his later date, in that his 
devotional spirit is impulsive rather than ascetic. His work 

1 One French song is mentioned by Hawkins, but no secular 
music appears in the prospectus of the modern complete edition 
of his works published by Breitkopf and Hartel. 


is the crown of Spanish music: music which has been regarded 
as not constituting a special school, since it absorbed itself so 
thoroughly in the Rome of Palestrina. Yet, as has been aptly 
pointed out in the admirable article " Vittoria " in Grove's 
Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Roman music owes so much 
to that Spanish school which produced Guerrero, Morales and 
Victoria, that it might fairly be called the Hispano- Roman 
school. In spite of the comparative smallness of Victoria's 
output as compared with that of many of his contemporaries, 
there is no mistaking his claim to rank with Palestrina and 
Orlando di Lasso in the triad of supreme 16th-century masters. 
In any extensive anthology of liturgical polyphony such as the 
Muska Divina of Proske, his work stands out as impressively 
as Palestrina's and Lasso's; and the style, in spite of a resem- 
blance to Palestrina which amounts to imitation, is as individual 
as only a successful imitator of Palestrina can be. That is to 
say, Victoria's individuality is strong enough to assert itself 
by the very act of following Palestrina's path. When he is 
below his best his style does not become crabbed or harsh, but 
over-facile and thin, though never failing in euphony. If he 
seldom displays an elaborate technique it is not because he 
conceals it, or lacks it. His mastery is unfailing, but his 
methods are those of direct emotional effect; and the intellectual 
qualities that strengthen and deepen this emotion are themselves 
innate and not sought out. The emotion is reasonable and 
lofty, not because he has trained himself to think correctly, 
but because he does not know that any one can think otherwise. 
His works fill eight volumes in the complete edition of Messrs 
Breitkopf and Hartel. ( D. F. T.) 

VICTORIA, a British colonial state, occupying the south- 
eastern corner of Australia. Its western boundary is in 140° 
58' E.; on the cast it runs out to a point at Cape Howe, in 150 
E. long., being thus rudely triangular in shape; the river Murray 
constitutes nearly the whole of the northern 1 boundary, its 
most northerly point being in 34° S. lat.; the southern boundary 
is the coast-line of the Southern Ocean and of Bass Strait; the 
most southerly point is Wilson's Promontory in 39° S. lat. 
The greatest length east and west is about 480 m.; the greatest 
width, in the west, is about 250 m. The area is officially 
stated to be 87,884 sq. Tn. 

The coast-line may be estimated at about 800 m. It 
begins about the 141st meridian with bold but not lofty sand- 
stone cliffs, worn into deep caves and capped by grassy undu- 
lations, which extend inland to pleasant park-like lands. Capes 
Bridgewater and Nelson form a peninsula of forest lands, 
broken by patches of meadow. To the east of Cape Nelson 
lies the moderately sheltered inlet of Portland Bay, consisting 
of a sweep of sandy beach flanked by bold granite rocks. Then 
comes a long unbroken stretch of high cliffs, which, owing to 
insetting currents, have been the scene of many calamitous 
wrecks. Cape Ot way is the termination of a wild mountain 
range that here abuts on the coast. Its brown cliffs rise verti- 
cally from the water; and the steep slopes above are covered 
with dense forests of exceedingly tall timber and tree-ferns. 
Eastwards from this cape the line of cliffs gradually diminishes 
in height to about 20 to 40 ft. at the entrance to Port 
Phillip. Next comes Port Phillip Bay, at the head of which 
stands the city of Melbourne. When the tide recedes from this 
bay through the narrow entrance it often encounters a strong 
current just outside; the broken and somewhat dangerous sea 
thus caused is called "the Rip." East of Port Phillip Bay 
the shores consist for 15 m. of a line of sandbanks; but 
at Cape Schanck they suddenly become high and bold. East 
of this comes Western Port, a deep" inlet more than half occupied 
by French Island and Phillip Island. Its shores are flat and 
uninteresting, in some parts swampy. The bay is shallow and 
of little use for navigation. The coast continues rocky round 
Cape Liptrap. Wilson's Promontory is a great rounded mass 
of granite hills, with wild and striking scenery, tree-fern gullies 
and gigantic gum-trees, connected with the mainland by a 
narrow sandy isthmus. At its extremity lie a multitude of 
rocky islets, with steep granite edges. North of this cape, and 




I Af*]cy ,\ • ,• • 

opening to the east, lies Comer Inlet, which is dry at low water. 
The coast now continues low to the extremity of the colony. 
The slight bend northward forms a sort of bight called the 
Ninely Mile Beach, but it really exceeds that length. It is an 
unbroken line of sandy shore, backed by low sandhills, dn 
which grows a sparse dwarf vegetation. Behind these hills 
comes a succession of lakes, surrounded by excellent land, and 
beyond these rise the soft blue outlines of the mountain masses 
of the interior. The shores on the extreme east are somewhat 
higher, and occasionally rise in bold points. They terminate 
in Cape Howe, off which lies Gabo Island, of small extent but 
containing 1 an important lighthouse and signalling station. 

The western half of Victoria is level or slightly undulating, and 
as a rule tame in its scenery, exhibiting only thinly timbered grassy 
lands, with all the appearance of open parks. . The north-west 
corner of the colony, equally flat, is dry and sometimes sandy, 
and frequently bare of vegetation, though in one part some seven 
or eight millions of acres are covered with the dense brushwood 
known as " mallee scrub." This wide western plain is slightly 
broken in two places. In the south the wild ranges of Cape 
Otway are covered over a considerable area with richly luxurious 
but almost impassable forests. This district has been reserved 
as a state forest and its coast forms a favourite holiday resort, 
the scenery being very attractive. The middle of the plain is 
crossed by a thin line of mountains, known, as the Australian 
Pyrenees, at the western extremity of which_ there are several 
irregularly placed transverse ranges, the chief being the Grampians, 
the Victoria Range and the Sierra Range. Their highest point 
is Mount William (3600 feet). The eastern half of the colony is 
wholly different. Though there is plenty of level land, it occurs 
in small patches, and chiefly in the south, in Gippsland, which 
extends from Corner Inlet to Cape Howe. But a great part of this 
eastern half is occupied with the complicated mass of ranges known 
collectively as the Australian Alps. The whole forms a plateau 
averaging from 1000 to 2000 ft. high, with many smaller table- 

lands ranging from 3000 to 5000 ft. in height. The highest peak, 
Bogong, is 6308 ft. in altitude. The ranges are so densely covered 
with vegetation that it is extremely difficult to penetrate them. 
About fifteen peaks over 5000 ft. in height have been measured. 
Along the ranges grow the giant trees for which Victoria is famous. 
The narrow valleys and gullies contain exquisite scenery, the rocky 
streams being overshadowed by groves of graceful tree-ferns, from 
amid whose waving fronds rise the tall smooth stems of the white 
gums. Over ten millions of acres are thus covered with forest-clad 
mountains which in due time will become a very valuable asset of 
the state. The Australian Alps arc connected with the Pyrenees 
by a long ridge called the Dividing Range (1500 to 3000 ft. high). 

Victoria is fairly well watered, but its streams are generally too 
small to admit of navigation. This, however, is not the case with 
_. the Murray river (<p.). The Murray for a distance of 

' 670 m. (or 1250 m. if its various windings be followed) formfc 
the boundary between New South Wales and Victoria; it receives 
a number of tributaries from the Victorian side. The Mitta Mitta, 
which rises in the heart of the. Australian Alps, is Igo m. long. 
The Ovens, rising among the same mountains, is slightly shorter. 
The Goulburn (340 m.) Bows almost entirely through well-settled 
agricultural country, and is deep enough to be used in its lower 
part for navigation. The valley of this river is a fertile grain- 
producing district. The Campaspe (150 m.) has too little volume 
of water to be of use for navigation ; its valley is also agricultural, 
and along its banks there lie a close succession of thriving town- 
ships. The Loddon (over 200 m.) rises in the Pyrenees. The upper 
part flows through a plain, to the right agricultural and to the 
left auriferous, containing nearly forty thriving towns, including 
Bendigo (formerly named Sandhurst) and Castlemaine. In the 
lower part of the valley the soil is also fertile, but the rainfallis 
small. To the west of the Loddon is the Avoca river with a length 
of 140 in.; it is of slight volume, and though it flows towards the 
Murray it loses itself in marshes and salt lagoons before reaching 
that river. 

The rivers which flow southwards into the ocean are numerous. 
The Snowy river rises in New South Wales, and in Victoria Mows 
entirely through wild and almost wholly unoccupied territory. 


The Tambo (120 m. long), which rises in the heart of the Australian 
Alps, crosses the Gippsland plains and falls into Lake King, one 
of the Gippsland lakes; into the same lake falls the Mitchell river, 
rising also in the Australian Alps. The Mitchell is navigated for a 
short distance. The Latrobe empties itself into Lake Wellington 
after a course of 135 m.; it rises at Mount Baw Baw. The Yarra 
Yarra rises in the " Black Spur " of the Australian Alps. Emerging 
in a deep valley from the ranges, it follows a sinuous course through 
the undulating plains called the " Yarra Flats," which are wholly 
enclosed by hills, on whose slopes are some of the best vineyards of 
Australia; it finds its way out of the Flats between high and pre- 
cipitous but well-wooded banks, and finally reaches Port Phillip 
Bay below Melbourne. Owing to its numerous windings its course 
through that city and its suburbs is at least thirty miles. Nearer 
to the sea its waterway, formerly available for vessels drawing 16 ft., 
has now been deepened so as to be available for vessels drawing 
20 ft. The Barwon, farther west, is a river of considerable length 
but little volume, flowing chiefly through pastoral lands.. The 
Hopkins and Glenelg (280 m.) both water the splendid pastoral 
lands of the west, the lower course of the former passing through 
the fertile district of Warrnambool, well known throughout Australia 
as a potato-growing region. 

In the west there are Lakes Corangamite and Colac, due north 
of Cape Otway. The former is intensely salt; the latter is fresh, 
having an outlet for its waters. Lakes Tyrrell and Hindmarsh 
lie in the plains of the north-west. In summer they are dried up, 
and in winter are again formed by the waters of rivers that have 
no outlet. In the east are the Gippsland lakes, formed by the waters 
of the Latrobe. Mitchell and Tambo, being dammed back by the 
sandhills of the Ninety Mile Beach. They are connected with Bass 
Strait by a narrow and shifting channel through a shallow bar; 
the government of Victoria has done a great deal of late years to 
deepen the entrance and make it safer. The upper lake is called 
Lake Wellington; a narrow passage leads into Lake Victoria, 
which is joined to a wider expanse called Lake King. These arc all 
fresh-water lakes and are visited by tourists, being readily accessible 
from Melbourne. (T. A. C.) 

Geology. — Victoria includes a more varied and complete geo- 
logical sequence than any other area of equal size in Australia. Its 
geological foundation consists of a Band of Archean and Lower 
Palaeozoic rocks, which forms the backbone of the state. The 
sedimentary rocks in this foundation have been thrown into folds, 
of which the axes trend approximately north and south. The 
Lower Palaeozoic and Archean rocks build up the Highlands of 
Victoria, which occupy the whole width of the state at its eastern 
end, extending from the New South Wales border on the north 
to the shore of the Southern Ocean on the south. These Highlands- 
constitute the whole of the mountainous country of Gippsland 
and the north-eastern districts. They become narrower to the 
west, and finally, beyond the old plateau of " Dundas, disappear 
beneath the recent loams of the plains along the South Australian 
border. The Lower Palaeozoic and Archean rocks bear upon their 
surface some Upper Palaeozoic rocks, which occur iri belts running 
north and south, and have been preserved by infolding or faulting; 
such are the Grampian Sandstones in the west; the Cathedral 
Mountain Sandstones to the north-east of Melbourne; the belt 
of Devonian and Lower Carboniferous rocks that extends across 
eastern Victoria, through Mount Wellington to Mansfield; and 
finally, far to the east, is the belt of the Snowy river porphyries, 
erupted by a chain of Lower Devonian volcanoes. Further Upper 
Palaeozoic rocks and the Upper Carboniferous glacial beds occur 
in basins on both northern and southern flanks of the Highlands. 
The Mesozoic rocks are confined to southern Victoria; they build 
up the hills of southern Gippsland and the Otway Ranges; and 
farther west, hidden by later rocks, they occur underthe coast of 
the western district. Between the southern mountain chain and 
the Victorian Highlands occurs the Great Valley of Victoria, occupied 
by sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Kainozoic age. The North- 
western Plains, occurring between thenorthern foot of the Highlands 
and the Murray, are occupied by Kainozoic sediments. 

Victoria has a fairly complete geological sequence, though it is 
poorer than New South Wales in the Upper Carboniferous and Lower 
Mesozoic. The Archean roc*ks form two blocks of gneisses and 
schists, which build up the Highlands of Dundas in the west, and 
of the north-eastern part of Victoria. They were originally de- 
scribed as metamorphosed Silurian rocks, but must be of Archean 
age. Another series of Archean rocks is more widely developed, 
and forms the old framework upon which the geology of Victoria 
has been built up. They are known as the Heathcotian series, 
and consist of phyllites, schists and amphibolites ; while their most 
characteristic feature is the constant association of foliated diabase 
and beds of jasperoids. Volcanic agglomerates occur in the series 
it the typical locality of Heathcote. The Heathcotian rocks form 
the Coibinabbin Range, which runs for 40 m. northward and 
southward, east of Bendigo. They are also exposed on the surface 
at the eastern foot of the Grampian Range, and at Dookie, and on the 
southern coast in Waratah Bay; they have been proved by bores 
under Rushworth, and they apparently underlie parts uf the Gipps- 
land coalfields. The Cambrian rocks have so far only been de- 


finitely proved near Mansfield. Mr A. M. Howkt has there collected 
some fragmentary remains of Olenellus and worm tubes of the 
Cambrian genus Salterella. These beds at Mansfield contain phos- 
phatic limestones and wavellite. 

The Ordovician system is well developed. It' consists of slates 
and quartzites; and some schists around the granites of the western 
district, and in the Pyrenees, are regarded as metamorphic Ordovician. 
The Ordovician has a rich graptolitic fauna, and they have been 
classified into the following divisions : — 

Upper Ordovician . Darriwill Series 

i Castlemaine Series 

Lower Ordovician . . ] Bendigo Series 

( Lancefield Series 

The Ordovician beds are best developed in a band running norths 
north-west and south-south-east across Victoria, of which the 
eastern boundary passes through Melbourne. This Ordovician 
band begins on the south with the block forming the plateau of 
Arthur's Seat and Mornington Peninsula, as proved by Ferguson. 
This outlier is bounded to the north by the depression of Port Phillip 
and the basalt plains west of Melbourne. It reappears north of 
them at Lancefield, whence it extends along the Highlands, past 
Ballarat, with southern outliers as far as Steiglitz. It forms the 
whole of the Ballarat Plateau, and is continued northward through 
the goldfields of Castlemaine, Bendigo and the Pyrenees, till it 
dips under the North- Western Plains. Certain evidence as to the 
age of the rocks in the Pyrenees has not yet been collected, and they 
may be pre-Ordovician. Some Upper Ordovician rocks occur in 
the mountains of eastern Gippsland, as near Woods Point, and in 
north-eastern Victoria, in Wombat Creek. 

The Silurian system consists of two divisions: the lower or Mel- 
bournian, and the upper or Yeringian. Both consist in the main 
of sandstones, quartzites and shales; but the upper series includes 
lenticular masses of limestone, at Lillydale, Loyola and along 
the Thomson river. The limestones are rich in typical Silurian 
corals and bryozoa, and the shales and sandstones contain brachio- 
pods and trilobites. The Silurian rocks are well exposed in sections 
near Melbourne; they occur in a belt running from the southern coast 
at Waratah Bay, west of Wilson's Promontory, north-north-west- 
ward across Victoria, and parallel to the Ordovician belt, which 
underlies them on the west. The Silurian rocks include the gold- 
fields of the Upper Yarra, Woods Point, Walhalla and Rushworth, 
while the limestones are worked for lime at Lillydale and Waratah 
Bay. The Devonian system includes representatives of the lower, 
middle and upper series. The Lower Devonian series includes the 
porphyries and their associated igneous rocks, along the valley of 
the Snowy river. They represent the remains of an old chain of 
volcanoes which once extended north and south across Victoria. The 
Middle Devonian is mainly formed of marine sandstones, and lime- 
stones in eastern Gippsland. It is best developed in the valleys 
of the Mitchell, the Tambo and the Snowy rivers. The Upper 
Devonian rocks include sandstones, shales and coarse conglomerates. 
At the close of Middle Devonian times there were intense crustal 
disturbances, and the granitic massifs, which formed the primitive 
mountain axis of Victoria, were then intruded. 

The Carboniferous system begins with the Avon river sandstones, 
containing Leptdodendron, and the red sandstones, with Lower 
Carboniferous fish, collected by Mr Geo; Sweet near Mansfield. 
Probably the Grampian Sandstone, the Cathedral Mountain Sand- 
stone, and some in the Mount Wellington district belong to the same 
period. The Upper Carboniferous includes the famous glacial 
deposits and boulder clays, by which the occurrence of a Carboni- 
ferous glaciation in the Southern Hemisphere was first demonstrated. 
These beds occur at Heathcote, Bendigo^ the Loddon Valley, 
southern Gippsland and the North-Eastern district. The beds 
comprise boulder clay, containing ice-scratched boulders, and 
sometimes rest upon ice- scratched, moutonn6 surfaces, and some 
lake deposits, similar to those laid down in glacial lakes. The 
glacial beds are overlain by sandstones containing Gangamopteris, 
and Kitson's work in Northern Tasmania leaves no doubt that they 
are on the horizon of the Greta or Lower Coal^Measures of New South 

The Mesozoic group is represented only by Jurassic rocks, which 
form the mountains of southern Gippsland and include its coal- 
fields. The rocks contain fossil land plants, occasional fish remains 
and the claw of a dinosaur, &c. The coal is of excellent quality. 
The mudstones, which form the main bulk of this series, are largely 
composed of volcanic debris, which decomposes to a fertile soil. 
These rocks trend south-westward along the Bass Range, which 
reaches Western Port- They skirt the Mornington Peninsula,, 
underlie part of Port Phillip and the Bellarine Peninsula, and are 
exposed in the Barrabool Hills to the south-west of Geelong; thence 
they extend into the Otway Ranges, which are wholly built of these 
rocks and contain some coal seams. Farther west they disappear 
below the recent sediments and volcanic rocks of the Warrnambool 
district. They are exposed again in the Portland Peninsula, and 
rise again to form the Wannon Hills, to the south of Dundas. 

The Kainozoic beds include three main series: lacustrine, marine 
and volcanic. The main lacustrine series is probably of OHgocene 


age, and is important from its thick beds of brown coal, which are 
thickest in the Great Valley of Victoria in southern Gippsland. A 
cliff face on the banks of the Latrobe, near Morwell, shows go ft. of 
it, and a bore near Morwell is recorded as having passed through 
850 ft. of brown coal. Its thickness, at least in patches, is very 
great. The brown coals occur to the south-east of Melbourne, 
under the basalts between it and Geelong. Brown coal is also 
abundant under the Murray plains in north-western Victoria. The 
Kainozoic marine rocks occur at intervals along the southern coast 
and in the valleys opening from it. The most important horizon 
is apparently of Miocene age. The rocks occur at intervals in eastern 
Victoria, along the coast and up the river valleys, from the Snowy 
river westward to Alberton. At the time of the deposition of these 
beds Wilson's Promontory probably extended south-eastward and 
joined Tasmania; for the mid- Kainozoic marine deposits do not 
occur between Alberton and Flinders, to the west of Western Port. 
They extend up the old valley of Port Phillip as far as Kcilor to the 
north of Melbourne, and are widely distributed under the volcanic 
rocks of the Western Plains. They are exposed on the floors of the 
volcanic cauldrons, and have been found by mining operations 
under the volcanic rocks of the Ballarat plateau near Pitfield. The 
Miocene sea extended up the Glenelg valley, round the western 
border of the Dundas Highlands, and spread over the Lower Murray 
Basin into New South Wales; its farthest south-eastern limit was 
in a valley at Stawell. Some later marine deposits occur at the 
Lakes Entrance in eastern Gippsland, and in the valley of the 

The volcanic series begins with a line of great dacite domes 
including the geburite-dacite of Macedon, which is associated with 
solvsbergites and trachy-dolerites. The eruption 0/ these domes 
was followed by that of sheets of basalt of several different ages, 
and the intrusion of some trachyte dykes. The oldest basalts are 
associated with the Oligocene lake deposits; and fragments of the 
large lava sheets of this period form some of the table-topped moun- 
tains in the Highlands of eastern Victoria. The river gravels below 
the lavas have been worked for gold, and land plants discovered in 
the workings. At Flinders the basalts are associated with Miocene 
limestones. The largest development of the volcanic rocks are a 
series of confluent sheets of basalt, forming the Western Plains, 
which occupy over 10,000 sq. m. of south-western Victoria. 
They are crossed almost continuously by the South- Western 
railway for 166 m. from Melbourne to Warrnambool. The volcanic 
craters built up by later eruptions are well preserved: such arc 
Mount Elephant, a simple breached cone; Mount Noorat, with 
a large primary crater and four secondary craters on its flanks; 
Mount Warrenheip, near Ballarat, a single cone with the crater 
breached to the north-west. Mount Franklin, standing on the 
Ordovician rocks north of Daylesford, is a weathered cone breached 
to the south-east. In addition to the volcanic craters, there are 
numerous volcanic cauldrons formed by subsidence, such as Bullen- 
merri and Gnotuk near Camperdown, Keilembete near Terang, and 
Tower Hill near Port Fairy. Tower Hill consists of a large volcanic 
cauldron, and rising from an island in a lake on its floor is a later 
volcanic crater. 

The Pleistocene, or perhaps Upper Pliocene, deposits of most 
interest are those containing the bones of giant marsupials, such as the 
Diprotodon and Palorchestes, which have been found near Geelong, 
Castlemaine, Lake Kolungulak, &c; at the last locality Diprotodon 
and various extinct kangaroos have been found in association with 
the dingo. There is no trace in these deposits of the existence of 
man, and J. W. Gregory has reasserted the striking absence of 
evidence of man's residence in Victoria, except for a very limited 
period. There is no convincing evidence of Pleistocene glacial 
deposits in Victoria. Of the many records, the only one that can 
still be regarded as at all probable is that regarding Mount Bogong. 

The chief literature on the geology of Victoria is to be found in 
the maps and publications of the Geological Survey— a branch of 
the Mines Department. A map of the State, on the scale of eight 
inches to the mile, was issued in 1902. The Survey has published 
numerous quarter-sheet maps, and maps of the gold fields and 
parishes. The geology is described in the Reports, Bulletins and 
Memoirs of the Survey, and in the Quarterly Reports of the Mining 
Registrars. Statistics of the mining industry are stated in the 
Annual Report of the Secretary for Mines. See also the general 
summary of the geology of Victoria, by R. Murray, issued by the 
Mines Department in 1887 and 1895. Numerous papers on the 
geology of the State are contained in the Trans. R. Soc. Victoria, 
and on its mining geology in the Trans, of the Austral. Inst. Min. 
Engineers. The physical geography has been described by J. W. 
Gregory in the Geography of Victoria (1903). (J. W. G.) 

Flora. — The native trees belong chiefly to the Myrtaceae, being 
largely composed of Eucalypti or gum trees. There are several 
hundred species, the most notable being Eucalyptus amygdalina, a 
tree with tall white stem, smooth as a marble column, and without 
branches for 60 or 70 ft. from the ground. It is singularly beautiful 
when seen in groves, for these have all the appearance of lofty 
pillared cathedrals. These trees are among the tallest in the world, 
averaging in some districts about 300 ft. The longest ever 
measured was found prostrate on the Black Spur: it measured 


470 ft. in length; it was 81 ft. in girth near the root. Eucalyptus 
globulus or blue gum has broad green leaves, which yield the 
eucalyptus oil of the pharmacopoeia. Eucalyptus roslrata is ex- 
tensively used in the colony as a timber, being popularly known as 
red gum or hard wood. It is quite unaffected uy weather, and 
almost indestructible when used as piles for piers or wharves. 
Smaller species of eucalyptus form the common '' bush." Mela- 
leucas, also of Myrtacea kind, are prominent objects along all the 
coasts, where they grow densely on the sand-hills, forming " ti-tree " 
scrub. Eucalyptus dumosa is a species which grows only C to 12 ft. 
high, but with a straight stem; the trees grow so close together 
that it is difficult to penetrate the scrub formed by them. Eleven 
and a half million acres of the Wimmera district are covered with 
this " mallee scrub," as it is called. Recent legislation has made 
this land easy of acquisition, and the whole of it has been taken 
up on pastoral leases. Five hundred thousand acres have recently 
been taken up as an irrigation colony on Californian principles and 
laid out in 40-acre farms and orchards. The Leguminosae are 
chiefly represented by acacias, of which the w r attle is the commonest. 
The black wattle is of considerable value, its gum being marketable 
and its bark worth from £5 to £10 a ton for tanning purposes. The 
golden wattle is a beautiful tree, whose rich yellow blossoms fill the 
river-valleys in early spring with delicious scent. The Casuarinae 
or she-oaks are gloomy trees, of little use, but of frequent occurrence. 
Heaths, grass-trees and magnificent ferns and fern-trees are also 
notable features in Victorian forests. But European and subtropical 
vegetation has been introduced into the colony to such an extent 
as to have largely altered the characters of the flora in many districts. 

Fauna.— The indigenous animals belong almost wholly to the 
Marsupialia. Kangaroos are tolerably abundant on the grassy 
plains, but the process of settlement is causing their extermination. 
A smaller species of almost identical appearance called the wallaby 
is still numerous in the forest lands. Kangaroo rats, opossums, 
wombats, native bears, bandicoots and native cats all belong to 
the same class. The wombat forms extensive burrows in some 
districts. The native bear is a frugivorous little animal, and very 
harmless. Bats are numerous, the largest species being the flying 
fox, very abundant in some districts. Eagles, hawks, turkeys, 
pigeons, ducks, quail, snipe and plover are common; but the 
characteristic denizens of the forest .are vast flocks of parrots, 
parakeets and cockatoos, with sulphur-coloured or crimson crests. 
The laughing, jackass (giant kingfisher) is heard in all the country 
parts, and magpies are numerous everywhere. Snakes are numerous, 
but less than one-fourth of the species are venomous, and they are 
all very shy. The deaths from snake-bite do not average two per 
annum. A great change is rapidly taking place in the fauna of the 
country, owing to cultivation and acclimatization. Dingoes have 
nearly disappeared, and rabbits, which w r ere introduced only a. 
few years ago, now abound in such numbers as to be a positive 
nuisance. Deer are also rapidly becoming numerous. Sparrows 
and swallows are as common as in England. The trout, which 
has also been acclimatized, is taking full possession of some of the 

Climate.— Victoria enjoys an exceptionally fine climate. Roughly 
speaking, about one-half of the days in the year present a bright, 
cloudless sky, with a bracing and dry atmosphere, pleasantly warm 
but not relaxing. These days are mainly in the autumn and 
spring. During forty-eight years, ending with 1905, there have 
been on an average 132 days annually on which rain has fallen more 
or less (chiefly in winter, but rainy days do not exceed thirty 
in the year. The average yearly rainfall was 25-61 in. The 
disagreeable feature of the Victorian climate is the occurrence of 
north winds, which blow on an average about sixty days in the 
year. In winter they, are cold and dry, and have a slightly depressing 
effect; but in summer they are hot and dry, and generally bring 
with them disagreeable clouds of dust. The winds themselves blow 
for periods of two or three days at a time, and if the summer has 
six or eight such periods it becomes relaxing and produces languor. 
These winds cease with extraordinary suddenness, being replaced 
in a minute or two by a cool and bracing breeze from the south. 
The temperature often falls 40° or 50 F. in an hour. The 
maximum shade temperature at Melbourne in 1905 was 108-5°, 
and the minimum 32 ,. giving a mean of 56-1°. The temperature 
never falls below freezing-point, except for an hour or two before 
sunrise in the coldest month. Snow has been known to fall in 
Melbourne for a few minutes two or three times during a long 
period of years. It is common enough, however, on the plateau; 
Ballarat, which is over 1000 ft. high, always has a few snowstorms, 
and the roads to Omeo among the Australian Alps lie under several 
leet of snow in the winter. The general healthiness of the climate 
is shown by the fact that the average death-rate for the last five 
years has been only 12*71 of the population. 

Population. — As regards population, Victoria maintained the 
leading position among the Australasian colonies until the end 
of 1891, when New South Wales overtook it. The population 
in 1905 was r, 218,571, the proportion of the sexes being nearly 
equal. In i860 the population numbered 537,847; in 1870, 


720,599; in 1880, 860,067; and in 1890, 1,133,266. The state 
had gained little, if anything, by immigration during these 
years, for the excess of immigration over emigration from 1861 
to 1870 and from 1881 to 1890 was counterbalanced by the 
excess of departures during the period 1871 to 1880 and from 
1891 to 1905. The mean population of Melbourne in 1905 
was 51 1,900. 

The births in 1905 numbered 30,107 and the deaths 14,676, 
representing respectively 24-83 and 12-10 per 1000 of the popula- 
tion. The birth-rate has fallen markedly since 1875, as the following 
statement of the averages arranged in quinquennial periods shows: — 


Births per iooo 
of Population. 


Births per iooo 
of Population. 







1 896- 1 900 



The number of illegitimate births during 1905 was 1689, which 
gives a proportion of 5-61 to every 100 births registered. The 
death-rate has greatly improved. Arranged in quinquennial 
periods the death-rates were:— 


Deaths per iooo 
of Population. 


Deaths per iooo 
of Population. 

1861 -65 





1 896-1 900 



The marriages in 1905 numbered 8774, which represents a rate of 
7-24 per 1000 persons. This was the highest number reached 
during a period ol fourteen years, and was 564 more than in 1904 
and 1 169 more than in 1903. In the five years 1871-75 the marriage- 
rate stood at 6-38 per iooo; in 1876-80, 6-02; in 1881-85, 7*37; 
in 1886-90, 8-13; in 1901-5, 6-86. 

Outside Melbourne and suburbs, the most important towns are 
Ballarat (49,648), Bendigo (43,666), Geelong (26,642), Castlemaine 
(8063), Warrnambool (6C00), Maryborough (6000) and Stawell 
(5 2 00). 

Religion. — The Church of England, as disclosed at the census of 
1901, had 432,704 adherents; the Roman Catholic Church came 
next with 263,710; the Presbyterians had 190,725; Weslcyans 
and Methodists, 180,272 ; Congregationalists, 17,141 ; Baptists, 
32,648; Lutherans, 13,935; Jews, 5907; and the Salvation Army, 
whose Australian headquarters are in Melbourne, 8830. 

Education. — There were in 1905 1930 state schools, in which 
there were 210,200 children enrolled, the teachers numbering 4689. 
There were also 771 private schools with 2289 teachers and a net 
enrolment of 43,014 children; the majority of them being connected 
with one or other of the principal religious denominations. The 
total cost of primary instruction in 1905 was £676,238, being ns. 2d. 
per head of population and £4, 14s. 40!. per head of scholars in average 
attendance. Melbourne University maintains its high position as 
a teaching body. In 1905 the number of matriculants was 493 and 
the graduates 118. 

Crime is decreasing. In 1905 the number of persons brought 
before the magistrates was 48,345. Drunkenness accounted for 
14,458, which represents 1 1 -92 per 1 000 of the population : in 
1901 the proportion was 14-43. Charges against the person numbered 
1932, and against property 4032. 

Administration. — As one of the six states of the Common- 
wealth, Victoria returns six senators and twenty-three repre- 
sentatives to the federal parliament. The local legislative 
authority is vested in a parliament of two chambers, both elective 
— the Legislative Council, composed of thirty-five members, 
and the Legislative Assembly, composed of sixty-eight members. 
One-half of the members of the Council retire every three years. 
The members of the Assembly are elected by universal suffrage 
for the term of three years, but the chamber can be dissolved 
at any time by the Governor in council. Members of the 
Assembly are paid £300 a year. 

The whole of Victoria in 1905 was under the control of munici- 
palities, with the exception of about 600 sq. m. in the mountain- 
ous part of Wonnangatta, and 64 sq. m. in French Island. The 
number of municipalities in that year was 206; they comprised 
11 cities, 11 towns, 38 boroughs and 146 shires. 


Finance. — The public revenue in 1905 showed an increase on 
that of the three previous years, being £7,515,142, equal to £6, 45. 2d. 
per head of population; the expenditure amounted to £7,343,742, 
which also showed a slight increase and was equal to £6, is. 4d. per 
inhabitant. The public revenue in five-yearly periods since 1880 
was: 1880, £4,621,282; 1885, £6,290,361; 1890, £8,519,159; 
1895. £6,712,512; and 1901, £7,722,397. The chief sources of 
revenue in 1905 were: Customs duties (federal refunds), £2,017,378; 
other taxation, £979,029; railway receipts, £3,609,120; public 
lands, £408,836; other sources, £501,379. Dtie main items of 
expenditure were : railways (working expenses), £2,004,601 ; 
public instruction, £661,794; interest and charges on public debt, 
£1,884,208; other services, £2,793,139. On the 30th of June 1905 
the public debt of the state stood at £51,513,767, equal to £42, 9s. 7d. 
per inhabitant. The great bulk of the proceeds of loans was applied 
to the construction of revenue-yielding works, only about three 
millions sterling being otherwise used. 

Up to 1905 the state had alienated 26,346,802 acres of the public 
domain, and had 17,994,233 acres underlease; the area neither 
alienated nor leased amounted to 11,904,725 acres. 

The capital value of properties as returned by the municipalities 
in 1905 was £210,920,174, and the annual value £11,743,270. In 
1884 the values were 104 millions and £8,099,000, and in 1891, 
203 millions and £i3-734 I ooo; the year last mentioned marked the 
highest point of inflation in land values, and during the following 
years there was a vast reduction, both in capital and in annual 
values, the lowest point touched being in 1895; since 1895 a gradual 
improvement has taken place, and there is every evidence that this 
improvement will continue. The revenues of municipalities are 
derived chiefly from rates, but the rates are largely supplemented 
by fees and licences, and contributions for services rendered. Ex- 
cluding government endowments and special grants, which in 
1905 amounted to £90,572, the revenues of the municipalities in 
the years named were: 1880, £616,132; 1885, £789,429; 1890, 
£i-273>855; 1895, £1,038,720; 1900, £1,036,497; 1905, £1,345,221. 
In addition to the municipalities there are other local bodies 
empowered to levy rates; these and their revenues in 1905 were: 
Melbourne Harbour Trust, £189,983; Melbourne and Metropolitan 
Board of Works, £390,441 ; Fire Boards, £53,279. The Board of 
Works is the authority administering the metropolitan water and 
sewerage works. Excluding revenue from services rendered, the 
amount of taxation levied in Victoria reached in 1905 £4,621,608; of 
this the federal government levied £2,488,843, the state government 
£979,029, the municipalities £986,009, and the Melbourne Harbour 
Trust £167,727. 

Productions and Industry: Minerals. — About 25,40c persons find 
employment in the goldfields, and the quantity of gold won in 1905 
was 810,050 oz., valued at £3.173.744, a decrease of 10,96702. as 
compared with 1904. The dividends paid by gold-mining com- 
panies in 1905 amounted to £454,431, which, although about the 
average of recent years, showed a decline of £168,966 as compared 
with the sum distributed in 1904. Up to the close of 1905 the total 
value of gold won from the first discovery in 1S51 was £273,236,500. 
No other metallic minerals are systematically worked, although 
many valuable deposits are known to exist. Brown coal, or lignite, 
occurs extensively, and attempts have frequently been made to use 
the mineral for ordinary fuel purposes, but without much success. 
Black coal is now being raised in increasingly large quantities. 
The principal collieries are the Outrim Howitt, the Coal Creek- 
Proprietary, the Jumbunna and the Korumburra, all in the Gipps- 
land district. The production of coal in 1905 was 155,185 tons, 
valued at £79,060; £4100 worth of silver and £11,159 worth of 
tin were raised; the value of other minerals produced was 
£93>39 2 » making a total mineral production (exclusive of gold) of 

Agriculture. — Judged by the area under tillage, Victoria ranks 
first among the states of the Australian group. The area under crop 
in 1905 was 4,269,877 acres, compared with 2,116,000 acres in 1891 
and 1,435,000 acres in 1881. Wheat-growing claims the chief 
attention, 2,070,517 acres being under that cereal in 1905. The 
areas devoted to other crops were as follows: maize, 11,785 acres; 
oats, 312,052 acres; barley, 40,938 acres; other cereals, 14,212 acres; 
hay, 591,771 acres; potatoes, 44,670 acres; vines, 26,402 acres; 
green foliage, 34,041 acres; other tillage, 73,574 acres; land in 
fallow comprised 1,049,915 acres. Victorian wheat is of exception- 
ally fine quality, and usually commands a high price in the London 
market. The average yield per acre in 1905 was 11-31 bushels; 
except for the year 1903, the total crop and the average per acre in 
1905 were the highest ever obtained. The yield of oats was 23-18 
bushels per acre, of barley 25-95, a "d of potatoes 2-58 tons. Great 
progress has been made in the cultivation of the grape vine, and 
Victoria now produces more than one-third of the wine made in 

Live Stock. — The number of sheep in 1905 was 11,455,115. The 
quality of the sheep is steadily _ improving. Systematic attention 
to stock has brought about an improvement in the weight of the 
fleece, and careful observations show that between 1861 and 1871 
the average weight of wool per sheep increased about one-third; 
between 1871 and 18S1 about one pound was added to the weight 

+ 2 


per fleece, and there has been a further improvement since the year 
named. The following were the number of sheep depastured at the 
dates named: 1861, 6,240,000; 1871, 10,002,000; 1881, 10,267,000; 
1891, 12,928,000; 1901, 10,841,790. The horses number 385,513, 
the swine 273,682, and the horned cattle 1,737,690; of these last, 
649 T ioo were dairy cows. Butter-making has greatly increased 
since 1890, and a fairly large export trade has arisen. In 1905, 
57,606,821 lb of butter were made, 4,297,350 lb of cheese and 
16,433,665 lb of bacon and hams. 

Manufactures.— There has been a good deal of fluctuation in the 
amount of employment afforded by the factories, as the following 
figures show: hands employed, 1885, 49,297; 1890, 56,639; 1893, 
39,473; 1895, 46,095; 1900, 64,207; 1905, 80,235. Of the hands 
last named, 52,925 were males and 27,310 females. The total 
number of establishments was 4264, and the horse-power of machinery 
actually used, 43,492. The value of machinery was returned at 
£6,187,919, and of land and buildings £7,771,238. The majority 
of the establishments were small; those employing from 50 to 100 
hands in 1905 were 161 , and upwards of 100 hands, 124. 

Commerce.— Excluding the coastal trade, the tonnage of vessels 
entering Victorian ports in 1905 was 3,989,903, or about 3 J- tons 
per inhabitant. The imports in the same year were valued at 
£22,337,886, and the exports at £22,758,828. These figures repre- 
sent £18, 8s. 5d. and £18, 15s. 6d. per inhabitant respectively. The 
domestic produce exported was valued at £14,276,961; in 1891 the 
value was £13,026,426; and in 1881, £12,480,567. The compara- 
tively small increase over the period named is due mainly to the large 
fall in prices of the staple articles of local production. There has, 
however, been some loss of trade due to the action of the New South 
Wales government in extending its railways into districts formerly 
supplied from Melbourne. The principal articles of local production 
exported during 1905 with their values were as follows: butter and 
cheese, £1,576,189; gold (coined and bullion), £1,078,560; wheat, 
£1,835,204; frozen mutton, £275,195; frozen and preserved rabbits 
and hares, £220,940; skins and hides, £535,086; wool, £2,501,990; 
horses, £278,033 ; cattle, £293,241 ; sheep, £326,526 ; oats, 
£165,585; flour, £590,297; hay and chaff, £97,471; bacon and 
ham, £89,943; jams and jellies, £73,233; fruit (dried and fresh), 
£125,330. The bulk of the trade passes through Melbourne, the 
imports in 1905 at that port being £18,112,528. 

Defence. — The Commonwealth defence forces in Victoria number 
about 5700 men, 4360 being partially paid militia and 1000 unpaid 
volunteers. There are also 18,400 riflemen belonging to rifle clubs. 
Besides these there are 200 naval artillerymen, capable of being 
employed either as a light artillery land force, or on board war 
vessels. The total expenditure in 1905 for purposes of defence in 
the state was £291,577. 

Railways. — The railways have a total length of 3394 m., and the 
cost of their construction and equipment up to the 30th of June 
1905 was £41,259,387; this sum was obtained by raising loans, 
mostly in London, on the security of the general re\ r enues of the 
state. In 1905 the gross railway earnings were £3,582,266, and the 
working expenses £2,222,279; so that the net earnings were 
£! .359.987i which sum represents 3-30 % on the capital cost. 

Posts and Telegraphs. — Victoria had a length of 6338 m. of tele- 
graph line in operation in 1905; there were 969 stations, and the 
business done was represented by 2,256,482 telegrams. The post- 
offices, properly so-called, numbered 1673 ; during that year 
119,689,000 letters and postcards and 59,024,000 newspapers and 
packets passed through them. The postal service is carried on at 
a profit; the revenue in 1905 was £708,365, and the expenditure 
£627,735. Telephones are widely used; in 1905 the length of 
telephone wire in use was 28,638 m., and the number of telephones 
14,134; the revenue from this source for the year was £102,396. 

Banking. — At the end of 1905 the banks of issue in Victoria, 
eleven in number, had liabilities to the extent of £36,422,844, and 
assets of £40,511,335. The principal items among the liabilities 
were: notes in circulation, £835,499; deposits bearing interest, 
£ 2 3.°55'743: and deposits not bearing interest, £12,068,153. The 
chief assets were: coin and bullion, £8,056,666; debts due, 
£29,918,226; property, £1,919,230; other assets, £617,213. The 
money in deposit in the savings banks amounted to £10,896,741, 
the number of depositors being 447,382. The total sum on deposit 
in the state in 1905 was, therefore, £46,020,637, which represents 
£37- I 5 S - 4d. per head of population. 

Authorities. — J. Bonwick, Discovery and Settlement of Port 
Phillip (Melbourne, 1856), Early Days of Melbourne (Melbourne, 
1857), and Port Phillip Settlement (London, 1883) ; Rev. J. D. Lang, 
Historical Account -of the Separation of Victoria from New South 
Wales (Sydney, 1 870) ; Victorian Year-Booh (annually, 1 873- 
1905, Melbourne); F. P. Labilliere, Early History of the Colony of 
Victoria (London, 1878); G. W. Kusden, Discovery, Survey and 
Settlement of Port Phillip (Melbourne, 1878); R. B. Smyth, The 
Aborigines of Victoria (2 vols., Melbourne, 1878); J. J. Shillinglaw, 
Historical Records of Port Phillip (Melbourne, 1879); David Blair, 
Cyclopaedia of Australasia (Melbourne, 1881); E. Jenks, The 
Government of Victoria (London, 1881) ; F.. M. Curr, The Australian 
Race: its Origin, Language, Customs, &c. (Melbourne, 1886-87); 
Edmund Finn, Chrontcles of Early Melbourne (Melbourne, 1889); 

Philip Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography (Melbourne, 
1892); T. A. Coghlan, Australia and New Zealand (1903-4). 

(T. A. C.) 

History. — The first discoverer of Victoria was Captain Cook, 
in command of H.M.S. " Endeavour," who sighted Cape Everard, 
about half-way between Cape Howe and the mouth of the Snowy 
river, on the 19th of April 1770, a few days prior to his arrival at 
Botany Bay. The first persons to land in Victoria were the 
supercargo and a portion of the crew of the merchant ship 
" Sydney Cove," which was wrecked at the Fumeaux Islands in 
Bass Strait on the gth of February 1797. In the same year, 
Mr Bass, a surgeon in the navy, discovered the strait which 
bears his name and separates Victoria from Tasmania. Lieut. 
Grant in the" Lady Nelson" surveyed the; south coast in 1800, 
and in 1801 Port Phillip was for the first time entered by Lieut. 
Murray. In 1802 that harbour was surveyed by Captain 
Flinders, and in the same year Mr Grimes, the surveyor-general 
of New South Wales, explored the country in the neighbour- 
hood of the present site of Melbourne. In 1804 Lieut. -Colonel 
Collins, who had been sent from England, formed a penal 
settlement on the shores of Port Phillip, but after remaining 
a little more than three months near Indented Head, he removed 
his party to Van Diemen Land. Victoria was visited in 1824 
by two sheep farmers named Hume and Ho veil, who rode 
overland from Lake George, New South Wales, to the shores 
of Corio Bay. In 1826 a convict establishment was 
attempted by the government of New South Wales at d %yg 

Settlement Point, near French Island, Western Port 
Bay, but it was abandoned shortly afterwards. In 1834 
Messrs Edward and Francis Henty, who had taken part in 
the original expedition to Swan river, West Australia, and 
afterwards migrated to Van Diemen Land, crossed Bass Strait, 
established a shore whaling station at Portland Bay, and formed 
sheep and cattle stations on the river Wannon and Wando 
rivulet, near the site of the present towns of Merino, Casterton 
and Coleraine. In 1835 a number of flock owners in Van 
Diemen Land purchased through Batman from the aborigines 
a tract of 700,000 acres on the shores of Port Phillip. The sale 
was repudiated by the British government, which regarded 
all unoccupied land in any part of Australia as the property of 
the crown, and did not recognize the title of the aborigines. 
Batman, however, remained at Port Phillip, and commenced 
farming within the boundaries of the present city of Melbourne. 
He was followed by John Pascoe Fawkner and other settlers 
from Van Diemen Land, who occupied the fertile plains of the new 
territory. In 1836 Captain Lonsdale was sent to Melbourne by 
the government of New South Wales to act as resident magis- 
trate in Port Phillip. The first census taken in 1838 showed that 
the population was 3511, of whom 3080 were males and 431 
females. In 1839 Mr Latrobe was appointed superintendent of 
Port Phillip, and a resident judge was nominated for Melbourne, 
with jurisdiction over the territory which now forms the state 
of Victoria. The years 1840 and 1841 were periods of depression 
owing to the decline in the value of all descriptions of live stock, 
for which the first settlers had paid high prices; but there was 
a steady immigration from Great Britain of men with means, 
attracted by the profits of sheep-farming, and of labourers 
and artisans who obtained free passages under the provisions 
of the Wakefield system, under which half the proceeds from the 
sale and occupation of crown lands were expended upon the 
introduction of workers. The whole district was occupied by 
sheep and cattle graziers, and in 1841 the population had 
increased to 11,738. Melbourne was incorporated as a town in 
1842, and was raised to the dignity of a city in 1847. I n that 
same year the first Anglican was ordained, and in 1848 the first 
"Roman Catholic bishop. The third census (taken in 1846) 
showed a population of 3 2,870. 

The elective element was introduced into the Legislative 
Council of New South Wales in 1842, in the proportion of 
twenty-four members to twelve nominated by the crown, and 
the district of Port Phillip, including Melbourne, returned six 
members. But the colonists were not satisfied with government 


from and by Sydney; an agitation in favour of separation 
commenced, and in 1851 Victoria was formed into a separate 
colony with an Executive Council appointed by the crown, and 
a Legislative Council, partly elective and partly nominated, on 
the same lines as that of New South Wales. The population at 
that date was 77,435. Gold was discovered a few weeks after 
the colony had entered upon its separate existence, and a largo 
number of persons were attracted to the mines, first from the 
neighbouring colonies — some of which, such as South Australia, 
Van Diemcn's Land and West Australia, were almost denuded of 
able-bodied men and women — and subsequently from Europe 
and America. Notwithstanding the difficulties with which the 
local government had to contend, the task of maintaining law 
and order was fairly grappled with; the foundations of a liberal 
system of primary, secondary and university education were 
laid; roads, bridges and telegraphs w r ere constructed, and 
Melbourne was provided with an excellent supply of water. 

Local self-government was introduced in 1853, and the 
Legislature found time to discuss a new Constitution, which not 
Local self- only eliminated the nominee element from the Legis- 
govera- lature, but made the executive government responsible 
menU to the people. The administration of the gold-fields 
was not popular, and the miners were dissatisfied at the amount 
charged for permission to mine for gold, and at there being 
no representation for the gold-fields in the local Legislature. 
The discontent culminated, at Ballarat in December 1854, in 
riots in which there was a considerable loss of life both amongst 
the miners and the troops. Eventually, an export duty on gold 
was substituted for the licence fee, but every miner had to take 
out a right which enabled him to occupy a limited area of land 
for mining, and also for residence. The census taken in 1854 
showed a population of 236,778. The new Constitution was 
proclaimed in 1855, and the old Executive Council was gazetted 
as the first responsible ministry. It held office for about 
sixteen months, and was succeeded by an administration 
formed From the popular party. Several changes were made 
in the direction of democratizing the government, and vote by 
ballot, manhood suffrage and the abolition of the property 
qualification followed each other in rapid succession. To several 
of these changes there Was strenuous opposition, not so much in 
the Assembly which represented the manhood, as in the Council 
in which the property of the colony was supreme. The crown 
lands were occupied by graziers, termed locally " squatters," 
who held them under a licence renewable annually at a low 
rental. These licences were very valuable, and the goodwill 
of a grazing farm or " run" commanded a high price. Persons 
who desired to acquire freeholds for the purpose of tillage could 
only do so by purchasing the land at auction, and the local 
squatters, unwilling to be deprived of any portion of a valuable 
property, were generally willing to pay a price per acre with which 
no person of small means desirous of embarking upon agricultural 
pursuits could compete. The result was that although the 
population had increased in r86i to 540,322, the area of land 
under crop had not grown proportionately, and Victoria was 
dependent upon the neighbouring colonies and even more distant 
countries for a considerable portion of its food. A series of Land 
Acts was passed, the first in i860, with the view of encouraging 
a class of small freeholders. The principle underlying all these 
laws was that residence by landowners on their farms, and their 
cultivation, were more important to the state than the sum 
realized by the sale of the land. The policy was only partially 
successful, and by a number of ingenious evasions a large 
proportion of the best land in the colony passed into the posses- 
sion of the original squatters. But a sufficient proportion was 
purchased by small farmers to convert Victoria into a great 
agricultural country, and to enable it to export large quantities 
of farm and dairy produce. 

The greater portion of the revenue was raised by the taxation 
through the customs of a small number of products, such as 
spirits, tobacco, wine, tea, coffee, &c. But an agitation arose 
in favour of such an adjustment of the import duties as would 
protect the manufactures which at that time were being com- 


menced. A determined opposition to this policy was made by a 
large minority in the Assembly, and by a large majority in the 
Council, but by degrees the democratic party triumphed. The 
victory was not gained without a number of political crises 
which shook the whole fabric of society to its foundations. 
The Assembly tacked the tariff to the Appropriation Bill, and 
the Council threw out both. The result was that there was no 
legal means of paying either the civil servants or the contractors, 
and the government had recourse to an ingenious though 
questionable system by which advances were made by a bank 
which was recouped through the crown " confessing " that it 
owed the money, whereupon the governor issued his warrant 
for its payment without any recourse to parliament. Similar 
opposition was made by the Council to payment of members, 
and to a grant made to Lady Darling, the wife of Governor Sir 
Charles Darling, who had been recalled by the secretary of 
state on the charge of having shown partiality to the democratic 
party. Indeed on one occasion the dispute between the 
government and the Council was so violent that the former 
dismissed all the police, magistrates, county court judges and 
other high officials, on the ground that no provision had been 
made by the Council, which had thrown out the Appropriation 
Bill, for the payment of salaries. 

Notwithstanding these political struggles, the population of 
the colony steadily increased, and the Legislature found time 
to pass some measures which affected the social life and the 
commercial position of the colonies. State aid to religion 
was abolished, and divorce was made comparatively easy. A 
system of free, compulsory and secular primary education was 
introduced. The import duties were increased and the transfer 
of land was simplified. In 1880 a fortnightly mail service via 
Suez between England and Melbourne was introduced, and in 
1880 the first International Exhibition ever held in Victoria 
was opened. In the following year the census showed a popu- 
lation of 862,346, of whom 452,083 were males and 410,263 
females. During the same year the lengthy dispute between 
the two houses of parliament, which had caused so much incon- 
venience, so many heartburnings and so many political crises, 
was brought to an end by the passage of an act which reduced 
the qualifications for members and the election of the Legis- 
lative Council, shortened the tenure of their seats, increased 
the number of provinces to fourteen and the number of 
members to forty-two. In 1883 a coalition government, in 
which the Liberal or protectionist and the Conservative or 
free-trade party were represented, took office, and with some 
changes remained in power for seven years. During this political 
truce several important changes were made in the Constitution. 
An act for giving greater facilities for divorce was passed, and 
with some difficulty obtained the royal assent. The Victorian 
railways were handed over to the control of three commissioners, 
who to a considerable extent were made independent of the govern- 
ment, and the civil service was placed under the supervision of an 
independent board. In 1887 the representatives of Victoria met 
those of the other British colonies and of the United Kingdom 
in London, under the presidency of Lord Knutsford, in order to 
discuss the qtiestions of defence, postal and telegraphic com- 
munication, and the contribution of Australia to the Imperial 
navy. In 1888 a weekly mail service was established via Suez 
by the steamers of the P. & 0. and the Orient Companies, and 
the second Victorian International Exhibition was opened. 
In 1890 all the Australian colonies, including New South Wales 
and New Zealand, sent representatives to a conference at 
Melbourne, at which resolutions were passed in favour of the 
establishment of a National Australian Convention empowered 
to consider and report upon an adequate scheme for the Federal 
Constitution. This Convention met in Sydney in 1891 and 
took the first step towards federation (see Australia). 

In 1801 the coalition government resigned and a Liberal 
administration was formed. An act passed in that year 
placed the railways again under the control of the government. 
Measures of a democratic and collectivist tendency have since 
obtained the assent of the Legislature. The franchise of 




property-holders not resident in an electorate was abolished 
and the principle of " one man one vote " was established. 
Acts have been passed sanctioning Old Age Pensions; pro- 
hibiting shops, except those selling perishable goods, from 
keeping open more than eight hours; compelling the pro- 
prietors to give their assistants one half-holiday every six 
days; preventing persons from working more than forty-eight 
hours a week; and appointing for each trade a tribunal com- 
posed of an equal number of employers and employed to fix 
a minimum wage. (See Australia.) 

Victoria enjoyed a large measure of prosperity during the 
later 'eighties and earlier 'nineties, and its financial prosperity 
enabled the government to expend large sums in extending 
railway communication to almost every locality and to com- 
mence a system of irrigation. The soil of Victoria is on the 
whole more fertile than in any other colony on the mainland 
of Australia, and in no portion of the continent is there any 
locality equal in fertility to the western district and some parts 
of Gippsland. The rainfall is more equable than in any portion 
of Australia, but the northern and north-western districts, 
which are the most remote from the sea and the Dividing Range, 
are subject to droughts, which, although not so severe or so 
frequent as in the interior of the continent, are sufficiently 
disastrous in their effects. The results of the expenditure upon 
irrigation have not been so successful as was hoped. Victoria 
has no mountains covered with snow, which in Italy and South 
America supply with water the rivers at the season of the year 
when the land needs irrigation, and it was necessary to construct 
large and expensive reservoirs. The cost of water is therefore 
greater than the ordinary agriculturist who grows grain or 
breeds and fattens stock can afford to pay, although the price 
may not be too high for orchardists and vine-growers. In 
1892 the prosperity of the colony was checked by a 
great strike which for some months affected produc- 
tion, but speculation in land continued for some time 
longer, especially in Melbourne, which at that time contained 
nearly half the population, 500,000 out of a total of 1,140,105. 
There does not seem to have been any other reasons for this 
increase in land values, for there was no immigration, and the 
value of every description of produce had fallen— except that 
the working classes were prosperous and well paid, and that 
the purchase of small allotments in the suburbs was a popular 
mode of investment. In 1893 there was a collapse. The 
value of land declined enormously, hundreds of persons believed 
to be wealthy were ruined, and there was a financial panic which 
caused the suspension of all the banks, with the exception of 
the Australasia, the Union of Australia, and the New South 
Wales. Most of them resumed payment, but three went into 
liquidation. It was some years before the normal condition 
of prosperity was restored, but the great resources of the colony 
and the energy of its people discovered new markets, and new 
products for them, and enabled them materially to increase the 
export trade. (G. C. L.) 

VICTORIA, a city and port of Brazil, capital of the state 
of Espirito Santo, on the W. side of an island at the head of 
the Bay of Espirito Santo, 270 m. N.E. of Rio de Janeiro, in 
lat. 20 18' S., long. 40 20' W. Pop. (1902, estimated) 9000. 
The city occupies the beach and talus at the base of a high, 
wooded mountain. The principal streets follow the water-line, 
rising in terraces from the shore, and are crossed by narrow, 
steep, roughly paved streets. The buildings are old and of 
the colonial type. The governor's residence is an old convent, 
with its church at one side. The entrance to the bay is rather 
tortuous and difficult, but is sufficiently deep for the largest 
vessels. It is defended by five small forts. The harbour is 
not large, but is safe and deep, being completely shut in by 
hills. A large quay, pier, warehouses, &c, facilitate the hand- 
ling of cargoes, which were previously transported to and from 
the anchorage by lighters. Victoria is a port of call for coasting 
steamers and a shipping port in the coffee trade. The other 
exports are sugar, rice and mandioca (manioc) to home ports. 
Victoria was founded in 1535 by Vasco Fernando Coutinho, 

on the S. side and nearer the entrance to the bay, and received 
the name of Espirito Santo. The old site is still occupied, and 
is known as Villa Velha (Old Town). The name of Victoria 
was adopted in 1558 in commemoration of a crushing defeat 
inflicted by Fernando da Sa on the allied tribes of the Aimores, 
Tapininguins and Goitacazes in that year. It was attacked 
(1592) by the freebooter Cavendish, who was repelled by one 
of the forts at the entrance to the bay. 

VICTORIA, the capital of British Columbia and the principal 
city of Vancouver Island, in the S.E. corner of which it is 
finely situated (48 25' 20" N., 123 22' 24" W.), on a small 
arm of the sea, its harbour, however, only admitting vessels 
drawing 18 ft. Pop. (1906) about 25,000. It is the oldest 
city in the province. It has fine streets, handsome villas and 
public buildings, government offices and churches. The high 
school is affiliated with McGill University, in Montreal. Victoria 
is connected with the mainland by cable, and is a favourite 
tourist resort for the whole west coast of North America. Till 
1858 Victoria was a post of the Hudson's Bay Company. The 
city was incorporated in 1862, and according to the census of 
1886 the population was 14,000, including Chinese and Indians, 
spread over an area of 4 sq. m. Until the redistribution of the 
fleet in 1905, the headquarters of the British Pacific squadron 
was at Esquimalt, a fine harbour about 3 m. W. of Victoria. 
This harbour, though spacious, is not much used by merchant 
vessels. It is provided with a large dry-dock and is defended 
by fortifications of a modern type. 

VICTORIA FALLS, the greatest waterfall in the world, 
forming the most remarkable feature of the river Zambezi, 
Central Africa. The falls are about midway in the course of 
the Zambezi in 17 51'" S., 25° 41' E. For a considerable dis- 
tance above the falls the river flows over a level sheet of basalt, 
its valley bounded by low and distant sandstone hills. Its 


clear blue waters are dotted with numerous tree-clad islands. 
These islands increase in number as the river, without quicken- 
ing its current, approaches the falls, whose nearness is indicated 
only by a veil of spray. At the spot where the Zambezi is at 
its widest— over i860 yds. — it falls abruptly over the edge of 
an almost vertical chasm with a roar as of continuous thunder, 



sending up vast columns of vapour. Hence the native name 
Musi'Oa-tunya, " Smoke does sound there." The chasm ex- 
tends the whole breadth of the river and is more than twice 
the depth of Niagara, varying from 256 ft. at the right bank 
to J43 ft. In the centre. Unlike Niagara the water does not 
fall into an open basin but is arrested at a distance of from 
So to 240 ft. by the opposite wall of the chasm. Both walls 
are of the same height, so that the falls appear to be formed 
by a huge crack in the bed of the river. The only outlet is a 
narrow channel cut in the barrier wall at a point about three- 
fifths from the western end of the chasm, and through this 
gorge, not more than 100 ft. wide, the whole volume of the 
river pours for 130 yds. before emerging into an enormous 
zigzag trough (the Grand Canon) which conducts the river 
past the basalt plateau. The tremendous pressure to which 
the water is subjected in the confinement of the chasm causes 
the perpetual columns of mist which rise over the precipice. 

The fall is broken by islands on the lip of the precipice into 
four parts. Close to the right bank is a sloping cataract 36 yds. 
wide, called the Leaping Water, then beyond Boaruka Island, 
about 300 yds. wide, is the Main Fall, 473 yds. broad, and 
divided by Livingstone Island from the Rainbow Fall 535 yds. 
wide. At both these falls the rock is sharp cut and the river 
maintains its level to the edge of the precipice. At the left 
bank of the river is the Eastern Cataract, a millrace resembling 
the Leaping Water. From opposite the western end of the 
falls to Danger Point, which overlooks the entrance of the 
gorge, the escarpment of the chasm is covered with great trees 
known as the Rain Forest; looking across the gorge the eastern 
part of the wall (the Knife Edge) is less densely wooded. 

At the end of the gorge the river has hollowed out a deep 
pool, named the Boiling Pot. It is some 500 ft. across; its 
surface, smooth at low water, is at flood-time troubled by 
slow, enormous swirls and heavy boilings. Thence the channel 
turns sharply westward, beginning the great zigzag mentioned. 
This grand and gloomy canon is over 40 m. long. Its almost 
perpendicular walls are over 400 ft. high, the level of the escarp- 
ment being that of the lip of the falls. A little below the 
Boiling Pot, and almost at right angles to the falls, the canon 
is spanned by a bridge (completed in April 1905) which forms 
a link in the Cape to Cairo railway scheme. This bridge, 
650 ft. long, with a main arch of 500 ft. span, is slightly below 
the top of the gorge. The height from low-water level to the 
rails is 420 ft. 

The volume of water borne over the falls varies greatly, the 
level of the river in the canon sinking as much as 60 ft. between 
the full flood of April and the end of the dry season in October. 
When the river is high the water rolls over the main falls in 
one great unbroken expanse; at low water (when alone it is 
possible to look into the grey depths of the great chasm) the 
falls are broken by crevices in the rock into numerous cascades. 

The falls are in the territory of Rhodesia. They were dis- 
covered by David Livingstone on the 17th of November 1855, 
and by him named after Queen Victoria of England. Living- 
stone approached them from above and gained his first view 
of the falls from the island on its lip now named after him. 
In 1S60 Livingstone, with Dr (afterwards Sir John) Kirk, made 
a careful investigation of the falls, but until the opening of the 
railway from Bulawayo (1905) they were rarely visited. The 
land in the vicinity of the falls is preserved by the Rhodesian 
government as a public park. 

See Livingstone's Missionary Travels and Researches- in South 
Africa (London, 1857) for the story of the discovery of the falls, 
and the Popular Account of Dr Livingstone's Expedition to the 
Zambesi^and its Tributaries 1858-1S64 (London, 1894) for a fuller 
description of the falls and .a theory as to their origin. How I 
crossed Africa, by Major Serpa Pinto (English trans., London, 
1881), contains a graphic account of the visit paid to the falls by the 
Portuguese explorer. In the Geographical Journal for January 1905 
is an article by A. J. C. Molyncux on " The Physical History of 
the Victoria Falls." The article is illustrated by excellent photo- 
graphs and gives a bibliography. Consultalso" The Gorge and Basin 
of the Zambesi below the Victoria Falls," by G. W. Lamplugh in 
the Geog, Jour. (1908), vol. xxxi. (F. R. C.) 

VICTORIA NYANZA, the largest lake in Africa and chief 
reservoir of the Nile, lying between o° 20' N. to 3 S. and 
31 40' to 34 52' E. Among the fresh-water lakes of the world 
it is exceeded in size by 'Lake Superior only and has an area of 
over 26,000 sq. m., being nearly the size of Scotland. In shape 
it is an irregular quadrilateral, but its shores, save on the west, 
are deeply indented. Its greatest length, taking into account 
the principal gulfs, N. to S. is 250 m., its greatest breadth 200 m. 
Its coast-line exceeds 2000 m. It fills a depression in the 
central part of the great plateau which stretches between the 
western (Albcrtine) and eastern rift-valleys (see Africa, § 1), 
and has an elevation of about 3720 ft. above the sea. 1 Its 
greatest ascertained depth is some 270 ft., which compares with 
soundings of 2000 ft. on Tanganyika and 2500 ft. on Nyasa. 
Victoria Nyanza is remarkable for the severe and sudden storms 
which sweep across it, rendering navigation dangerous. It 
contains many groups of islands, the majority being near the 
coast-line. The lake is full of reefs, many just below the 
surface of the water, which is clear and very fresh. It is 
abundantly stocked with fish. Geological research shows 
that the land surrounding the lake consists of gneiss, quartz 
and schistose rocks, covered, in the higher regions, with marl 
and red clay, and in the valleys with a rich black loam. 

Shores and Islands. — The shores of the lake present varied aspects. 
The western coast, which contains no large indentations, is, in its 
southern part, backed by precipices of 300 or more ft. high, behind 
which rise downs to thrice the height of the cliffs. Going north, 
the hills give way to papyrus and ambach swamps, which mark the 
delta of the Kagera. Beyond the mouth of that river the hills 
reappear, and increase in height, till on reaching the N.W. corner 
of thenyanza they rise some 500 ft. above the water. This western 
shore is marked by a continuous fault line which runs parallel to the 
lake at a short distance inland. The northern coast of the lake is 
very deeply indented and is marked throughout its length by rocky 
headlands jutting into the waters. This high land is very narrow, 
and the streams which rise on its northern face within a mile or two 
of the nyanza drain north away from the lake. On a promontory 
about 30 m. east of the Katonga (see below) is Entebbe, the port of 
Uganda and seat of the British administration. The chief indenta- 
tions on the north side are Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf, 
the entrance to the last named being partly filled by the triangular- 
shaped island of Buvuma or Uvuma (area 160 sq. m.). Napoleon 
Gulf itself is deeply indented, one bay, that of Jinja, running N.W. 
and being the outlet of the Nile, the water here forcing its way 
through the rock-bound shore of the lake. The north-east corner 
of the lake is flat and bare. A narrow channel, partly masked by 
islands, leads into Kavirondo Gulf, which, with an average width 
of 6 m., extends 45 m. E. of the normal coast-line— a fact taken 
advantage of in building the railway from Mombasa to the lake. 
A promontory, 174 ft. above lake-level, jutting into the small bay 
of Ugowe, at the north-east end of Kavirondo Gulf, is the point 
where the railway terminates. The station is known as Port 
Florence. On the south side of the gulf tall hills approach, and in 
some cases reach, the water's edge, and behind them towers the 
rugged range of Kasagunga with its saw-like edge. Proceeding 
south the shore trends generally south-west and is marked with 
many deep inlets, the coast presenting a succession of bold bluffs, 
while inland the whole district is distinctly mountainous. At the 
S.E. corner of the lake Speke Gulf projects eastward, and at the 
S.W. corner Emin Pasha Gulf pushes southward. Here the coast 
is barren and hilly, while long ridges of rock run into the lake. 

_ The largest island in the lake, Ukerewe, on the S.E. coast, imme- 
diately north of Speke Gulf, is almost a peninsula, but the strip of 
land connecting it with the shore is pierced by two narrow channels 
about j of a mile long. Ukerewe is 25 m. long, and 12 broad at 
its greatest width. It is uninhabited, wooded and hilly, rising 650 ft. 
above the lake. At the N.W. corner of the nyanza is the Sesse' 
archipelago, consisting of sixty-two islands. The largest island 
in this group, namely, Bugala, is narrow, resembling the letter S 
in shape, and is almost cut in two in the middle. Most of these 
islands are densely forested, and some of them attain considerable 
elevation. Their scenery is of striking beauty. Forty-two were 
inhabited. 2 Buvuma Island, at the entrance of Napoleon Gulf, 
has already been mentioned. Between it and as far as the mouth 
of Kavirondo Gulf are numerous other islands, of which the chief 
are Bugaia, Lolui, Rusunga and Mfwanganu. In general char- 
acteristics and the beauty of their scenery these islands resemble 
those of the Sesse" archipelago. The islands are of ironstone forma- 
tion overlying quartzite and crystalline schists. 

Rivers. — The Kagera, the largest and most important of the lake 

1 For the altitude see Geog. Jour., March 1907 and July 1908. 
a To prevent the spread of sleeping sickness the inhabitants were 
removed to the mainland (1909). 



affluents, which has its rise in the hill country east of Lake Kivu, 
and enters the west side of the nyanza just north of i" S., is described 
in the article Nile, of which it is the most remote head-stream. 
The other rivers entering Victoria Nyanza from the west are the 
Katonga and Ruizi, both north of the Kagera. The Katonga rises in 
the plateau east of the Dweru branch of Albert Edward Nyanza, and 
after a sluggish course of 155 m. enters Victoria Nyanza in a wide 
swamp at its N.W. corner. The Ruizi (180 m.) is a deep, wide and 
swift stream with sinuous course flowing in part through great 
gorges and in part through large swamps. It rises in the Ankole 
district and reaches the nyanza a little north of the Kagcra. Be- 
tween the Katonga and the Nile outlet, the rivers which rise close 
to the lake drain away northward, the watershed being the lake 
shore. On the N.E. side of the nyanza, however, several con- 
siderable streams reach the lake — notably the Sio, Nzoia and 
Lukos (or Yala). The Nzoia (150 m.), the largest of the three, 
rises in the foothills, of the Elgeyo escarpment and flows swiftly 
over a rocky bed in a south-westerly direction, emptying into the 
lake south of Berkeley Bay. On the east side the Mara Dabagh 
enters the lake between 1° and 2 S. It is, next to the Kagera, the 
largest of the lake tributaries. All the rivers mentioned are per- 
ennial, and most of them bring down a considerable volume of 
water, even in the dry season. On the S., S.E. and S.W. shores a 
number of short rivers drain into the lake. They traverse a tree- 
less and arid region, have but an intermittent flow, and are of 
little importance in the hydrography of the district. The only 
outlet of the lake is the Nile (q.v.). 

Drainage Area, Rainfall and Lake Level. — The very important part 
played by the Victoria Nyanza in the Nile system has led to careful 
study of its drainage basin and rainfall and the perplexingvariations 
in the level of the lake. The area drained by the lake covers, with 
the lake itself, 92,240 sq. m. In part it is densely forested, part 
consists of lofty mountains, and a considerable portion is somewhat 
arid tableland. According to the calculations of Sir William Garstin 
the rainfall over the whole area averages 50 in. a year. Allowing 
that as much as 25% of this amount enters the lake, this is 
equivalent to a total of 138,750,000,000 cub. metres in a year. 
Measurements at the Ripon Falls show that 18,000,000,000, or some 
13% of this amount, is taken off by the Nile, and when allow- 
ance has been made for the annual rise and fall of the lake-level it 
is apparent that by far the greater part of the water which enters 
the nyanza is lost by evaporation; in fact, that the amount drawn 
off by the river plays a comparatively small part in the annual 
oscillation of the water surface. Rain falls more or less in every 
month, but is heaviest during March, April, May and again in 
September, October and November. The level of the lake is 
chiefly affected by the autumn rains and generally reaches its 
maximum in July. The annual rise and fall is on an average from 
I to 3 ft., but between November 1900 and June 1901 a difference 
of 42 in. was recorded. Considerable speculation was caused by 
the fact that whereas in 1878-79 the lake-level was high, from 
1880 to 1890 the level was falling, and that after a few 
years (1892-95) of higher level there was, from 1896 to 1902, again 
a steady fall, amounting in seven years to 30 in. in the 
average levels of the lake. In 1903, however, the level rose and 
everywhere the land gained from the lake in the previous years 
was flooded. These variations are attributed by Sir William 
Garstin to deficiency or excess of rainfall. Any secular shrinking 
of the lake in common with the lakes of Central Africa generally 
must be so gradual as to have no practical importance. It must 
also be remembered that in such a vast sheet of water as is the 
nyanza the wind exercises an influence on the level, tending to 
pde up the water at different parts of the lake. The winds may 
also be the cause of the daily variation of level, which on Speke 
Gulf has been found to reach 20 in.; but this may also partake 
of the character of a " seiche." Currents setting towards the north 
or north-west have been observed in various parts of the lake. 

Discovery and Exploration.- — The quest for the Nile sources led 
to the discovery of the lake by J. H. Speke in 1^58, and it was 
by him named Victoria in honour of the queen of England. 
In 1862 Speke and his companion, J. A. Grant, partially explored 
the N.W. shore, leaving the lake at the Nile outlet. Great 
differences of opinion existed as to its size until its circum- 
navigation in 1874 by H. M. Stanley, which proved it to be of 
vast extent. The invitation sent by King Mtesa of Uganda 
through Stanley to the Christian missionaries led to the despatch 
from England in 1876 of the Rev. C. T. Wilson, to whom we 
owe our first detailed knowledge of the nyanza. Mr Wilson 
and Lieut. Shergold Smith, R.N., made, in 1877, the first voyage 
across the nyanza. Lieut. Smith and a Mr O'Neill, both 
members of the Church Missionary Society, were in the same 
year murdered on Ukerewe Island. In 1889 Stanley further 
explored the lake, discovering Emin Pasha Gulf, the entrance 
to which is masked by several islands. In 1890 the ownership 
of the lake was divided by Great Britain and Germany, the first 

degree of south latitude being taken as the boundary line. 
The southern portion, which fell to Germany, was visited and 
described by scientists of that nation, whose objects, however, 
were not primarily geographic. At the instance of the British 
Foreign Office a survey of the northern shores of the lake was 
carried out in 1899-1900 by Commander B. Whitehouse, R.N. 
The same officer, in 1903, undertook, in agreement with the 
German government, a survey of the southern shores. Com- 
mander WhiLehouse's work led to considerable modification of 
the previously accepted maps. He discovered numerous islands 
and bays whose existence had previously been unknown. 

Previously to 1896 navigation was confined to Arab dhows, 
which trade between the south end of the lake and Uganda, 
and to canoes. In the year named a small steamer (the " Ruwen- 
zori ") was launched on the lake by a Zanzibar firm, while in 
1000 a somewhat larger steamer (the " William Mackinnon" ), 
built in Glasgow at the instance of Sir W. Mackinnon, and 
afterwards taken over by the British government, made her 
first trip on the lake. In 1903, the year in which the railway 
from Mombasa to the lake was completed, a steamer of 600 tons 
burden was launched at Port Florence. Since that date trade 
has considerably increased. 

See Nile and Uganda and the British Blue-book Egypt No. 2 
(1904), which is a Report by Sir Wm. Garstin upon the Basin of the 
Upper Nile. This report, besides giving (pp. 4-24) much original 
information upon the Victoria Nyanza, summarizes the informa- 
tion of previous travellers, whose works are quoted. In 1908 the 
British Admiralty published a chart of the lake (scale 4 in. to the 
mile) from the surveys of Commander Whitehouse. Non-official 
books which deal with the lake include: C. T. Wilson, Uganda 
and the Soudan (London, 1882); (Sir) F. D. Lugard, The Rise of our 
East African Empire, vol. ii. (London, 1893); Franz Stuhlmann, 
Mit Emin Pasha, &c. (Berlin, 1894) ; Paul Kollmann, The Victoria 
Nyanza (English translation; London, 1899J; E. G. Ravenstein, 
" The Lake-level of the Victoria Nyanza," Geographical Journal, 
October 1901; Sir H. H. Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate 
(London, 1902). In most of these publications the descriptions 
of the lake occupy but a small part. (W. E. G.; F. R. C.) 

VICTORINUS, GAIUS MARIUS ( 4 th century a.d.), Roman 
grammarian, rhetorician and neo-Platonic philosopher, an 
African by birth (whence his surname Afer), lived during the 
reign of Constantius II. He taught rhetoric at Rome (one of 
his pupils being Jerome), and in his old age became a convert 
to Christianity. His conversion is said to have greatly influenced 
that of Augustine. When Julian published an edict forbidding 
Christians to lecture on polite literature, Victorinus closed 
his school. A statue was erected in his honour as a teacher 
in the Forum Trajanum. 

His translations of platonic writers are lost, but the treatise De 
Definitionibus (ed. T. Stangl in Tulliana ei Mario- Victoriniana, 
Munich, 1888) is probably by him and not by Boetius, to whom it 
was formerly attributed. His manual of prosody, in four books, 
taken almost literally from the work of Aphthonius, is extant 
(H. Keil, Grammatici Latini, vi.). It is doubtful whether he is the 
author of certain other extant treatises attributed to him on metrical 
and grammatical subjects, which will be found in Keil. His com- 
mentary on Cicero's. De Invenlione (in Halm's Rhetores Latini 
Minores, 1863) is very diffuse, and is itself in need of commentary. 
His extant theological writings, which will be found in J. P. 
Migne, Cursus Patrologiae Latinae, viii., include commentaries 
on Galatians, Ephesians and Philippians; De Trinitate contra 
Arium; Ad Justinum Manichaeum de Vera Came Ckristi; and a 
little tract on " The Evening and the Morning were one day " (the 
genuineness of the last two is doubtful). Some Christian poems 
under the name of Victorinus are probably not his. 

See G. Geiger, C. Marius Victorinus Afer,- ein neuplatonischer 
Philosoph (Metten, 1888); G. Koffmann, De Mario Victorino 
philosopho Christiana (Breslau, 1880); R. Schmid, Marius Vic- 
torinus Rhetor und seine Beziehungen zu Augustin (Kiel, 1895) ; Gore 
in Dictionary of Christian _ Biography, iv.; M. Schanz, Geschichte 
der romischen Liiteratur, iv. 1 (1904) ; Teuffel, Hist, of Roman 
Literature (Eng. tr., 1900), 408. 

VICTOR-PERRIN, CtAUDE, Dtjke of Belluno (1764- 
1841), marshal of France, was born at La Marche (Vosges) on 
the 7th of December 1764. In 1781 he entered the army as a 
private soldier, and after ten years' service he received his 
discharge and settled at Valence. Soon afterwards he joined 
the local volunteers, and distinguishing himself in the war on 
the Alpine frontier, in less than a year he had risen to the 



command of a battalion. For his bravery at the siege of Toulon 
in 1793 he was raised to the rank of general of brigade. He 
afterwards served for some time with the army of the Eastern 
Pyrenees, and in the Italian campaign of 1796-97 he so 
acquitted himself at Mondovi, Roveredo and Mantua that he, 
was promoted to be general of division. After commanding 
for some time the forces in the department of La Vendee, he 
was again employed in Italy, where he did good service against 
the papal troops, and he took a very important part in the 
battle of Marengo. In 1802 he was governor of the colony of 
Louisiana for a short time, in 1S03 he commanded the Batavian 
army, and afterwards he acted for eighteen months (1805-6) 
as French plenipotentiary at Copenhagen. On the outbreak 
of hostilities with Prussia he joined the V. army corps (Marshal 
Lannes) as chief of the general staff. He distinguished himself 
at Saalfeld and Jena, and at Friedland he commanded the 
I. corps in such a manner that Napoleon gave him the marshal- 
ate. After the peace of Tilsit he became governor of Berlin, 
and in 1S08 he was created duke of Belluno. In the same year 
he was sent to Spain, where he took a prominent part in the 
Peninsular War (especially at Espinosa, Talavera, Barrosa and 
Cadiz), until his appointment in 181 2 to a corps command in 
the invasion of Russia. Here his most important service was 
in protecting the retreating army at the crossing of the 
Beresina. He took an active part in the wars of 1813-14, till 
in February of the latter year he had the misfortune to arrive 
too late at Montereau-sur-Yonne. The result was a scene of 
violent recrimination and his supersession by the emperor, who 
transferred his command to Gerard. Thus wounded in his 
amour-propre, Victor now transferred his allegiance to the 
Bourbon dynasty, and in December 1814 received from 
Louis XVIII. the command of the second military division. 
In 1S15 he accompanied the king to Ghent, and on the second 
restoration he was made a peer of France, He was also 
president of a commission which inquired into the conduct 
of the officers during the Hundred Days, and dismissed 
Napoleon's sympathizers. In 1821 he was appointed war 
minister and held this office for two years. In 1830 he was 
major-general of the royal guard, and after the revolution of 
that year he retired altogether into private life. His death 
took place at Paris on the ist of March 1841. 

His papers for the period 1793-1800 have been published (Paris, 

VICTUAL, food, provisions, most commonly in the plural, 
" victuals." The word and its pronunciation came into English 
from the 0. Fr. vitaille. The modern French and English 
spelling are due to a pedantic approximation to the Latin 
original, victualia, a neuter plural substantive formed from 
viclualis, v-ictus, nourishment, provisions (vivere, to live). The 
most familiar use of the term is in " licensed victualler," to which 
the Licensing Act 1872 (§ 27) has applied the wide significance 
of any person selling any intoxicating liquor under a licence 

from a justice of the 
peace. Properly a 
" victualling house " 
is one where persons 
are provided with food 
and drink but not 
lodgings, and is thus 
distinct from an inn, 
which also provides 
the last. 
^g^ VICUQSA, one of 

^lll?^ tne *" wo w ^ living 
^ '*** South American re- 
presentatives of the 
camel-tribe, a Came- 
tidae (see Tylopoda). 
From its relative the 
guanaco the vicugna 
{Lama vicunia) differs by its inferior stature, more slender build 
and shorter head, as well as by the absence of bare patches or 

Head of Vicugna. 

callosities on the hind limbs. The general colour of the woolly 
coat is orange-red. Vicugnas live in herds on the bleak and 
elevated parts of the mountain range bordering the region of 
perpetual snow, amidst rocks and precipices, occurring in 
various parts of Peru, in the southern part of Ecuador, and as 
far south as the middle of Bolivia. The wool is extremely 
delicate and soft, and highly valued for the purposes of weaving, 
but the quantity which each animal produces is not great. 

VIDA, MARCO GIROLAMO (c. 1489-1566), Italian scholar 
and Latin poet, was born at Cremona shortly before the year 
1490. He received the name of Marcantonio in baptism, but 
changed this to Marco Girolamo when he entered the order of 
the Canonici Regolari Lateranensi. During his early manhood 
he acquired considerable fame by the composition of two 
didactic poems in the Latin tongue, on the Game of Chess 
(Scacchiae Ludus) and on the Silkworm (Bombyx). This reputa- 
tion induced him to seek the papal court in Rome, which was 
rapidly becoming the headquarters of polite learning, the place 
where students might expect advancement through their 
literary talents. Vida reached Rome in the last years of the 
pontificate of Julius II. Leo X., on succeeding to the papal 
chair (1513), treated him with marked favour, bestowed on him 
the priory of St Sylvester at Frascati, and bade him compose 
a heroic Latin poem on the life of Christ. Such was the origin 
of the Ckristiad, Vida's most celebrated, if not his best, per- 
formance. It did not, however, see the light in Leo's lifetime. 
Between the years 1520 and 1527 Vida produced the second of 
his masterpieces in Latin hexameters, a didactic poem on the 
Art of Poetry (see Baldi's edition, Wiirzburg, 1881). Clement 
VII. raised him to the rank of apostolic protonotary, and in 
1532 conferred on him the bishopric of Alba. It is probable 
that he took up his residence in this town soon after the death 
of Clement; and here he spent the greater portion of his remain- 
ing years. Vida attended the council of Trent, where he 
enjoyed the society of Cardinals Cervini, Pole and Del Monte, 
together with his friend the poet Flaminio. A record of their 
conversations may be studied in Vida's Latin dialogue De 
Republica. Among his other writings should be mentioned 
three eloquent orations in defence of Cremona against Pavia, 
composed upon the occasion of some dispute as to precedency 
between those two cities. Vida died at Alba on the 27th of 
September 1566. 

See the Life by Lancetti (Milan, 1840). 

VIDAME (Lat. vice-dominus) , a French feudal title. The 
vidame was originally, like the avoue (advocatus) , an official 
chosen by the bishop of the diocese, with the consent of the 
count (see Advocate). Unlike the advocate, however, the 
vice-dominus was at the outset an ecclesiastic, who acted as 
the bishop's lieutenant {locum tenens) or vicar. But the causes 
that changed the character of the advocatus operated also in 
the case of the vidame. During the Carolingian epoch, indeed, 
advocatus and vice-dominus were interchangeable terms; and 
it was only in the nth century 'that they became generally 
differentiated: the title of avoue being commonly reserved for 
nobles charged with the protection of an abbey, that of vidame 
for those guarding an episcopal see. With the crystallization 
of the feudal system in the 12th century the office of vidame, 
like that of avoue, had become an hereditary fief. As a title, 
however, it was much less common and also less dignified than 
that of avoue. The advocati were often great barons who added 
their function of protector of an abbey to their own temporal 
sovereignty; whereas the vidames were usually petty nobles, 
who exercised their office in strict subordination to the bishop. 
Their chief functions were: to protect the temporalities of the 
see, to represent the bishop at the count's court of justice, to 
exercise the bishop's temporal jurisdiction in his name (placitum 
or curia vice-domini) and to lead the episcopal levies to war. 
In return they usually had a house near the episcopal palace, 
a domain within and without the city, and sometimes the right 
to levy certain dues on the city. The vidames usually took 
their title from the see they represented, but not infrequently 
they styled themselves, not after their official fief, but after 



their private seigneuries. Thus the vidamc de Picquigny was 
the representative of the bishop of Amiens, the vidame de 
Gerberoy of the bishop of Beauvais. In many sees there were 
no vidames, their function being exercised by viscounts or 
chatelains. With the growth of the central power and of that 
of the municipalities the vidames gradually lost all importance, 
and the title became merely honorary 

See A. Luchaire, Manuel des institutions frangaises (Paris, 1892); 
Du Cange,, Glossarium (ed. Niort, 1887), s. " Vice-dominus " ; A. 
Mallet, " Etude hist, sur les avoues et les vidames," in Position des 
theses de I'Ecole des chartes (an. 1870-72). 

VIDIN (formerly written Widin or Widdin), a fortified 
river-port and the capital of a department in the extreme 
N.E. of Bulgaria; on the right bank of the river Danube, near 
the Servian frontier and 151 m. W.N.W. of Sofia. Pop. (1906) 
16,168, including about 3000 Turks and 1500 Spanish Jews — 
descendants of the refugees who fled hither from the Inquisition 
in the 16th century. Vidin is an episcopal see and the head- 
quarters of a brigade; it was formerly a stronghold of some 
importance, and was rendered difficult to besiege by the sur- 
rounding marshes, formed where the Topolovitza and other 
streams join the Danube. A steam ferry connects it with 
Calafat. on the Rumanian bank of the Danube, and there is a 
branch railway to Mezdra, on the main line Sofia-Plevna. The 
city consists of three divisions — the modern suburbs extending 
beside the Danube, the citadel and the old town, still sur- 
rounded by walls, though only four of its nine towers remain 
standing. The old town, containing several mosques and 
synagogues and a bazaar, preserves its oriental appearance; 
the citadel is used as a military magazine. There arc a modern 
cathedral, a school of viticulture and a high school, besides an 
ancient clock-tower and the palace {Konak) formerly occupied 
by the Turkish pashas. Vidin exports cereals and fruit, and 
is locally celebrated for its gold and silver filigree. It has 
important fisheries and manufactures of spirits, beer and 

Vidin stands on the site of the Roman town of Bononia in 
Moesia Superior, not to be confounded with the Pannonian 
Bononia, which stood higher up the Danube to the north of 
Sirmium. Its name figures conspicuously in the military annals 
of medieval and recent times; and it is specially memorable 
for the overthrow of the Turks by the imperial forces in 1689 
and for the crushing defeat of the hospodar Michael Sustos 
by Pas van Oglu in 1801. It was again the scene of stirring 
events during the Russo-Turkish Wars of 1854-55 and 1877-78, 
and successfully resisted the assaults of the Servians in the 
Servo-Bulgarian War of 1886-87. 

VIDOCQ, FRANCOIS EUGENE (1775-1857), French detective, 
was born at Arras in 1775 (or possibly 1773). After an adven- 
turous youth he joined the French army, where he rose to be 
lieutenant. At Lille he was imprisoned as the result of a quarrel 
with a brother officer, and while in gaol became involved, 
possibly innocently, in the forgery of an order for the release of 
another prisoner. He was sentenced to eight years' hard labour, 
and sent to the galleys at Brest, whence he escaped twice but 
was recaptured. For the third time he succeeded in getting 
free, and lived for some time in the company of thieves and 
other criminals in Paris and elsewhere, making a careful study 
of their methods. He then offered his services as a spy to the 
Paris police (1800). The offer was accepted, on condition that 
he should extend his knowledge of the criminal classes by 
himself serving a further term in prison in Paris, and subse- 
quently Vidocq was made chief of the reorganized detective 
department of the Paris police, with a body of ex-convicts under 
his immediate command. In this capacity Vidocq was ex- 
tremely successful, for he possessed unbounded energy and a 
real genius for hunting down criminals. In 1827, having saved 
a considerable sum of money, he retired from his post and 
started a paper-mill, the work-people in which were drawn 
entirely from ex-convicts. The venture, however, was a failure, 
and in 1832 Vidocq re-entered the police service and was em- 
ployed mainly in political work, though given no special office. 

Anxious to get back to his old detective post he himself foolishly 
organized a daring theft. The authorities were unable to trace 
the thieves, who at the proper moment were " discovered " 
by Vidocq. His real part in the matter became known, however, 
and he was dismissed from service. He subsequently started 
a private inquiry agency, which was indifferently successful, 
and was finally suppressed. Vidocq died in great poverty in 
1857. Several volumes have been published under his name, 
the best known of which is MSmoires de Vidocq (1828). It 
is, however, extremely doubtful whether he wrote any of them. 

See Charles Ledru, La Vie, la mort el les derniers moments de 
Vidocq (Paris, 1857). 

VIDYASAGAR, ISWAR CHANDRA (1820-1891), writer and 
social reformer of Bengal, was born at Birsinha in the Midnapur 
district in 1820, of a Kulin Brahman family. He was removed 
to Calcutta at the age of nine, was admitted into the Sanskrit 
College, and carried on his studies in the midst of privations and 
extreme poverty. In 1839 he obtained the title of Vidyasagar 
(*=" Ocean of learning ") after passing a brilliant examination, 
and in 1850 was appointed head pandit of Fort William College. 
In 1846 appeared his first work in Bengali prose, The Twenty- 
Five Tales of a Betai. This was succeeded by his Sakuntala in 
1855, and by his greatest work, The Exile of Sita, in 1862. These 
are marked by a grace and beauty which Bengali prose had never 
known before. The literature of Bengal, previous to the 19th 
century, was entirely in verse. Ram Mohan Roy, the religious 
reformer of Bengal, created the literary prose of Bengal early 
in the 19th century by his numerous translations and religious 
tracts; and lsw T ar Chandra Vidyasagar and his fellow-worker, 
Akhay Kumar Datta, added to its power and beauty about the 
middle of that century. These three writers are generally re- 
cognized as the fathers of Bengali prose literature. As a social 
reformer and educationist, too, Iswar Chandra rnade his mark. 
He associated himself "with Drinkwater Bethune in the cause of 
female education; and the management of the girls' school, 
called after Bethune, was entrusted to him in 1S51. And when 
Rosomoy Datta resigned the post of secretary to the Sanskrit 
College of Calcutta, a new post of principal was created, and 
Iswar Chandra was appointed to it. Iswar Chandra's influence 
in the education department was now unbounded. He simpli- 
fied the method of learning Sanskrit, and thus spread a know- 
ledge of that ancient tongue among his countrymen. He was 
consulted in all educational matters by Sir Frederick Halliday, 
the first lieutenant-governor of Bengal. And when the great 
scheme of education under Sir Charles Wood's despatch of 1854 
was inaugurated in India, Iswar Chandra established numerous 
aided schools under that scheme in the most advanced districts 
of Bengal. In 1858 he resigned his appointment under govern- 
ment, and shortly afterwards became manager of the Metro- 
politan Institution, a private college at Calcutta. But a greater 
task than literary work or educational reforms claimed his 
attention. He had discovered that the ancient Hindu scriptures 
did not enjoin perpetual widowhood, and in 1855 he startled 
the Hindu world by his work on the Remarriage of Hindu Widows. 
Such a work, from a learned and presumably orthodox Brahman, 
caused the greatest excitement, but Iswar Chandra remained 
unmoved amidst a storm of indignation. Associating himself 
with the most influential men of the day, like Prosonno Kumar 
Tagore and Ram Gopal Ghosh, he appealed to the British 
government to declare that the sons of remarried Hindu widows 
should be considered legitimate heirs. The British govern- 
ment responded; the act was passed in 1856, and some years 
after Iswar Chandra's own son was married to a widow. In 
the last years of his life Iswar Chandra wrote works against 
Hindu polygamy. He was as well known for his charily and 
wide philanthropy as for his educational and social reforms. 
His large income, derived from the sale of school-books, was 
devoted almost entirely to the succour of the needy; hundreds 
of young men owed their education to him; hundreds of widows 
depended on him for their daily breath The Indian government 
made him a Companion of the Indian Empire in 1S80. He died 
on the 29th of July i8gr. (R. C. D.) 



VIEIRA, ANTONIO (1608-1607.1, Portuguese Jesuit and 
writer, the " prince of Catholic pulpit-orators of his time,*' was 
born in Lisbon on the 6th of February 1608. Accompanying 
his parents to Brazil in 1615 he received his education at the 
Jesuit college at Bahia. He entered the Jesuit novitiate in 
1625, and two years later pronounced his first vows. At the 
age of eighteen he was teaching rhetoric, and a little later 
dogmatic theology, at the college of Olinda, besides writing 
the u annual letters " of the province. In 1635 he received the 
priesthood. Pie soon began to distinguish himself as an orator, 
and the three patriotic sermons he delivered at Bahia (1638-40) 
are remarkable for their imaginative power and dignity of 
language. The sermon for the success of the arms of Portugal 
against Holland was considered by the Abbe Raynal to be 
" perhaps the most extraordinary discourse ever heard from 
a Christian pulpit. 55 When the revolution of 1640 placed 
John IV. on the throne of Portugal, Brazil gave him its allegi- 
ance, and Vieira was chosen to accompany the viceroy's son to 
Lisbon to congratulate the new king. His talents and aptitude 
for affairs impressed John IV. so favourably that he appointed 
him royal preacher, gave him free access to the palace and 
constantly consulted him on the business of the state. Pos- 
sessed of great political sagacity and knowledge of the lessons of 
history, Vieira used the pulpit as a tribune from which he 
propounded measures for improving the general and particularly 
the economic condition of Portugal. His pen was as busy as 
his voice, and in four notable pamphlets he advocated the crea- 
tion of companies of commerce, the abolition of the distinction 
between Old and New Christians, the reform of the procedure 
of the Inquisition and the admission of Jewish and foreign 
traders, with guarantees for their security from religious per- 
secution. Moreover, he did not spare his own estate, for in his 
Sexagesima sermon he boldly attacked the current style of 
preaching, its subtleties, affectation, obscurity and abuse of 
metaphor, and declared the ideal of a sermon to be one which 
sent men away " not contented with the preacher, but discon- 
tented with themselves." In 1647 Vieira began his career as a 
diplomat, in the course of which he visited England, France, 
Holland and Italy. In his Papel Forte he urged the cession of 
Perntimbuco to the Dutch as the price of peace, while his mission 
to Rome in 1650 was undertaken in the hope of arranging a 
marriage between the heir to the throne of Portugal and the 
only daughter of King Philip IV. of Spain. His success, freedom 
of speech and reforming zeal had made him enemies on all 
sides, and only the intervention of the king prevented his 
expulsion from the Company of Jesus, so that prudence coun- 
selled his return to Brazil. 

In his youth he had vowed to consecrate his life to the con- 
version of the negro slaves and native Indians of his adopted 
country, and arriving in Maranhao early in 1653 he recom- 
menced his apostolic labours, which had been interrupted 
during his stay of fourteen years in the Old World. Starting 
from Para, he penetrated to the banks of the Tocantins, making 
numerous converts to Christianity and civilization among the 
most savage tribes; but after two years of unceasing labour, 
during which every difficulty was placed in his way by the 
colonial authorities, he saw that the Indians must be with- 
drawn from the jurisdiction of the governors, to prevent their 
exploitation, and placed under the control of the members of a 
single religious society. Accordingly in June 1654 he set sail 
for Lisbon to plead the cause of the Indians, and in April 1655 
he obtained from the king a series of decrees which placed 
the missions under the Company of Jesus, with himself as their 
superior, and prohibited the enslavement of the natives, except 
in certain specified cases. Returning with this charter of 
freedom, he organized the missions over a territory having 
a coast -line of 400 leagues, and a population of 200,000 souls, 
and in the next six years (1655-61) the indefatigable mis- 
sionary set the crown on his work. After a time, however, 
the colonists, attributing the shortage of slaves and the con- 
sequent diminution in their profits to the Jesuits, began actively 
to oppose Vieira, and they were joined by members of the 

secular clergy and the other Orders who were jealous of the 
monopoly enjoyed by the Company in the government of the 
Indians. Vieira was accused of want of patriotism and usurpa- 
tion of jurisdiction, and in 1661, a,*ter a popular revolt, the 
authorities sent him with thirty-one other Jesuit missionaries 
back to Portugal. He found his friend King John IV. dead and 
the court a prey to faction, but, dauntless as ever in the pursuit 
of his ambition, he resorted to his favourite arm of preaching, 
and on Epiphany Day, 1662, in the royal chapel, he replied 
to his persecutors in a famous rhetorical effort, and called for 
the execution of the royal decrees in favour of the Indians. 
Circumstances were against him, however, and the count of 
Castclmelhor, fearing his influence at court, had him exiled 
first to Oporto and then to Coimbra; but in both these places 
he continued his work of preaching, and the reform of the 
Inquisition also occupied his attention. To silence him his 
enemies then denounced him to that tribunal, and he was 
cited to appear before the Holy Office at Coimbra to answer 
points smacking of heresy in his sermons, conversations and 
writings. He had believed in the prophecies of a 16th-century 
shoemaker poet, Bandarra, dealing with the coming of a ruler 
who would inaugurate an epoch of unparalleled prosperity 
for the church and for Portugal, and in the Quinto Imperio 
or Clavis Propheiarum he had endeavoured to prove the truth 
of his dreams from passages of Scripture. As he refused to 
submit, the Inquisitors kept him in prison from October 1665 
to December 1667, and finally imposed a sentence which pro- 
hibited him from teaching, writing or preaching. It was a 
heavy blow for the Company, and though Vieira recovered his 
freedom and much of his prestige shortly afterwards on the 
accession of King Pedro II., it was determined that he should 
go to Rome to procure the revision of the sentence, which still 
hung over him though the penalties had been removed. During 
a six years' residence in the Eternal City Vieira won his greatest 
triumphs. Pope Clement X. invited him to preach before the 
College of Cardinals, and he became confessor to Queen 
Christina of Sweden and a member of her literary academy. 
At the request of the pope he drew up a report of two hundred 
pages on the Inquisition in Portugal, with the result that 
after a judicial inquiry Pope Innocent XI. suspended it for 
five years (1676-81). Ultimately Vieira returned to Portugal 
with a papal bull exempting him from the jurisdiction of the 
grand inquisitor, and in January 16S1 he embarked for Brazil. 
He resided in Bahia and occupied himself in revising his sermons 
for publication, and in 1687 he became superior of the province. 
A false accusation of complicity in an assassination, and the 
intrigues of members of his own Company, clouded his last 
months, and on the 18th of July 1697 he passed away. 

His works form perhaps the greatest monument of Portuguese 
prose. Two hundred discourses exist to prove his fecundity, 
while his versatility is shown by the fact that he could treat 
the same subject differently on half a dozen occasions. His 
letters, simple and conversational in style, have a deep his- 
torical and political interest, and form documents of the first 
value for the history of the period. As a man, Vieira would 
have made a nobler figure if he had not been so great an egotist 
and so clever a courtier, and the readiness with which he sus- 
tained directly opposite opinions at short intervals with equal 
warmth argues a certain lack of sincerity. His name, how- 
ever, is identified with great causes, justice to the Jews and 
humanity to the Indians, and the fact that he was in advance 
of his age led to many of his troubles, while his disinterested- 
ness in money matters is deserving of all praise. 

Principal works: SsrmOes (Sermons) (15 vols., Lisbon, 1679- 
1748); there are many subsequent editions, but none com- 
plete; translations exist in Spanish, Italian, German and French, 
which have gone through several editions. Historic do Futuro 
(Lisbon, 1718; 2nd ed., ibid., 1755); this and the Quinto Imperio 
and the Clavis Prophetarum seem to be in essence one and the 
same book in different redactions. Cartas (Letters) (3 vols., Lisbon, 
I 735~46). Noticias reconditas do modo de proceder a Inquisicao 
de Portugal com os sens presos (Lisbon, r82T). The Arte de Furtar 
published under Vieira's name in many editions is now known aot 



to be his. A badly edited edition of the works of Vieira in 
27 volumes appeared in Lisbon, 1854-58, There are unpub- 
lished MSS. of his in the British Museum in London, and in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. A bibliography of Vieira will 
be found in Sommervogel, Bibliotheque de la compagnie de Jesus, 
viii. 653-85. 

Authorities. — Andre de Barros, Vida (Lisbon, 1746) — a pane- 
gyric by a member of the same society; D. Francisco Alexandre 
Lobo, bishop of Vizeu, " Historical and Critical Discourse," Obras 
(Lisbon, 1849), vol. ii. — a valuable study; Joao Francisco Lisboa, 
Vida (5th ed., Rio, 1891) — he is unjust to Vieira, but may be con- 
sulted to check the next writer; Abbe E. Carel, Vieira, sa vie et 
ses ceuvres (Paris, 1879); Luiz Cabral, Vieira, biog., caraclere, elo- 
quence (Paris, 1900); idem, Vieira pregador (2 vols., Oporto, 1901); 
Sotero dos Reis, Curso de litteratura Portugueza e Brazileira, iii. 
121-244. (E- Pa.) 

VIELE-GRIFFIN, FRANCIS (1864- ), French poet, was 
born at Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., on the 26th of May 1864. 
He was educated in France, dividing his time between Paris 
and Touraine. His volumes include Cueille d'avril (1885); 
Les Cygnes (1887; new series, 1892); La Chevauchee d'Yeldis 
(1893); Swanhilde, a dramatic poem (1894); Laus Veneris 
(1895), a volume of translations from Swinburne; Poemes et 
Potsies (1895), a collection containing much of his earlier work; 
Phocas le jardinier (1898); and La Ligende ailte de Wieland le 
Forgeron (1899), a dramatic poem. M. Viele-Grifnn is one of 
the most successful writers of the vers litre, the theory of which 
he expounded, in conjunction with MM. Paul Adam and 
Bernard Lazare, in the pages of a periodical entitled Entretiens 
politiques et littiraires (1890-92). He is at his best in the 
adaptation of the symbolism of old legend to modern uses. 

VIELLE, viole, mile, a French term, derived from Lat. fidi- 
cula, embracing two distinct types of instruments; (1) from 
the 1 2th to the beginning of the 15th century bowed instru- 
ments having a box-soundchest with ribs, (2) from the middle 
or end of the 15th century, the hurdy-gurdy (q.v.). The 
medieval word vielle or mile has often been incorrectly applied 
to the latter instrument by modern writers when dealing with 
the 13th and 14th centuries. The instruments included under 
the name of vielle, whatever form their outline assumed, always 
had the box-soundchest consisting of back and belly joined by 
ribs, which experience has pronounced the most perfect con- 
struction for bowed instruments. The most common shape 
given to the earliest vielles in France was an oval, which with 
its modifications remained in favour until the guitar-fiddle, 
the Italian lyra, asserted itself as the finest type, from which 
also the violin was directly evolved. (K. S.) 

VIEN, JOSEPH MARIE (1716-1809), French painter, was born 
at Montpellier on the 18th of June 1716. Protected by Comte 
de Caylus, he entered at an early age the studio of Natoire, 
and obtained the grand prix in 1745. He used his time at Rome 
in applying to the study of nature and the development of his 
own powers all that he gleaned from the masterpieces around 
him ; but his tendencies were so foreign to the reigning taste 
that on his return to Paris he owed his admission to the academy 
for his picture " Daedalus and Icarus " (Louvre) solely to the 
indignant protests of Boucher. When in 1776, at the height 
of his established reputation, he became director of the school 
of France at Rome, he took David with him amongst his pupils. 
After his return, five years later, his fortunes were wrecked 
by the Revolution; but he undauntedly set to work, and at 
the age of eighty (1796) carried off the prize in an open govern- 
ment competition. Bonaparte acknowledged his merit by 
making him a senator. He died at Paris on the 27th of March 
1809, leaving behind him several brilliant pupils, amongst whom 
were Vincent, Regnault, Suvee, Menageot, Taillasson and 
others of high merit ; nor should the name of his wife, Marie 
Therese Reboul (1728-1805), herself a member of the academy, 
be omitted from this list. Their son, Marie Joseph, born in 
1761, also distinguished himself as a painter. 

VIENNA (Ger. Wien; Lat. Vindobona), the capital of the 
Austrian empire, the largest city in the Austro-Hungarian 
monarchy, and the fourth city in Europe as regards popula- 
tion. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, at the 
base at the Wiener Wald, and at the beginning of the great 

plain which separates the Alps from the Carpathians. This 
plain is continued on the opposite bank of the Danube by the 
valley of the March, which constitutes the easiest access to the 
north. Thus Vienna forms a junction of natural ways from 
south to north, and from west to east. It also lies on the 
frontier which separates from one another three races, the 
German, the Slavonic and the Hungarian. 

Curiously enough, Vienna has for a long time turned its 
back, so lo speak, on the magnificent waterway of the Danube, 
the city being built about 1^ m. away from the main stream. 
Only an arm of the river, the Danube Canal, so called because 
it was regulated and widened in 1598, passes through the city, 
dividing it into two unequal parts. It is true that the river 
forms at this point several arms, and the adjoining districts 
were subjected to periodical inundations, wdiile navigation 
was by no means easy here. But in 1870 works for the 
regulation of the river were started with the object of making 
it quite safe for navigation, and of avoiding the dangers of 
inundation. By these magnificent works of regulation the 
new bed was brought nearer to the town, and the new river 
channel has an average width of 915 ft. and a depth of 10 ft. 
On its left bank stretches the so-called inundation region, 
1525 ft. wide, while on the right bank quays have been con- 
structed with numerous wharfs and warehouses. By these 
works of regulation over 2400 acres of ground were gained for 
building purposes. This new bed of the Danube was com- 
pleted in 1876. In conjunction with this work the entire 
Danube Canal has been transformed into a harbour by the 
construction of a lock at its entrance, while increased accom- 
modation for shipping has also been provided at the other end 
of the canal known as the winter harbour. Into the Danube 
Canal flows the small stream, called Wien, now arched over 
almost in its entirety. Vienna extends along the right bank 
of the Danube from the historic and legendary Kahlenberg 
to the point where the Danube Canal rejoins the main stream, 
being surrounded on the other side by a considerable stretch 
of land which is rather rural than suburban in character. 

Vienna is officially divided into twenty-one districts or 
Bezirke. Until 1892 it contained only ten of the present 
districts; in that year nine outlying districts were incorporated 
with the town; in 1900 Brigittenau was created out of part 
of the old district of Leopoldstadt, and in 1905 the Floridsdorf 
district was made up by the incorporation of the following 
former suburbs: Aspern-an-der-Donau, Donaufeld, Floridsdorf, 
Gross Jedlersdorf, Hirschstetten, Jedlesee, Kagran, Leopoldau, 
Lobau-Insel and Stadlau. By the incorporation of the suburbs 
in 1892, the area of Vienna was more than trebled, namely, 
from 2i| sq. m. to 69 sq. m.; while a new increase of about 
one-fifth of its total area was added by the incorporation of 
1902. A feature of the new city is the unusually large propor- 
tion of woods and arable land within its bounds. These form 
nearly 60% of its total area, private gardens, parks and 
open spaces occupying a further 13%. While from the 
standpoint of population it takes the fourth place among 
European capitals, Vienna covers about three times as much 
ground as Berlin, which occupies the third place. But the 
bulk of its inhabitants being packed into a comparatively 
small portion of this area, the working classes suffer greatly 
from overcrowding, and all sections of the community from 
high rents. 

The inner city, or Vienna proper, was formerly separated 
from the other districts by a circle of fortifications, consisting 
of a rampart, fosse and glacis. These, however, were removed 
in 1858-60, and the place of the glacis has been taken by 
a magnificent boulevard, the Ring-Strasse, 2 m. in length, 
and about 150 ft. in average width. Another series of works, 
consisting of a rampart and fosse, were constructed in 3704 
to surround the whole city at that time, i.e. the first ten districts 
of modern Vienna. This second girdle of fortifications was 
known as the Lines (Linien), and a second wide boulevard 
(Gurtel-Strasse) follows their course round the city. This 
second or outer girdle of fortifications formed the boundary 



between the city and the outlying suburbs, but was removed 
in 1892, when the incorporation of the suburbs took place. 

The inner town, which lies almost exactly in the centre of the 
others, is still, unlike the older parts of most European towns, 
the most aristocratic quarter, containing the palaces of the 
emperor and of many of the nobility, the government offices, 
many of the embassies and legations, the opera house and the 
principal hotels. Leopoldstadt which together with Brigit- 
tenau are the only districts on the left bank of the Danube 
Canal, is the chief commercial quarter, and is inhabited to a 
great extent by Jews. Mariahilf, Neubau and Margarethen are 
the chief seats of manufacturing industry. Landstrasse may 
be described as the district of officialism; here too are the 
British and German embassies. Alsergrund, with the enormous 
general hospital, the military hospital and the municipal 
asylum for the insane, is the medical quarter. 

Near the centre of the inner city, most of the streets in which 
are narrow and irregular, is the cathedral of St Stephen, the 
most important medieval building in Vienna, dating in its present 
form mainly from the 14th and 15th centuries, but incorporating 
a few fragments of the original 12th-century edifice. Among its 
most striking features are the fine and lofty tower (450 ft.), 
rebuilt in 1860-64; the extensive catacombs, in which the 
emperors were formerly interred; the sarcophagus (1513) of 
Frederick III.; the tombs of Prince Eugene of Savoy; thirty- 
eight marble altars; and the fine groined ceiling. A little to the 
south-west of the cathedral is the Hofburg, or imperial palace, 
a huge complex of buildings of various epochs and in various 
styles, enclosing several courtyards. The oldest part of the 
present edifice dates from the 13th century, and extensive 
additions have been made since 1887. In addition to private 
rooms and state apartments, the Hofburg contains a library 
of about 800,000 volumes, 7000 incunabula and 24,000 MSS., 
including the celebrated " Papyrus Rainer "; the imperial 
treasury, containing the family treasures of the house of 
Habsburg-Lorraine, and other important collections. 

In the old town are the two largest of the liofe, extensive 
blocks of buildings belonging to the great abbeys of Austria, 
which are common throughout Vienna. These are the Schotten- 
hof (once belonging to the " Scoti," or Irish Benedictines) 
and the Molkerhof, adjoining the open space called the Freiung, 
each forming a little town of itself. As in most continental 
towns, the custom of living in flats is prevalent in Vienna, where 
few except the richer nobles occupy an entire house. Of late 
the so-called " Zinspalaste " .(" tenement palaces ") have been 
built on a magnificent scale, often profusely adorned without 
and within with painting and sculpture. Other notable buildings 
within the line of the old fortifications are the Gothic Augustine 
church, built in the 14th century, and containing a fine monu- 
ment of Canova; the Capuchin church, with the burial vault of 
the Habsburgs; the church of Maria-Stiegen, an interesting 
Gothic building of the t4th century, restored in 1820; the 
handsome Greek church, by T. Hansen (1813-1891), finished in 
1858; the Minorite church, a Gothic edifice of the 14th century, 
containing an admirable mosaic of Leonardo da Vinci's " Last 
Supper " by Raffaeli, executed in 1806-14 by order of Napoleon 
and placed here in 1846. Other churches worth mentioning are 
the Schottenkirche, built in the 13th century, reconstructed 
in the 17th and restored by H. von Ferstel (1828-1883), con- 
taining the tombs of the count of Starhemberg, the defender 
of Vienna against the Turks in 1683, and of Duke Heinrich 
Jasomirgott (d. 1177) ; the church of St Peter, reconstructed 
by Fischer von Erlach in i702-r3, and the University church, 
erected by the Jesuits in 1625-31, both in the baroque style 
with rich frescoes; lastly, the small church of St Ruprecht, the 
oldest church in Vienna, first built in 740, and several times 
reconstructed; and the old Rathaus. At the corner of the 
Graben, one of the busiest thoroughfares, containing the most 
fashionable shops in Vienna, is the Stock im Eisen, the stump 
of a tree, said to be the last survivor of a holy grove round 
which the original settlement of Vindomina sprang up. It is 
lull of nails driven into it by travelling journeymen. 

The Ring-Strasse ranks as one of the most imposing 
achievements of modern street architecture. Opposite the 
Hofburg, the main body of which is separated from 
the Ring-Strasse by the Hofgarten and Volksgarten, rise 
the handsome monument of the empress Maria Theresa 
(erected 1888) and the imperial museums of art and natural 
history, two extensive Renaissance edifices with domes 
(erected 1870-89), matching each other in every particular 
and grouping finely with the new part of the palace. 
Hans Makart's painted dome in the natural history museum 
is the largest pictorial canvas in the world. Adjoining the 
museums to the west is the palace of justice (1881), and this is 
closely followed by the houses of parliament (1883), in which 
the Grecian style has been successfully adapted to modern 
requirements. Beyond the houses of parliament stands the 
new Rathaus, an immense and lavishly decorated Gothic 
building, erected in 1873-83. It was designed by Friedrich 
Schmidt (1825-1891), who may be described as the chief 
exponent of the modern Gothic tendency as T. Hansen and 
G. Semper, the creators respectively of the parliament house and 
the museums, are the leaders of the Classical and Renaissance 
styles which are so strongly represented in Viennese architecture. 
Opposite the Rathaus, on the inner side of the Ring, is the new 
court theatre, another specimen of Semper's Renaissance work, 
finished in 1880. To the north stands the new T building of the 
university, a Renaissance structure by H. von Ferstel, erected 
in 1873-84 and rivalling the Rathaus in extent. Near the uni- 
versity, and separated from the Ring by a garden, stands the 
votive church in Alsergrund, completed in 1879, and erected 
to commemorate the emperor's escape from assassination in r8s3, 
one of the most elaborate and successful of modern Gothic 
churches (Ferstel). The other important buildings of the 
Ring-Strasse include the magnificent opera house, built 
1861-69, by E. Van dcr Null (1812-1868) and A. von 
Siccardsburg (1813-1868), the sumptuous interior of which 
vies with that of Paris; the academy of art, built in 1872- 
76; the exchange, built in ^72-77, both by Hansen; and 
the Austrian museum of art and industry, an Italian Renais- 
sance building erected by Ferstel in 1868-71. On the north 
side the Ring-Strasse gives place to the spacious Franz Josef's 
quay, flanking the Danube Canal. The municipal districts out- 
side the Ring also contain numerous handsome modern buildings. 
Vienna possesses both in the inner city and the outlying dis- 
tricts numerous squares adorned with artistic monuments. 
One of the finest squares in the world for the beauty of the 
buildings which encircle it is the Rathausplate, adjoining the 

Vienna is the intellectual as well as the material capital 
of Austria — emphatically so in regard to the German part 
of the empire. Its university, established in 1365, is now 
attended by nearly 6000 students, and the medical faculty en- 
joys a world-wide reputation. Its scientific institutions are 
headed by the academy of science. The academy of art was 
founded in 1707. 

Museums. — In the imperial art-history museum are stored the 
extensive art-collections of the Austrian imperial family, which were 
formerly in the Hofburg, in the Belvedere, and in other places. It 
contains a rich collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Etruscan 
antiquities; of coins and medals, and of industrial art. The last 
contains valuable specimens of the industrial art of the middle 
ages and of the Renaissance period in gold, silver, bronze, glass, 
enamel, ivory, iron and wood. The famous salt-cellar (satiera) of 
Benvenuto Cellini, executed in 1539-43 for Francis I. of France, is 
here. Then comes the collection of weapons and armour, including 
the famous Ambras collection, so called after the castle of Ambras 
near Innsbruck, where it was for a long time stored. The picture 
gallery, which contains the collection formerly preserved in the Bel- 
vedere palace, contains masterpieces of almost every school in the 
world, but it is unsurpassed for Us specimens of Rubens, Dtirer and 
the Venetian masters. Next come the imperial treasury at the Hof- 
burg, already mentioned; the famous collection of drawings and 
engravings known as the Albertina in the palace of the archduke 
Frederick, which contains over 200,000 engravings and 16,000 draw- 
ings; the picture gallery of the academy of art; the collection of 
the Austrian museum of art and industry; the historical museum 
of the city of Vienna; and the military museum at the arsenal. 

S 2 


Besides, there are in. Vienna a number of private picture galleries 
of great importance. The largest is that belonging to Prince 
Liechtenstein, containing about 800 paintings, and specially rich 
in important works by Rubens and Van Dyck; the picture gallery 
of Count Harrach, with over 400 paintings, possessing numerous 
examples of the later Italian and French schools; that of Count 
Czernin, with over 340 paintings; and that of Count Schonborn, with 
no pictures. The imperial natural history museum contains a 
mineralogical, geological and zoological section, as well as a pre- 
historic and ethnographical collection. Its botanic collection 
contains the famous Vienna herbarium, while to the university is 
attached a fine botanical garden. Besides the Ilofburg library, 
there arc important libraries belonging to the university and other 
societies, the corporation and the various monastic orders. 

Parks, &c. — -The Prater, a vast expanse (2000 acres) of wood and 
park on the east side of the city, between the Danube and the 
Danube Canal, is greatly frequented by all classes. The exhi- 
bition of 1873 was held in this park, and several of its buildings, 
including the large rotunda, have been left standing. Other parks 
are the Hofgarten, the Volksgarten and the Town Park, all adjoin- 
ing the Ring-Strasse; the Augarten in the Leopoldstadt, the Belve- 
dere Park in the Landstrasse, the Esterhazy Park in Mariahilf, and 
the Turkenschanz Park in Dohling. Among the most popular 
resorts are the parks and gardens belonging to the imperial 
chateaux of Schonbrunn and Laxenburg. 

Government and Administration. — Vienna is the residence of 
the emperor of Austria, the seat of the Austrian ministers, of 
the Reichsrat and of the Diet of Lower Austria. It is also 
the seat of the common ministries for the Austro-Hungarian 
monarchy, of the foreign ambassadors and general consuls and 
the meeting-place, alternately with Budapest, of the Austro- 
Hungarian delegations. It contains also the highest judicial, 
financial, military and administrative official authorities of 
Austria, and is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Vienna 
enjoys autonomy for communal affairs, but is under the control 
of the governor and the Diet of Lower Austria, while the election 
of the chief burgomaster requires the sanction of the sovereign, 
advised by the prime minister. The municipal council is 
composed of 158 members elected for a period of six years. 
The long struggle between the municipality and the Austrian 
ministry arising out of the refusal tc sanction the election 
(1895) of Dr Lueger, the anti-Semitic leader and champion, 
recalls in some respects the Wilkes incident in London. In this 
instance the ultimate success of the corporation greatly strength- 
ened the Obscurantist and reactionary element throughout 

The cost of the transformation of Vienna, which has been in 
progress since 1858, cannot be said to have fallen heavily on the 
population. Great part of the burden has been borne throughout 
by the " City Extension Fund," realized from the utilization of the 
ground formerly occupied by the fortifications and glacis. The 
subsequent regulation of the former suburbs has to a large extent 
covered its own expenses through the acquisition by the town of 
the improved area. The municipal finance has on the whole been 
sound, and notwithstanding the extra burdens assumed on the 
incorporation of the suburbs, the equilibrium of the communal 
budget was maintained up to the fall of the Liberal administration. 
In spite of shortsighted parsimony in the matter of schools, &c, 
and increased resources through the allocation to the municipality 
of a certain percentage of new state and provincial taxation, their 
anti-Semitic successors have been unable to avoid a deficit, and have 
been obliged to increase the rates. But the direct damage done 
in this and other ways would seem. to be less than that produced 
by the mistrust they inspired for a time among the propertied 
classes, and the consequent paralysing of enterprise. Their violent 
anti-Magyar attitude has driven away a certain amount of Hungarian 
custom, and helped to increase the political difficulties of the 
cis-Leithan government. 

Vienna is situated at an altitude of 550 ft. above the level of 
the sea, and possesses a healthy climate. The mean annual 
temperature is 48-6° F., and the range between January and July 
is about 40 F. The climate is rather changeable, and rapid 
falls of temperature are not uncommon. Violent storms occur 
in spring and autumn, and the rainfall, including snow, amounts 
to 25 in. a year. Vienna has one of the best supplies of 
drinking water of anv European capital. The water is brought 
by an aqueduct direct from the Alps, viz. from the Schnee- 
berg, a distance of nearly 60 m. to the south-west. These 
magnificent waterworks were opened in 1873, and their sanitary 

influence was soon felt, in the almost complete disappearance 
of typhoid fever, which had numerous victims before. 

Great enlargements, by tapping new sources of supply, were 
made in 1891-93, while since 1902 works have been in progress 
for bringing a new supply of pure water from the region of the 
Salza, a distance of nearly 150 m. Another sanitary work of great 
importance was the improvement carried out in the drainage 
system, and the regulation of the river Wien. This river, which, 
at ordinary times, was little more than an ill-smelling brook at one 
side of an immense bed, was occasionally converted into a formid- 
able and destructive torrent. Now half the bed of the river has 
been walled over for the metropolitan railway, while the other half 
has been deepened, and the portion of it within the town has been 
arched over. A beginning was thus made for a new and magnificent 
avenue in the neighbourhood of the Ring-Strasse. 

Population. — In 1800 the population of the old districts was 
231,050; in 1840, 356,870; in 1857, 476,222 (or with suburbs, 
587,235); in i86g, 607,514 (with suburbs, 842,951); in 1880, 
704,756 (with suburbs, 1,090,119); in 1890, town and suburbs, 
1,364,548; and in 1900, 1,662,269, including the garrison of 
26,629 men. Owing to the peculiarities of its situation, the 
population of Vienna is of a very cosmopolitan and hetero- 
geneous character. Its permanent population (some 45-5% 
are born in the city) is recruited from all parts of Austria, 
and indeed of the entire monarchy. The German element 
is, of course, the most numerous, but there are also a great 
number of Hungarians, Czechs and other Slavs. 

Previous to the loss of the Italian provinces, a considerable pro- 
portion came from Italy (30,000 in 1859), including artists, members 
of the learned professions and artisans who left their mark on 
Viennese art and taste. The Italian colony now numbers about 
2500 (chiefly navvies and masons), in addition to some 1400 Austrian 
subjects of that nationality. At present the largest and most 
regular contributions to the population of Vienna come from the 
Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, next in importance being 
those from Lower Austria and Styria. This steady and increasing 
influx of Czechs is gradually infusing a large proportion of. Slav 
blood in what Bismarck (in 1864) described as the German capital 
of a Slav empire. Formerly the Czech labourers, artisans and 
domestic servants who' came to Vienna were somewhat ashamed 
of their mother-tongue, and anxious to conceal that evidence ot 
their origin as speedily as possible. The revival of the nationality 
agitation has produced a marked change in this respect. The 
Czech immigrants, attracted to Vienna as to other German towns by 
the growth of industry, are now too numerous for easy absorption, 
which is further retarded by their national organization, and the 
provision of separate institutions, churches, schools (thus far private) 
and places of resort. The consequence is that they take a pride in 
accentuating their national characteristics, a circumstance which 
threatens to develop into a new source of discord. In 1900 the 
population included 1 ,386, 115 persons of German nationality, 
102,974 Czechs and Slovaks, 4346 Poles, 805 Ruthenians, 1329 
Slovenes, 2ji Serbo-Croatians, and 1368 Italians, all Austrian 
subjects. To these should be added 133,144 Hungarians, 21,733 
natives of Germany (3782 less than in 1890), 2506 natives of Italy, 
1703 Russians, 1176 French, 1643 Swiss, &c. Of this heterogeneous 
population 1,461,891 were Roman Catholics, the Jews coining next 
in order with 146,926. Protestants of the Augsburg and Helvetic 
Confessions numbered 54,364; members of the Church of England, 
490; Old Catholics, 975; members of the Greek Orthodox Church, 
3674; Greek Catholics, 2521; and Mahommedans, 889. 

As a general rule, the Viennese are gay, pleasure-loving and 
genial. The Viennese women are justly celebrated for their 
beauty and elegance; and dressing as a fine art is cultivated 
here with almost as great success as in Paris. As a rule, the 
Viennese arc passionately fond of dancing; and the city of 
Strauss, J. F.K.Lanner (1801-1S43) and J. Gungl (1810-1889) 
gives name to a " school " of waltz and other dance music. 
Opera, especially in its lighter form, flourishes, and the actors 
of Vienna maintain with success a traditional reputation 
of no mean order. Its chief place in the history of art 
Vienna owes to its musicians, among whom are counted 
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert. The Viennese 
school of painting is of modern origin; but some of its members, 
for instance, Hans Makarl (1840-1884), have acquired a European 

Trade. — Vienna is the most important commercial and industrial 
centre of Austria. For a long time the Austrian government, by 
failing to keep the Danube in a proper state for navigation, let 
slip the opportunity of making the city the great DanubiaB 



metropolis which its geographical position entitles it to be. But 
during the last quarter of the 19th century active steps were taken 
to foster the economic interests of the city. The regulation 
of the Danube, mentioned above, the conversion of the entire 
Danube Canal into a harbour, the construction of the navigable 
canal Danube- March-Oder — all gave a new impetus to the trade of 
Vienna. The fast-growing activity of the port of Trieste and the 
new and shorter railway line constructed between it and Vienna 
also contribute to the same effect. Vienna carries on an extensive 
trade in corn, flour, cattle, wine, sugar and a large variety of manu- 
factured articles. Besides the Danube it is served by an extensive 
net of railways, which radiate from here to every part of the empire. 
The staple productions are machinery, railway engines and car- 
riages, steel, tin and bronze wares, pottery, bent and carved wood 
furniture, textiles and chemicals. In the number and variety of 
its leather and other fancy goods Vienna rivals Paris, and is also 
renowned for its manufacture of jewelry and articles of precious 
metals, objeis d'art, musical instruments, physical chemicals and 
optical instruments, and artistic products generally. Its articles 
of clothing, silk goods and millinery also enjoy a great reputation 
for the taste with which they are manufactured. Books, artistic 
publications, paper and beer are amongst the other principal 
products. The building trade and its allied trades are also active. 

History. — For several centuries Vienna filled an important 
role as the most advanced bulwark of Western civilization and 
Christianity against the Turks, for during the whole of the 
middle ages Hungary practically retained its Asiatic character. 
The story of Vienna begins in the earliest years of the Christian 
era, with the seizure of the Celtic settlement of Vindomina by 
the Romans, who changed its name to Vindobona, and estab- 
lished a fortified camp here to command the Danube and protect 
the northern frontier of the empire. The fortress grew in 
importance, and was afterwards made a municipium; and here 
Marcus Aurelius died in 180. On the decline of the Roman 
empire Vindobona became (the prey of successive barbarian 
invaders. Attila and his Huns were among the temporary 
occupants of the place (5th century), and in the following century 
it came into the possession of the Avars, after which its name 
disappears from history until towards the close of the 8th century, 
when Charlemagne expelled the Avars and made the district 
between the Enns and the Wiener Wald the boundary of his 
empire. In the time of Otho II. (976) this " East Mark " 
(Ostmark, Oesterreich, Austria) was granted in fief to the Baben- 
bergers, and in the reign of Frederick Barbarossa (n 56) it was 
advanced to the rank of a duchy. There is no certain record 
that the site of Vindobona was occupied at the time of the 
formation of the Ostmark, though many considerations make 
it probable. It is not likely that the Avars, living in their 
"ring" encampments, destroyed the Roman municipium; 
and Bees, the Hungarian name for Vienna to this day, is sus- 
ceptible of a Slavonic interpretation only, and would seem to 
indicate that the site had been occupied in Slavonic times. The 
frequent mention of " Wiene " in the oldest extant version of 
the Nibelimgenlied points in the same direction. Passing over 
a doubtful mention of " Vwienni " in the annals of 1030, we 
find the " civitas " of Vienna mentioned in a document of 
1 1 30, and in 11 56 it became the capital and residence of Duke 
Heinrich Jasomirgott. In 1237 Vienna received a charter of 
freedom from Frederick II., confirmed in 1247. In the time 
of the crusades Vienna increased so rapidly, in consequence of 
the traffic that flowed through it, that in the days of Ottacar II. 
of Bohemia (1251-76), the successor of the Babenbergers, it had 
attained the dimensions of the present inner town. A new era 
of power and splendour begins in 1276, when it became the 
capital of the Habsburg dynasty, after the defeat of Ottacar 
by Rudolph of Habsburg. From this time on it has shared the 
fortunes of the house of Austria. In 1477 Vienna was besieged 
unsuccessfully by the Hungarians, and in 1485 it was taken by 
Matthew Corvinus. Of more importance were the two sieges 
by the Turks (1529 and 1683), when the city was saved on the 
first occasion by the gallant defence of Count Niclas von Salm 
(1459-1530), and on the second by Riidiger von Starhemberg 
(1638-1701), who held out until the arrival of the Poles and 
Germans under John Sobieski of Poland. The suburbs, however, 
were destroyed on both occasions. In 1805, and again in 1809, 
Vienna was for a short time occupied by the French. In 1814-15 

it was the meeting-place of the congress which settled the political 
affairs of Europe after the overthrow of Napoleon. In 184S the 
city was for a time in the hands of the revolutionary party; but it 
was bombarded by the imperial forces and compelled to surrender 
on 30th October of the same year. Vienna was not occupied by 
the Prussians in the war of 1866, but the invaders marched to 
within sight of its towers. In 1873 a great international exhibi- 
tion took place here. 

While Berlin and Budapest have made the most rapid progress 
of all European cities, having multiplied their population by 
nine in the period 1800-90, Vienna— even including the extensive 
annexations of 1892— only increased sevenfold. Many causes 
conspired to this end, but most of them date from the years 1859, 
1866 and 1867. The combined effect of these successive blows, 
aggravated by the long period of decentralizing policy from 
Taaffe to Badeni, is still felt in the Kaiserstadt. The gaiety 
of Vienna had for centuries depended on the brilliancy of its 
court, recruited from all parts of Europe, including the nobility 
of the whole empire, and on its musical, light-hearted and con- 
tented population. Even before it fell from its high estate as the 
social centre of the German-speaking world, it had suffered 
severely by the crushing defeats of 1 859 and the consequent exodus 
of the Austrian nobles. These were held responsible for the 
misfortunes of the army, and to escape the atmosphere of 
popular odium retired to their country seats and the provincial 
capitals. They have never since made Vienna their home to 
the same extent as before. The change thus begun was con- 
firmed by the exclusion of Austria from the German Confedera- 
tion and the restoration of her Constitution'to Hungary, events 
which gave an immense impetus to the two rival capitals. 
Thus within eight years the range of territory from which 
Vienna drew its former throngs of wealthy pleasure-seeking 
visitors and more or less permanent inhabitants — -Italian, 
German and Hungarian — was enormously restricted. Since then 
Vienna has benefited largely by the enlightened efforts of its 
citizens and the exceptional opportunities afforded by the 
removal of the fortifications. But a decline of its importance, 
similar to that within the larger sphere which it influenced 
prior to 1859, has continued uninterruptedly within the Habs- 
burg dominions up to the present day. Its commercial classes 
constantly complain of the increasing competition of the 
provinces, and of the progressive industrial emancipation of 
Hungary. The efforts of the Hungarians to complete their 
social and economic, no less than their political, emancipation 
from Austria and Vienna have been unremittingly pursued. 
The formal recognition of Budapest as a royal residence and 
capital in 1S92, and the appointment of independent Hungarian 
court functionaries in November 1893, mark new stages in its 
progress. It would no longer be correct to speak of Vienna 
as the capital of the dual monarchy. It merely shares that 
distinction with Budapest. 

Ribliography. — K. von Ltitzow and L. Tischler, Wiener 
Neubauten (6 vols., Wien, 1889^97); M. Bermann, Alt- und 
Neuwien (2nd ed., "Wien, 1903), edited by Schimmer; E. Guglia, 
Geschichte der Stadt Wien (Wien, 1892) ; H. Zimmermann, Gesckichte 
der Stadt Wien (2 vols., Wien, 1897-1900); Hickmann, Wien im 
IQ Jahrhunderi (Wien, 1903) ; Wien, 1848-88, published by the 
Vienna corporation ; Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Wien, annually 
since 1883; Gesckichte der Stadt Wien, published by the Vienna 
Alterthtimsverein since 1897. 

VIENNA, CONGRESS OF (1814-1815). The fall of Napoleon 
was only achieved by the creation of a special alliance between 
Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia. By the Treaty of 
Chaumont of March 10, 1814, these four powers bound them- 
selves together in a bond which was not to be dissolved when 
peace was concluded. W'hen Napoleon had been beaten, 
France conceded to these allies by a secret article of the first 
Treaty of Paris of May 30, 1814, the disposition of all countries 
which Napoleon's fall had freed from French suzerainty. This 
stupendous task was reserved for a general congress, and it 
was agreed to meet at Vienna. The visit of the allied sovereigns 
to England and the pressing engagements of the emperor 
Alexander and Lord Castlereagh delayed the congress until the 



autumn, when all Europe sent its representatives to accept the 
hospitality of the impoverished but magnificent Austrian court. 

Metternich, though he had not yet completely established 
his position, acted as chief Austrian representative, and he was 
naturally in his capacity as host the president of the congress. 
Friedrich v. Gentz acted as secretary both to him and the congress 
and did much of the routine work. Alexander of Russia 
directed his own diplomacy, and round him he had gathered a 
brilliant body of men who could express but not control their 
master's desires. Of these the chief were foreigners, according 
to the traditions of Russian diplomacy. Capo d'lstria, Nessel- 
rorie, Stein, Pozzo di Borgo were perhaps the best men in 
Europe to manage the Russian policy, while Czartoriski repre- 
sented at the imperial court the hope of Polish nationality. 
Frederick William III. of Prussia was a weaker character and, 
as will be seen, his policy was largely determined by his ally. 
Prince von Hardenberg, who by no means shared all the views 
of his master but was incapacitated by his growing infirmities, 
was first Prussian plenipotentiary, and assisting him was Baron 
von Humboldt. Great Britain was represented by Lord Castle- 
reagh, and under him were the British diplomats who had been 
attached to the foreign armies since 1813, Clancarty, Stewart 
and Cathcart. Castlereagh brought with him decided views, 
which however were not altogether those of his cabinet, and 
his position was weakened by the fact that Great Britain was 
still at war with the United States, and that public opinion at 
home cared for little but the abolition of the slave trade. When 
parliamentary duties called Castlereagh home in February 1815, 
the duke of Wellington filled his place with adequate dignity 
and statesmanship until the war broke out. 

France sent Prince Talleyrand to conduct her difficult affairs. 
No other man was so well fitted for the task of maintaining 
the interests of a defeated country. His rare diplomatic skill 
and supreme intellectual endowments were to enable him to 
play a deciding part in the coming congress. All the minor 
powets of Europe were represented, for all felt that their in- 
terests were at stake in the coming settlement. Gathered there 
also were a host of publicists, secretaries and courtiers, and 
never before had Europe witnessed such a collection of rank 
and talent. From the first the social side of the congress im- 
pressed observers with its wealth and variety, nor did the 
statesmen disdain to use the dining-table or the ballroom as 
the instruments of their diplomacy. 

All Europe awaited with eager expectation the results of so 
great an assembly. The fate of Poland and Saxony hung in 
the balance; Germany awaited an entirely new reorganization; 
Italy was again ready for dismemberment; rumours went that 
even the pope and the sultan might be largely affected. Some 
there were who hoped that so great an opportunity would not 
be lost, but that the statesmen would initiate such measures 
of international disarmament as would perpetuate the blessings 
of that peace which Europe was again enjoying after twenty 
years of warfare. 

It was not long, however, before the allies displayed their 
intention of keeping the management of affairs entirely in their 
own hands. At an informal meeting on the 22nd of September 
the four great powers agreed that all subjects of general interest 
were to be settled by a committee consisting of Austria, Russia, 
Prussia and Great Britain together with France and Spain. 
At the same time, however, it was decided by a secret protocol 
that the four powers should first settle among themselves the 
distribution of the conquered territories, and that France and 
Spain should only be consulted when their final decision was 

This was the situation which Talleyrand had to face when 
he arrived on the 24th of September. His first step when he 
was admitted to the European committee, which was in the 
plans of the allies to act so colourless a part, was to ignore the 
position of the Four and to assert that only the congress as a 
whole could give the committee full powers. This would have 
meant an almost indefinite delay, for how was it possible 
to decide the exact rights of all the different states to a 

voice in affairs ? After some heated discussion a compromise 
was arrived at. The opening of the congress was postponed, 
and Sweden and Portugal were added to the European com- 
mittee, but the Four still persisted in the informal meetings which 
were to decide the important questions. Meanwhile separate 
committees were formed for the discussion of special problems. 
Thus a special committee was appointed consisting of the five 
German powers to discuss the constitution which was to replace 
the Holy Roman Empire, another to settle that of Switzerland, 
and others for other minor questions. Talleyrand had, how- 
ever, already shaken the position of the allies. He had posed 
as the defender of the public rights of Europe and won to his 
side the smaller powers and much of the public opinion of Europe, 
while the allies were beginning to be regarded more in the light 
of rapacious conquerors than as disinterested defenders of the 
liberties of Europe. 

Had the Four remained united in their views they would 
still have been irresistible. But they were gradually dividing 
into two unreconcilable parties upon the Saxon-Polish question. 
Alexander, exaggerating the part he had played in the final 
struggle, and with some vague idea of nationality in his brain, 
demanded that the whole of Poland should be added to the 
Russian dominions. Austria was to be compensated in Italy, 
while Prussia was to receive the whole of Saxony, whose unfor- 
tunate monarch had been the most faithful of Napoleon's vassals. 

It was Castlereagh that led the opposition to these almost 
peremptory demands of Alexander. A true disciple of Pitt, 
he came to the congress with an overwhelming distrust of the 
growing power of Russia, which was only second to his hatred 
of revolutionary France. He considered that the equilibrium 
of Europe would be irretrievably upset were the Russian 
boundaries to be pushed into the heart of Germany. Thus 
while willing, even anxious that Prussia should receive Saxony, 
in order that she might be strong to meet the danger from the 
East, he was prepared to go to any lengths to resist the claims 
of Russia. For Austria Saxony was really of more vital interest 
than Poland, but Castlereagh, despite a vigorous resistance 
from a section of the Austrian court, was able to win Metternich 
over to his views. He hoped to gain Prussia also to his side, 
and by uniting the German powers to force Alexander to retire 
from the position he had so uncompromisingly laid down. 
With the Prussian statesmen he had some success, but he could 
make no impression on Frederick William. Alexander used to 
the utmost that influence over the mind of the Prussian monarch 
which he had been preparing since the beginning of 1813. 
Against Castlereagh he entered the lists personally, and memor- 
andum after memorandum was exchanged. Despite the warning 
letters of the British cabinet which, dismayed at the long con- 
tinuance of the American War, counselled caution on a question 
in which England had no immediate interest, Castlereagh 
yielded no inch of his ground. But Metternich wavered on the 
question of Saxony, and December saw the allies hopelessly 
at difference. It seemed by no means unlikely that the armies 
which had conquered Napoleon would soon be engaged in 
conflict with one another. 

It was Talleyrand's opportunity. As Castlereagh and Metter- 
nich began to regard the position as hopeless they began to 
look upon him as a possible ally. Talleyrand had constantly 
defended the rights of France's old ally Saxony in the name 
of the principle which his master Louis XVIII. represented. 
His passionate appeal on behalf of " legitimacy " was par- 
ticularly adapted to the necessities of the situation. Alex- 
ander was driven into transports of rage by this championship 
of the ancien regime by one who had been a servant of its 
bitterest foe. But Castlereagh saw that war could only be 
avoided if one party was made stronger than the other. The 
reluctant consent of the British cabinet was obtained and 
Talleyrand was approached as an equal. He came boldly to 
the front in the middle of December as the champion of Saxony; 
and, as Russia and Prussia were still obstinate, Metternich 
and Castlereagh demanded the admission of France to the 
secret council. This was refused, and on the 3rd of January 



1815 a secret treaty of defensive alliance was signed between 
France, Austria and Great Britain. For some time affairs . 
hung in the balance, but Alexander could not mistake the tone 
of his opponents. Gradually a compromise was arranged, and 
by the end of the month all danger was past. Eventually 
Austria and Prussia retained most of their Polish dominions, 
and the latter power only received about two-fifths of Saxony. 
The rest of Poland was incorporated as a separate kingdom in 
the Russian dominions with a promise of a constitution of its 
own. Talleyrand had rescued France from its humiliating 
position, and set it as an equal by the side of the allies. Hence- 
forward he made no effort for the rights of the whole congress. 

Meanwhile other affairs had been progressing more har- 
moniously under the direction of special committees, which 
included representatives of the powers specially interested. 
Switzerland was given a constitution which led it in the direc- 
tion of its later federalism. In Italy Austria retained her hold 
on Lombardy and Venetia, Genoa was assigned to the kingdom 
of Sardinia, while Parma went to Marie Louise, the legitimate 
heir, Carlo Ludivico, having to be content with the reversion 
after her death, the congress meanwhile assigning Lucca to 
him as a duchy; the claims of the young Napoleon to succeed 
his mother in Parma were only destroyed by the efforts of 
France and England. The other petty monarchs were restored^ 
and Murat's rash attempt, after Napoleon's return from Elba, 
to make himself king of united Italy, gave back Naples to the 
Bourbons, an event which would have been brought about 
in any case in the course of the next few years (see Murat. 
Joachim). Holland was confirmed in the possession of 
Belgium and Luxemburg, Limburg and Liege were added to her 
dominions. Sweden, who had sacrificed Finland to Russia, 
obtained Norway. 

German affairs, however, proved too complicated for complete 
solution. It was difficult enough to decide the claims of the 
states in the scramble for territory. Eventually, however, by 
methods of compromise, this was adjusted fairly satisfactorily. 
The greater states gained largely, especially Prussia, who was 
given large accessions of territory on the Rhine, partly as a 
compensation for her disappointment in the matter of Saxony, 
partly that she might act as a bulwark against France. Some 
disputes between Baden and Bavaria remained unsettled, and 
many questions arising out of the new federal constitution of 
Germany, which had been hurriedly patched together under 
the influence of the news of Napoleon's return, had to be post- 
poned for further discussion, and were not settled until the 
Final Act agreed upon by the conference of German statesmen 
at Vienna in 1821. 

Other more general objects, such as the free navigation of 
international rivers and the regulation of the rights of precedence 
among diplomatists (see Diplomacy), were managed with much 
address. Castlereagh's great efforts were rewarded by a de- 
claration that the slave trade was to be abolished, though each 
power was left free to fix such a date as was most convenient 
to itself. The Final Act, embodying all the separate treaties, 
was signed on the 9th of June 1815, a few days before the battle 
of Waterloo. 

Before the work of the congress was completed Napoleon 
was again at Paris, and the closing stages were hurried and ill- 
considered. One negotiation of supreme importance was cut 
short for this reason. Castlereagh had left Vienna with the 
hope that the powers would solemnly guarantee their territorial 
settlement and promise to make collective war on whoever 
dared to disturb it. This guarantee was to include the Otto- 
man dominions, in whose interests, indeed, it had been brought 
forward. Alexander made no objection provided that the 
Porte would submit all outstanding claims to arbitration. The 
distance of Constantinople from Vienna and the obstinacy of 
the sultan would probably have prevented a settlement, but the 
return of Napoleon rendered all such proposals almost absurd, 
and the scheme was dropped. 

Thus the congress of Vienna failed to institute any new 
system for securing the stability of the European polity, nor did 

it recognize those new forces of liberty and nationality which 
had really caused Napoleon's downfall. Following the tradi- 
tion of all preceding congresses, it was mainly a scramble for 
territory and power. Territories were distributed among the 
powers with no consideration for the feelings of their in- 
habitants, and in general the right of the strongest prevailed. 
For this reason it has often met with a condemnation that has 
perhaps been unmerited. It is true that the map of Europe 
shows to-day but little trace of its influence; but much of its 
work was determined by conditions over Which statesmen had 
little control. Europe was not ready for the recognition of 
nationality and liberalism. What it wanted most of all was 
peace, and by establishing something like a' territorial equili- 
brium the congress did much to win that breathing space which 
was the cardinal need of all. 

Bibliography. — The treaties and acts of the congress may be 
consulted in J. L. Kliiber, Aden ties Wiener Congresses (9 vols.); 
Comte d'Angeberg, Le Congres de Vienna (4 vols.). British and 
Foreign State Papers, vol. ii., gives some of the documents in English, 
and the Final Act is found in many collections. For the diplomacy, 
Wellington's Supplementary Despatches, vols. ix. and x., Castle- 
reagh's Letters and Despatches, vol. x. p Talleyrand's Memoirs, vols, 
ii. and iii., the works of Gentz (see Gentz, F. Von) and the Memoirs 
of Hardenberg and Czartoryski are very usefu!. Other records 
left by contemporaries are those of Miinster, D. D. de Pradt, J. de 
Maistre and Gagern. The comte A. de La Garde -C ha mbonas, 
Souvenirs du congres de Vienne (ed. with introduction and note by 
Comte Fleury, Paris, 1901), gives an interesting picture of the 
congress from its personal and social side. Ot later works a great 
many historians both of the Napoleonic era and of the 19th century 
include chapters on the congress; Sorel, V Europe et la Revolu- 
tion franchise, vol. viii., and the various volumes of the Slaaten- 
Geschichte der Neuesten Zeil give much information. In English the 
best account is that by Dr A. W. Ward in chs. xix. and xxi. 
of vol. ix. of the Cambridge Modern History (1906), which gives 
also a fairly complete bibliography, pp. 867-875. There ie also a 
list of authorities in Lavisse and Rambaud's Histoire Ginerale, 
vol. x. (C. K. W.) 

VIENNE, a river of central France, a left-hand tributary 
of the Loire, watering the departments of Correze, Haute- 
ViennCj Charcnte, Vienne and Indre-ct-Loire. Length, 219 m.; 
area of basin, 8286 sq. m. Rising on the plateau of Millevaches 
14 m. N.W. of Ussel (department of Correze) at a height of 
27S9 ft., the Vienne flows westward, between the highlands 
of Limousin on the south and the plateau of Gentioux and the 
Blond mountains on the north. The first large town on its 
banks is Limoges (Haute- Vienne), below its confluence with 
the Taurion: in this part of its course the river supplies motive 
power to paper-mills and other factories. The river next 
reaches St Junicn, below which it turns abruptly northwards 
to Confolens (Cbarentc). Flowing through a picturesque and 
now wider valley, and passing in its course the churches and 
chateaux of Chauvigny, the river proceeds to the confluence 
of the Clain just above Chatellerault. Below that town it 
receives the Creuse (rising on the plateau of Millevaches and 
reaching the Vienne after a course of 159 m.) ; and turns north- 
west, uniting with the Loire below the historic town of Chinon. 
There is little river-traffic on the Vienne, and that only below 
its confluence with the Creuse (30 m.). 

VIENNE, a department of west-central France, formed in 
1790 out of Poitou (four-fifths of its present area), Touraine 
(one-seventh) and Berry, and bounded by Deux-Sevres on the 
W., Charente on the S., Haute- Vienne on the S.E., Indre on 
the E., Indre-et-Loire on the N.E. and N., and Maine-et -Loire 
on the N.W. Pop. (1906) 333,621. Area, 2719 sq. m. The 
river Vienne, which gives its name to the department, with 
its tributaries the Creuse (subtributary the Gartempe) on the 
east and the, Clain on the west, flows from sc-uth to north. The 
general slope of the department is in the same direction, the 
highest point (764 ft.) being in the south-east and the lowest 
(115 ft.) at the junction of the Vienne and the Creuse. In 
the south the Charente, on the north-west the Dive, and in 
the west some streams belonging to the basin of the Sevre- 
Niortaise drain small portions of the department. The average 
temperature is 54° F. The prevailing winds are from the 
south-west and west. The annual rainfall is 24 in. 



Wheat, oats and barley arc the principal cereals' cultivated, 
other important crops being lucerne, sainfoin, clover, mangel- 
wurzcls and potatoes. Colza and hemp arc grown to a limited 
extent. The district of Poitiers grows good red wine, and the white 
wine of Trois-Mou tiers near Loudun is well known. The breeding 
of live stock in all its branches is fairly active. Poitou is famous for 
its mules, and the geese and turkeys of the department are highly 
esteemed. Oak, ash, alder and birch are the principal forest trees, 
and among the fruit trees arc the chestnut, walnut and almond. 
Freestone is quarried. The most important industrial establish- 
ments are the national arms manufactory at Chatellerault and the 
cutlery works near that town. In other parts of the department are 
wool-spinning mills, hemp-spinning mills, manufactories of serges 
and coarse cloth, vinegar, candles, goose and goat skins, leather, 
tiles and pottery, paper-works, breweries, distilleries, lime-kilns 
and numerous flour-mills. Corn, wine, brandy, vegetables, fruit, 
chestnuts, fodder, cattle, stone, cutlery, arms and dressed hides are 
exported; butcher's beasts, colonial produce and coals are im- 
ported. The department is served by the Ouest-Etat and Orleans 
railways. Vienne forms part of the diocese of Poitiers, has its 
court of appeal and educational centre at Poitiers, and belongs 
to the region of the IX. army corps. The capital is Poitiers, and 
the department is divided for purposes of administration into 
5 arrondissements (Poitiers, Chatellerault, Civray, Loudun, Mont- 
morillon), 3 1 cantons and 300 communes. The more noteworthy 
towns are Poitiers, Chatellerault, Loudun, Montmorillon and Chau- 
vigny, these being separately treated. Other places of interest 
are St Maurice, Civray and St Savin, which have Romanesque 
churches, the abbey church of St Savin being remarkable for its 
mural paintings; Liguge, with an abbey church of the 15th and 16th 
centuries; Charroux, which has a Romanesque octagonal tower and 
other remains of a famous abbey ; and Sanxay, near which there are 
ruins of a theatre and other Gallo-Roman remains. Vienne is rich 
in megalithic monuments. 

VIENNE, the chief town of an arrondisscment of the depart- 
ment of the Isere, France. Historically the first, it is by 
population (24,610 in 1901) the second city of the department 
of the Isere, after Grenoble; and the third, after Valence, of 
the Dauphine. It is situated on the left bank of the Rhone 
just below the junction of the Gere with the Rhone, and about 
20 m. by rail S. of Lyons. On the N., E. and S. the town 
is sheltered by low hills, the Rhone flowing along its western 
side. Its site is an immense mass of ancient debris, which is 
constantly yielding interesting antiquities. On the bank of 
the Gere are traces of the ramparts of the old Roman city, 
and on the Mont Pipet (E. of the town) are the remains of an 
amphitheatre, while the ruined castle there was built in the 
13th century on Roman substructures. Several of the ancient 
aqueducts (one only is now actually in use) are still to be seen, 
while in the neighbourhood of the city some bits of the old 
Roman roads may still be found. 

The streets of the town are narrow and tortuous, but it possesses 
two Roman monuments of the first class. One is the temple of 
Augusta and Livia, a rectangular building of the Corinthian order, 
erected by the emperor Claudius, and inferior only to the Maison 
Carree at Nimes. From the 5th century to 1793 it was a church 
(Notre Dame de Vie), and the " festival of reason " was celebrated 
in it at the time of the Revolution. The other, in the more modern 
part of the town, is the Plan de V Aiguille, a truncated quadrangular 
pyramid about 52 ft. in height and resting on a portico with four 
arches. Many theories have been advanced as to what this singular 
structure really was (some imagine that it was the tomb of Pontius 
Pilatus, who, according to the |legend, died at Vienne), but it is now 
generally believed to have been part of the spina of a large circus, 
the outlines of which have been traced. The church of St Peter 
belonged to an ancient Benedictine abbey and was rebuilt in the 
9th century. It is in the earliest Romanesque style, and forms 
a basilica, with tall square piers, reminding one of Lucca, while 
the two ranges of windows in the aisles, with their coupled marble 
columns, recall Ravenna from within and the Basse (Euvre of 
Beauvais from without. The porch is in the earliest Romanesque 
style. This church has of late years been completely restored, and 
since 1895 shelters the magnificent Musee Lapidaire (formerly housed 
in the temple of Augusta and Livia). The former cathedral church 
(primatial as well as metropolitan) of St Maurice contains some of 
the best forms of the true N. Gothic, and was constructed at various 
periods between 1052 and 1533. It is a basilica, with three aisles, 
but no apse or transepts. It is 315 ft. in length, 1 18 ft. wide and 89 
in height. The most striking portion is the W. front (1533), which 
rises majestically from a terrace overhanging the "Rhone. But the 
statuary was much injured by the Protestants in 1562. The church 
of St Andre le Bas was the church of a second Benedictine monas- 
tery, and later the chapel of the earlier kings of Provence. It 
wa3 rebuilt in 1152, in the later Romanesque style. The town 
library and art museum are now in the corn hall, which has been 

reconstructed for that purpose. A suspension bridge leads from the 
city to the right bank of the Rhone, where the industrial quarter 
of Ste Colombe now occupies part of the ancient city. Here is a 
tower, built in 1349 by Philip of Valois to defend the French bank 
of the Rhone, as distinguished from the left bank, which, as part of 
the kingdom of Provence, was dependent on the Holy Roman 
Empire. This state of things is also recalled by the name of the 
village, St Romain en Gal, to the N.W. of Ste Colombe. 

The Gere supplies the motive power to numerous factories. 
The most important are those which produce cloth (about 30 
factories, turning out daily about 15,000 yds. of cloth). There are 
numerous other industrial establishments (paper mills, iron foundries, 
brick works, refining furnaces, &c). 

Vienne was originally the capital of the Allobroges, and 
became a Roman colony about 47 B.C. under Caesar, who 
embellished and fortified it. A little later these colonists were 
expelled by the Allobroges; the exiles then founded the colony 
of Lyons (Lugdunum). It was not till the days of Augustus 
and Tiberius that Vienne regained all its former privileges as a 
Roman colony. Later it became the capital of the Provincia 
Viennen-sis, In 257 Postumus was proclaimed emperor here, 
and for a few years from that day onwards Vienne was the 
capital of a short-lived provincial empire. It is said to have 
been converted to Christianity by Crescens, the disciple of 
St Paul. Certainly there were Christians here in 177, as in the 
Greek letter (preserved to us by Eusebius) addressed at that 
date by the churches of Vienne and Lyons to those of Asia 
and Fhrygia mention is made of " the " deacon of Vienne. 
The first bishop certainly known is Verus, who was present at 
the Council of Aries in 314. About 450 Vienne became an 
archbishopric and continued one till 1790, when the see was 
suppressed. The archbishops disputed with those of Lyons 
the title of " Primate of All the Gauls." Vienne was con- 
quered by the Burgundians in 438, and in 534 was taken by the 
Franks. Sacked in 558* by the Lombards and in 737 by the 
Saracens, the government of the district was given by Charles 
the Bald in 869 to a certain Count Boso, who in 879 was pro- 
claimed king of Provence, and was buried on his death in 887 
in the cathedral church of St Maurice. Vienne then continued 
to form part of the kingdom of Provence or Aries till in 1032 it 
reverted to the Holy Roman Empire. The sovereigns of that 
kingdom, as well as the emperors in the 12th century (in 
particular Frederick Barbarossa in n 53), recognized the rights 
of the archbishops as the rulers (in the name of the emperor) 
of Vienne. But the growing power of the counts of Albon, 
later Dauphins of the neighbouring county of the Viennois, 
was the cause of many disputes between them and the arch- 
bishops. In 1349 the reigning Dauphin sold his Dauphine 
to France, but the town of Vienne was not included in this 
sale, and the archbishops did not give up their rights over it to 
France till 1449, when it first became French. In 7311-12 
the fifteenth General Council was held at Vienne, when Clement 
V. abolished the order of the Knights Templar. Vienne was 
sacked in 1562 by the Protestants under the baron des Adrets, 
and was held for the Ligue 1590-95, when it was taken in the 
name of Henri IV. by Montmorency. The fortifications were 
demolished between 1589 and 1636. In 1790 the archbishopric 
was abolished, the title " Primate of All the Gauls '* being 
attributed to the archbishops of Lyons. Among famous natives 
of Vienne may be mentioned St Julian (3rd century) and 
Nicholas Chorier (1612-1692), the historian of the Dauphine, 
while Gui de Bourgogne, who was archbishop 1090-1119, became 
pope in ni9as Calixtus II. (d. 1124). 

See A. Allmer et A. de Terrebasse, Inscriptions antiques et du 
moyen dge de Vienne en Dauphine (6 vols., Vienne, 1875-76); CI. 
Charvet, Fastes de la ville de Vie.nne (Vienne, 1S69) ; U. Chevalier, 
Collection des Cartulaires Dauphinois, in vol. i. (Vienne, 1869). 
is that of St Andr6 le Bas, and in vol. ii. (1S91 ) a description of that 
of St Maurice; N. Chorier, Recherches sur les antiquitis de la ville 
de Vienne (Vienne, 1658); E. A. Freeman, Article in the Saturday 
Review for Feb. 6, 1875; F. Raymond, Le Guide Viennois (Troyes, 
1897)- (W. A. B. C.) 

VIENNE, COUNCIL OF, an ecclesiastical council, which in 
the Roman Catholic Church ranks as the fifteenth ecumenical 
synod. It met from October 16, 1311, to May 6, 1312, under 



the presidency of Pope Clement V. The transference of the 
Curia from Rome to Avignon (1300) had brought the papacy 
under the influence of the French crown; and this position 
Philip the Fair of France now endeavoured to utilize by de- 
manding from the pope the dissolution of the powerful and 
wealthy order of the Temple, together with the introduction 
of a trial for heresy against the late Pope Boniface VIII. To 
evade the second claim, Clement gave way on the first. Legal 
trials and acts of violence against the Templars had begun as 
early as the year 1307 (see Templars); and the principal 
object of the council was to secure a definite decision on the 
question of their continuance or abolition. In the committee 
appointed for preliminary consultation, one section was for the 
immediate condemnation of the order, and declined to allow 
it any opportunity of defence, on the ground that it was now 
superfluous and simply a source of strife. The majority of 
the members, however, regarded the case as non-proven, and 
demanded that the order should be heard on its own behalf; 
while at the same time they held that its dissolution was unjustifi- 
able. Under pressure from the king, who was himself present 
in Vienne, the pope determined that, as the order gave occasion 
for scandal but could not be condemned as heretical by a judicial 
sentence {de jure), it should be abolished per modum provisionis 
seu ordinationis apostolicae; in other words, by an administra- 
tive ruling based on considerations of the general welfare. 
To this procedure the council agreed, and on the 22nd of March 
the order of the Temple was suppressed by the bull Vox 
damantis; while further decisions as to the treatment of the 
order and its possessions followed later. 

In addition to this the discussions announced in the opening 
speech, regarding measures for the reformation of the Church 
and the protection of her liberties, took place; and a part of 
the Constitutions found in the Clementinum, published in 1317 
by John XXII., were probably enacted by the council. Still 
it is impossible to say with certainty what decrees were actually 
passed at Vienne. Additional decisions were necessitated by 
the violent disputes which raged within the Franciscan order 
as to the observance of the rules of St Francis of Assisi, and 
by the multitude of subordinate questions arising from this. 
Resolutions were also adopted on the Beguines and their mode 
of life (see Beguines), the control of the hospitals, the institu- 
tion of instructors in Hebrew, Arabic and Chaldaic at the 
universities, and on numerous details of ecclesiastical discipline 
and law. 

See Mansi, Collectio Conciliorum, vol. xxv. ; Hefele, Concilien- 
geschichte, vol. vi. pp. 532-54. 

VIERGE, DANIEL (1851-1904), Spanish painter and 
draughtsman, was born in Madrid in 1851. He went to Paris 
in 1S67 to seek his fortune, fired by the vivid energy of his 
national temperament. He became attached to the Monde 
illuslre in 1870, just before the Franco-Prussian War broke out, 
and, like other artists in the paper, came under the powerful 
influence of Edmond Morin, the first newspaper draughtsman 
in France who sought to impart to drawings for journals the 
character of a work of art. Vierge's earlier drawings, therefore, 
partake greatly of Morin's style; such are, " The Shooting in 
the Rue de la Paix," " The Place d'Armes at Versailles," 
" The Loan," " The Great School-Fete of Lyons," " Anni- 
versary of the Fight of Aydes " and " Souvenir of Coulmiers." 
Vierge lost no time in proving the extraordinary vigour and 
picturesqueness of his art. Apart from the contribution of his 
own original work, he was required by his paper to redraw upon 
the wood, for the engraver, the sketches sent in by artist-corre- 
spondents, such as Luc Ollivier Merson in Rome and Samuel 
Urrabieta (Vierge's brother) in Spain. From 1871 to 1878 
his individuality became more and more pronounced, and he 
produced, among his best-known drawings, " Christmas in 
Spain," " The Republican Meeting in Trafalgar Square," 
" Attack on a Train in Andalusia," " Feast of St Rosalia in 
Palermo;" " In the Jardin d'Acclimatation," " The Burning of 
the Library of the Escurial, 1872," " Grasshoppers in Algiers," 
" Brigandage in Sicily," " Night Fete in Constantinople," 

" Episode of the Civil War in Spain," " Marriage of the 
King of Spain " and " The Bull Fight." About this time 
he illustrated with remarkable dash and skill Victor Hugo's 
Annie terrible (Michel Levy, 1874, and Hugues, 1879), " 1813 " 
(Hugues, 1877) and Les Mislrables (1882). His masterpiece 
of illustration is Michelet's History of France (1876), consist- 
ing of 26 volumes containing 1000 drawings. In 1879 he was 
drawing for La Vie moderne, and then proceeded to illustrate 
Pablo de Segovia. While engaged upon this work he was 
attacked by paralysis in the right arm, but with characteristic 
energy and courage he set himself to acquire the necessary skill 
in drawing with the left, and calmly proceeded with the illus- 
trations to the book. In 1801 he illustrated L'Espagnole, 
by Bergerat, and in 1895 Le Cabaret des trois vertus. In 1898 
he held, at the Pelletan Gallery in Paris, an exhibition of his 
drawings for Chateaubriand's Le Dernier Abenc&rage (" The 
Last of the Abencerrages "), and in the following year a com- 
prehensive exhibition of his work (including the illustrations 
to Don Quixote) at the Art Nouveau Gallery, also in Paris. In 
r898 Vierge contributed to L'Image, a magazine devoted to the 
encouragement of engraving upon wood; and two years later, 
at the International Exhibition at Paris, he was awarded a 
grand prix. In 1902 he exhibited at the New Salon a scene 
from, the Franco-Prussian War. He died at Boulogne-sur- 
Seine in May 1904. 

See Roger Marx, Vintage (1898) ; Beraldi, La Gravure au ig* 

VIERSEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine pro- 
vince, 11 m. by rail S.W. from Crefeld, and at the junction of 
lines to Miinchen-Gladbach, Venlo, &c. Pop. (1905) 27,577. It 
has an evangelical and four Roman Catholic churches, among 
the latter the handsome parish church dating from the 15th 
century, and various educational establishments. Viersen is 
one of the chief seats in the lower Rhine country for the manu- 
facture of velvets, silks (especially umbrella covers) and plush. 

VIERZON, a town of central France, in the department of 
Cher, 20 m. N.W. of Bourges by rail. The Cher and the Yevre 
unite at the foot of the hill on which lie Vierzon-Ville (pop. 
(1906) town, 11,812) and Vierzon-Village (pop. town, 2026; 
commune, 9710); Vieraon-Bourgneuf (pop. town, 1482) is on 
the left bank of the Cher. The town has a port on the canal of 
Berry and is an important junction on the Orleans railway; 
there are several large manufactories for the production of 
agricultural machines, also foundries, porcelain, brick and tile 
works and glass works. A technical school of mechanics and a 
branch of the Bank of France are among the institutions of the 

VIETA (or Viete), FRANCOIS, Seigneur de la Bigotiere 
(1540-1603), more generally known as Frakciscus Vieta, 
French mathematician, was born in 1340 at Fontenay-le-Comte, 
in Poitou. According to F. Ritter, 1 Vieta was brought up as 
a Catholic, and died in the same creed; but there can be no 
doubt that he belonged to the Huguenots for several years. 
On the completion of his studies in law at Poitiers Vieta began 
his career as an advocate in his native town. This he left 
about 1567, and somewhat later we find him at Rennes as a 
councillor of the parlemenc of Brittany. The religious troubles 
drove him thence, and Rohan, the well-known chief of the 
Huguenots, took him under his special protection. He recom- 
mended him in 1 580 as a " maitre des requetes " (master of 
requests) ; and Henry of Navarre, at the instance of Rohan, 
addressed two letters to Henry III. of France on the 3rd of 
March and the 26th of April 1585, to obtaiD Vieta's restoration 
to his former office, but without result. After the accession of 
Henry of Navarre to the throne of France, Vieta filled in 1589 
the position of councillor of the parlement at Tours. He 
afterwards became a royal privy councillor, and remained so 
till his death, which took place suddenly at Paris in February 
1603, but in what manner we do not know; Anderson, the 
editor of his scientific writings, speaks only of a " praeceps et 
immaturum autoris fatum." 

1 Bolletino Boncompagni (Rome, 1868), vol. i. p. 227, n. 1. 



We know of one important service rendered by Vieta as 
a royal officer. While at Tours he discovered the key to a 
Spanish cipher, consisting of more than 500 characters, and 
thenceforward all the despatches in that language which fell 
into the hands of the French could be easily read. His fame 
now rests, however, entirely upon his achievements in mathe- 
matics. Being a man of wealth, he printed at his own expense 
the numerous papers which he wrote on various branches of 
this science, and communicated them to scholars in almost every 
country of Europe. An evidence of the good use he made of 
his means, as well as of the kindliness of his character, is fur- 
nished by the fact that he entertained as a guest for a whole 
month a scientific adversary, Adriaan van Roomen, and then 
paid the expenses of his journey home. Vieta's writings thus 
became very quickly known; but, when Franciscus van 
Schooten issued a general edition of his works in 1646, he failed 
to make a complete collection, although probably nothing of 
very great value has perished. 

The form of Vieta's writings is their weak side. He indulged 
freely in nourishes; and in devising technical terms derived from 
the Greek he seems to have aimed at making them as unintelligible 
as possible. None of them, in point of fact, has held its ground, 
and even his proposal to denote unknown quantities by the vowels 
a, e, 1, o, u, y — the consonants b, c, &c. t being reserved for general 
known quantities — has not, been taken up. In this denotation 
he foiiowed, perhaps, some older contemporaries, as Ramus, who 
designated the points in geometrical figures by vowels, making use 
of consonants, r, s, t, &c, only when these were exhausted. Vieta 
is wont to be called the father of modern algebra. This does not 
mean, what is often alleged, that nobody before him had ever 
thought of choosing symbols different from numerals, such as the 
letters of the alphabet, to denote the quantities of arithmetic, 
but that he made a general custom of what until his time had been 
only an exceptional attempt. All that is wanting in his writings, 
especially in his Isagoge in artem analyticam (1591), in order to 
make them look like a modern school algebra, is merely the sign 
of equality — a want which is the more striking because Robert 
Recorde had made use of our present symbol for this purpose since" 
1557, and Xylander had employed vertical parallel lines since 1575. 
On the other hand, Vieta was well skilled in most modern artifices, 
aiming at a simplification of equations by the substitution of new 
quantities having a certain connexion with the primitive unknown 
quantities. Another of his works, Rtcensio canonica ejfectionum 
geometricarum, bears a stamp_ not less modern, being what we now 
call an algebraic geometry — in other words, a collection of precepts 
how to construct algebraic expressions with the use of rule and 
compass only. 'While these writings were generally intelligible, 
and therefore of the greatest didactic importance, the principle 
of homogeneity, first enunciated by Vieta, was so far in advance of 
his times that most readers seem to have passed it over without 
adverting to its value. That principle had been made use of by. 
the Greek authors of the classic age; but of later mathematicians 
only Hero, Diophantus, &c, ventured to regard lines and surfaces 
as mere numbers that could be joined to give a new number, their 
sum. It may be that the study of such sums, which he found 
in the works of Diophantus, prompted him to lay it down as a prin- 
ciple that quantities occurring in an equation ought to be homo- 
geneous, all of them lines, or surfaces, or solids, or supersolids— - 
an equation between mere numbers being inadmissible. During 
the three centuries that have elapsed between Vieta's day and our 
own several changes of opinion have taken place on this subject, 
till the principle has at last proved so far victorious that modern 
mathematicians like to make homogeneous such equations as are 
not so from the beginning, in order to get values of a symmetrical 
shape. Vieta himself, of course, did, not see so far as that; never- 
theless the merit cannot be denied him of having indirectly suggested 
the thought. Nor are his. writings lacking in actual inventions. 
He conceived methods for the general resolution of equations of the 
second, third and fourth degrees different from those of Ferro and 
Ferrari, with which, however, it is difficult to believe him to have 
been unacquainted. He devised an approximate numerical solution 
of equations of the second and third degrees, wherein Leonardo of 
Pisa must have preceded him, but by a method every vestige of 
which is completely lost. He knew the connexion existing between 
the positive roots of an equation (which, by the way, were alone 
thought of as roots) and the coefficients of the different powers of 
the unknown quantity. He found out the formula for deriving 
the sine of a multiple angle, knowing that of the simple angle with 
due regard to the periodicity of sines. This formula must have 
been known to Vieta' in 1593. In that year Adriaan van Roomen 
gave out as a problem to ah mathematicians an equation of the 
45th degree, which, being recognized by Vieta as depending on 
the equation between sin <f> and sin #/45, was resolved by him at 
once, all the twentyUhree positive roots of which the said equation 

was capable being given at the same time (see Trigonometry). 
Such was the first encounter of the two scholars. A second took 
place when Vieta pointed to Apollonius's problem of taction as not 
yet being mastered, and Adriaan van Roomen gave a solution by 
the hyperbola. Vieta, however, did not accept it, as there existed 
a solution by means of the rule and the compass only, which he 
published himself in his Apollonms Callus (1600). In this paper 
Vieta made use of the centre of similitude of two circles. Lastly he 
gave an infinite product for the number x (see Circle, Squaring OF). 

Vieta's collected works were issued under the title of Opera 
Mathematica by F. van Schooten at Leiden in 1646. (M. Ca.) 

VIEUXTEMPS, HENRI (1820-1881), Belgian violinist and 
composer, was born at Venders, on the 20th of February 1820. 
Until his seventh year he was a pupil of Lecloux, but when De 
Beriot heard him he adopted him as his pupil, taking him to 
appear in Paris in 1828. From 1833 onwards he spent the 
greater part of his life in concert tours, visiting all parts of the 
world with Uniform success. He first appeared in London at 
a Philharmonic concert on the 2nd of June 1834, and in the 
following year studied composition with Reicha in Paris, and 
began to produce a long series of works, full of formidably 
difficult passages, though, also of pleasing themes, and fine 
musical ideas, which are consequently highly appreciated by 
violinists. From 1846 to 1852 he was solo violinist to the tsar, 
and professor in the conservatorium in St Petersburg. From 
187 1 to 1873 he was teacher of the violin class in the Brussels 
Conservatoire, but was disabled by an attack of paralysis in the 
latter year, and from that time could only superintend the 
studies of favourite pupils. lie died at Mustapha, in Algiers, 
on the 6th of June 1881. He had a perfect command of 
technique, faultless intonation and a marvellous command of 
the bow. His staccato was famous all over the world, and his 
tone was exceptionally rich and full. 

VIGAN, a town and the capital of the province of Ilocos Sur, 
Luzon, Philippine Islands, at the mouth of the Abra river, 
about 200 m. N. by W. of Manila. Pop. of the municipality 
(1903) 14,945; after the census of 1903 was taken there were 
united to Vigan the, municipalities of Bantay (pop. 7020), 
San Vicente (pop. 5060), Santa CataKna (pop. 5625) and Coayan 
(pop. 6201), making the total population of the municipality 
38,851. Vigan is the residence of the bishop of Nueva Segovia 
and has a fine cathedral, a substantial court-house, other 
durable public buildings and a monument to Juan de Salcedo, 
its founder. It is engaged in farming, fishing, the manufacture 
of brick, tile, cotton fabrics and furniture, and the building 
of boats. The language is Ilocano. 

French painter, was born in Paris, the daughter of a painter, 
from whom she received her first instruction, though she bene- 
fited more by the advice of Doyen, Greuze, Joseph Vernet and 
other masters of the period. When only about twenty years 
of age she had already risen to fame with her portraits of Count 
Orloff and the duchess of Orleans, her personal charm making 
her at the same time a favourite in society. In 1776 she 
married the painter and art-critic J. B. P. Lebrun, and in 
1783 her picture of " Peace bringing back Abundance" (now 
at the Louvre) gained her the membership of the Academy, 
When the Revolution broke out in 1789 she escaped first to 
Italy, where she worked at Rome and Naples. At Rome she 
painted the portraits of Princesses Adelaide and Victoria, and 
at Naples the " Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante " now in the 
collection of Mr Tankerville Chamberlayne; and then jour- 
neyed to Vienna, Berlin and St Petersburg. She returned to 
Paris in 1781, but went in the following year to London, where 
she painted the portraits of Lord Byron and the prince of 
Wales, and in 1808 to Switzerland. Her numerous journeys, 
and the vogue she enjoyed wherever she went, account for the 
numerous portraits from her brush that are to be found in 
the great collections of many countries. Having returned to 
France from Switzerland, she lived first at her country house 
near Marly and then in Paris, where she died at the age of 
eighty-seven, in 1842, haying been widowed for twenty-nine 
years. She published her own memoirs under the. title of 
Souvenirs (Paris, 1835-37). Among her many sitters was 



Marie Antoinette, of whom she painted over twenty portraits 
between 1779 and 1789. A portrait of the artist is in the hall 
of the painters at the Urfizi,and another at the National Gallery. 
The Louvre owns two portraits of Mme Lebrun and her 
daughter, besides five other portraits and an allegorical com- 

A full account of her eventful life ia given in the artist's Souvenirs, 
and in C. Fillet's Mme Vig6e~Le Brun (Paris, 1890). The artist's 
autobiography has been translated by Lionel Slraehey, Memoirs 
of Mme Vigee-Lebfun (New York, 1903;, fully illustrated. 

VIGEVANO, a town and episcopal see of Lombardy, Italy, 
in the province of Pavia, on the right bank of the Tfcino, 24 m. 
by rail S.W. Jrom Milan on the line to Mortara, 381 ft. above 
sea-level. Pop. (1961) 18,043 (town); 23,560 (commune). 
It is a medieval walled town, with an arcaded market-place, 
a cathedral, the Gothic church of S. Francesco, and a castle 
of the Sforza family, dating from the 14th century and adorned 
with a loggia by Bramante and a tower imitating that of 
Filarete in the Castello Sforzesco at Milan. It is a place of 
some importance in the silk trade and also produces excellent 
macaroni. There is a steam tramway to Novara. 

VlGFtJSSON, GtoBRANDR (1828-1889), the foremost 
Scandinavian scholar of the 19th century, was born of a good 
and old Icelandic family in Brei5af jord in 1828. He was brought 
up, till he went to a tutor's, by his kinswoman, Kristin Vfgfuss- 
dottir, to whom, he records, he " owed not only that he became 
a man of letters, but almost everything." He was sent to the 
old and famous school at Bessastad and (when it removed thither) 
at Reykjavik; and in 1849, already a fair scholar, he came to 
Copenhagen University as a bursarius in the Regense College. 
He was, after his student course, appointed stipendiarius by 
the Arna-Magnaean trustees, and worked for fourteen years in 
the Arna-Magnaean Library till, as he said, he knew every 
scrap of old vellum and of Icelandic written paper in that whole 
collection. During his Danish life he twice revisited Iceland 
(last in 1858), and made short tours in Norway and South 
Germany with friends. In 1866, after some months in London, 
he settled down in Oxford, which he made his home for the 
rest of his life, only quitting it for visits to the great Scandi- 
navian libraries or to London (to work during two or three long 
vacations with his fellow-labourer, F. Y. Powell), or for short 
trips to places such as the Isle of Man, the Orkneys and Shetlands, 
the old mootstead of the West Saxons at Downton, the Roman 
station at Pevensey, the burial-place of Bishop Brynjulf's 
ill-fated son at Yarmouth, and the like. He held the office 
of Reader in Scandinavian at the university of Oxford (a post 
created for him) from 1884 till his death. He was a Jubilee 
Doctor of Upsala, 1877, and received the Danish order of the 
Dannebrog in 1885. Vfgfusson died of cancer on the 31st of 
January 1889, and was buried in St Sepulchre's Cemetery, 
Oxford, on the 3rd of February. He was an excellent judge 
of literature, reading most European languages well and being 
acquainted with their classics. His memory was remarkable, 
and if the whole of the Eddie poems had been lost, he could 
have written them down from memory. He spoke English 
well and idiomatically, but with a strong Icelandic accent. He 
wrote a beautiful, distinctive and clear hand, in spite of the 
thousands of lines of MS. copying he had done in his early life. 

By his Tunatdl (written between October 1854 and April 1855) 
he laid the foundations for the chronology of Icelandic history, in a 
series of conclusions that have not been displaced (save by his own 
additions and corrections), and that justly earned the praise of 
Jacob Grimm. His editions of Icelandic classics (1858-68), Biskopa 
Sogur, Bardar Saga, Forn Sogur (with Mobius), Eyrbyggia Saga 
and Flateyar-bok (with Unger) opened a new era of Icelandic scholar- 
ship, and can only fitly be compared to the Rolls Series editions of 
chronicles by Dr Stubbs for the interest and value of their prefaces 
and texts. Seven years of constant and severe toil (1866-73) were 
given to the Oxford Icelandic-English Dictionary, incomparably 
the best guide to classic Icelandic, and a monumental example of 
single-handed work. His later series of editions (1874-85) included 
Orkney inga and Hutonar Saga, the great and complex mass of 
Icelandic historical sagas, known as Sturlunga, and the Corpus 
Poeticum Boreale, in which he edited the whole body of classic 
Scandinavian poetry. As an introduction to the Sturlunga, he 
wrote a complete though concise history of the classic Northern 

literature and its sources. In the introduction to the Corpus, he 
laid the foundations of a critical history of the Eddie poetry and 
Court poetry of the North in a series of brilliant, original and well- 
supported theories that are gradually being accepted even by those 
who were at first inclined to reject them. His little Icelandic 
Prose Reader (with F. York Powell) (1879) furnishes the English 
student with a pleasant and trustworthy path to a sound knowledge 
of Icelandic. The Grimm Centenary Papers (1886) give good 
examples of the range of his historic work, while his Appendix 
on Icelandic currency to Sir G. W. Dasent's Burnt Njal is a model 
of methodical investigation into an intricate and somewhat import* 
ant subject. As a writer in his own tongue he at once gained a high 
position by his excellent and delightful Relations of. Travel-in Norway 
and South Germany. In English, as his " Visit to Grimm " and his 
powerful letters to The Times show, he had attained no mean skill. 
His life is mainly a record of well-directed and efficient labour in 
Denmark and Oxford. (F. Y. P.) 

VIGIL (Lat. vigilia, "watch"), hi the Christian Church, 
the eve of a festival. The use of the word is, however, late, the 
vigiliae (pernoctationes, iravvvx^s) having originally been the 
services, consisting of prayers, hymns, processions and some- 
times the eucharist, celebrated on the preceding night in pre- 
paration for the feast. The oldest of the vigils is that of Easter 
Eve, those of Pentecost and Christmas being instituted somewhat 
l&ter. With the Easter vigil the eucharist was specially asso- 
ciated, and baptism with that of Pentecost (see Whitsunday). 
The abuses connected with nocturnal vigils 1 led to their being 
attacked, especially by Vigilentius of Barcelona (c. 400), against 
whom Jerome fulminated in this as in other matters. The 
custom, however, increased, vigils being instituted for the 
other festivals, including those of saints. 

In the middle ages the nocturnal vigilia were-^ except in the 
monasteries, gradually discontinued, matins and vespers on 
the preceding day, with fasting, taking their place. In the 
Roman Catholic Church the vigil is now usually celebrated 
on the morning of the day preceding the festival, except at 
Christmas, when a midnight mass is celebrated, and on Easter 
Eve. These vigils are further distinguished as privileged and 
unprivileged. The former (except that of the Epiphany) have 
special offices; in the latter the vigil is merely commemorated. 
The Church of England has reverted to early custom in so 
far as only " Easter Even " is distinguished by a special collect, 
gospel and epistle. The other vigils are recognized in the 
calendar (including those of the saints) and the rubric directs 
that " the collect appointed for any Holy-day that hath a 
Vigil or Eve, shall be said at the Evening Service next before." 
VIGILANCE COMMITTEE, in the United States, a self- 
constituted judicial body, occasionally organized in the western 
frontier districts for the protection of life and property. The 
first committee of prominence bearing the name was organized 
in San Francisco in June 1851, when the crimes of desperadoes 
who had immigrated to the gold-fields were rapidly increasing 
in numbers and it was said that there were venal judges, packed 
juries and false witnesses. At first this committee was com- 
posed of about 200 members; afterwards it was much* larger: 
The general committee was governed by an executive committee 
and the city was policed by sub -committees. Within about 
thirty days four desperadoes were arrested, tried by the execu- 
tive committee and hanged, and about thirty others were 
banished. Satisfied with the results, ' the committee then 
quietly adjourned, but it was revived five years later. Similar 
committees were common in other parts of California and in 
the mining districts of Idaho and Montana. That in Montana 
exterminated in 1863-64 a band of outlaws organized under 
Henry Plummer, the sheriff of Montana City; twenty-four of 
the outlaws were hanged within a few months. Committees 
or societies of somewhat the same nature were formed in the 
Southern states during the Reconstruction period (1865— 72) 
to protect white families from negroes artd " carpet-baggers," 
and besides these there were the Ku-Klux-Klan (q.v.) and its 
branches; the Knights of the White Camelia, the Pale Faces,-and 
the Invisible Empire of the South, the principal object of which 
was to control the negroes by striking them with terror. 

1 The 35th canon of the council of Elvira (305) forbids T,r omen to 
attend them. 



See H. H. Bancroft, Popular Tribunals (2 vols., San Francisco, 
1887) ; and T. J. Dimsdale, The Vigilantes of Montana (Virginia 
City, 1866). 

VIGILANTIUS (fl. c. 400), the presbyter, celebrated as the 
author of a work, no longer extant, against superstitious prac- 
tices, which called forth one of the most violent and scurrilous 
of Jerome's polemical treatises, was born about 370 at Cala- 
gurris in Aquitania (the modern Cazeres or perhaps Saint 
Bertrand de Comminges in the department of Haute-Garohne), 
where his father kept a " statio " or inn on the great Roman 
road from Aquitania to Spain. While still a youth his talent 
became known to Sulpicius Severus, who had estates in that 
neighbourhood, and in 395 Sulpicius, who probably baptized 
him, sent him with letters to Paulinus of Nola, where he met 
with a friendly reception. On his return to Severus in Gaul 
he was ordained; and, having soon afterwards inherited means 
through the death of his father, he set out for Palestine, where 
he was received with great respect by Jerome at Bethlehem. 
The stay of Vigilantius lasted for some time; but, as was almost 
inevitable, he was dragged into the dispute then raging about 
Origen, in which he did not see fit wholly to adopt Jerome's 
attitude. On his return to the West he was the bearer of a 
letter from Jerome to Paulinus, and at various places where 
he stopped on the way he appears to have expressed himself 
about Jerome in a manner that when reported gave great 
offence to that father, and provoked him to write a reply 
(Ep. 61). Vigilantius now settled for some time in Gaul, and 
is said by one authority (Gcnnadius) to have afterwards held 
a charge in the diocese of Barcelona. About 403, some years 
after his return from the East, Vigilantius wrote his celebrated 
work against superstitious practices, in which he argued against 
relic worship, as also against the vigils in the basilicas of the 
martyrs, then so common, the sending of alms to Jerusalem, 
the rejection of earthly goods and the attribution of special 
virtue to the unmarried state, especially in the case of the clergy. 
He thus covers a wider range than Jovinian, whom he surpasses 
also in intensity. He was especially indignant at the way in 
which spiritual worship was being ousted by the adoration 
of saints and their relics. All that is known of his work is 
through Jerome's treatise Contra Vigilantium, or, as that contro- 
versialist would seem to prefer saying, " Contra Dormitantium." 
Notwithstanding Jerome's exceedingly unfavourable opinion, 
there is no reason to believe that the tract of Vigilantius was 
exceptionally illiterate, or that the views it advocated were 
exceedingly "heretical." Soon, however, the great influence 
of Jerome in the Western Church caused its leaders to espouse 
all his quarrels, and Vigilantius gradually came to be ranked 
in popular opinion among heretics, though his influence long 
remained potent both in France and Spain, as is proved by the 
polemical tract of Faustus of Rhegium (d. c. 490). 

VIGILIUS, pope from 537 to 555, succeeded Silvcrius and 
was followed by Pelagius I. He was ordained by order of 
Belisarius while Silverius was still alive; his elevation was 
due to Theodora, who, by an appeal at once to his ambition 
and, it is said, to his covetousness, had induced him to promise 
to disallow the council of Chalcedon, in connexion with the 
" three chapters " controversy. When, however, the time 
came for the fulfilment of his bargain, Vigilius declined to 
give his assent to the condemnation of that council involved 
in the imperial edict against the three chapters, and for this 
act of disobedience he was peremptorily summoned to Con- 
stantinople, which he reached in 547. Shortly after his arrival 
there he issued a document known to history as his Judicalum 
(548), in which he condemned indeed the three chapters, but 
expressly disavowed any intentions thereby to disparage the 
council of Chalcedon. After a good deal of trimming (for he 
desired to stand well with his own clergy, who were strongly 
orthodox, as well as with the court), he prepared another docu- 
ment, the Constituent ad Imperatorem, which was laid before 
the so-called fifth " oecumenical " council in 553, and led to 
his condemnation by the majority of that body, some say 
even to his banishment. Ultimately, however, he was induced 

to assent to and confirm the decrees of the council, and was 
allowed after an enforced absence of seven years to set out for 
Rome. He died, however, at Syracuse, before he reached 
his destination, on the 7th of June 555. 

V1G1NTISEXV1RI, in Roman history, the collective name 
given in republican times to " twenty-six " magistrates of in- 
ferior rank. They were divided into six boards, two of which 
were abolished by Augustus. Their number was thereby 
reduced to twenty and their name altered to Vigintiviki 
(" the twenty "). They were originally nominated by the 
higher magistrates, but subsequently elected in a body at a 
single sitting of the comitia tribula; under the empire they were 
chosen by the senate. The following are the names of the 
six boards: (1) Tresviri capitales (see Tresviri); (2) Tresviri 
monetales; (3) Quatuorviri mis in urbe purgandis, who had the 
care of the streets and roads inside the city; (4) Duoviri viis 
extra urbem purgandis (see Duoviri), abolished by Augustus; 
(5) Decemviri stlitibus judicandis (see Decemviri); (6) Qualuor 
praefecti Capuam Cumas, abolished by Augustus. The members 
of the last-named board were appointed by the praetor urbanus 
of Rome to administer justice in ten Campanian towns (list 
in Mommsen), and received their name from the two most 
important of these. They were subsequently elected by the 
people under the title of quatuorviri jure dicundo, but the date 
is not known. 

See Mommsen, Rbmisches Staatsrecht, ii. (1887), p. 592. 

VIGLIUS, the name taken by Wigle van Aytia van Zuichem 
(1507-1577), Dutch statesman and jurist, a Frisian by birth, 
who was born on the 19th of October 1507. He studied at 
various universities — Louvain, Dole and Bourges among others — 
devoting himself mainly to the study of jurisprudence, and after- 
wards visited many of the principal seats of learning in Europe. 
His great abilities attracted the notice of Erasmus and other 
celebrated men, and his renown was soon wide and general. 
Having lectured on law at the universities of Bourges and 
Padua, he accepted a judicial position under the bishop of 
Munster which he resigned in 1535 to become assessor of the 
imperial court of justice {Reichskammergericht). He would 
not, however, undertake the post of tutor to Philip, son of the 
emperor Charles V.; nor would he accept any of the many 
lucrative and honourable positions offered him by various 
European princes, preferring instead to remain at the uni- 
versity of Ingolstadt, where for five years he occupied a pro- 
fessorial chair. In 1542 the official connexion of Viglius with 
the Netherlands began. At the emperor's invitation he became 
a member of the council of Mechlin, and some years later 
president of that body. Other responsible positions were 
entrusted to him, and he was soon one of the most trusted of the 
ministers of Charles V., whom he accompanied during the war 
of the league of Schmalkalden in 1546. His rapid rise in the 
emperor's favour was probably due to his immense store of 
learning, which was useful in asserting the imperial rights where 
disputes arose between the empire and the estates. He was 
generally regarded as the author of the edict against toleration 
issued in 1550; a charge which he denied, maintaining, on 
the contrary, that he had vainly tried to induce Charles to 
modify its rigour. When the emperor abdicated in 1555 
Viglius was anxious to retire also, but at the instance of King 
Philip II. he remained at his post and was rewarded by being 
made coadjutor abbot of St Bavon, and in other ways. In 
*$$9> when Margaret, duchess of Parma, became regent of the 
Netherlands, Viglius was an important member of the small 
circle who assisted her in the work of government. He was 
president of the privy council, member, and subsequently 
president, of the state council, and a member of the committee 
of the state council called the consulia. But his desire to resign 
soon returned. In 1565 he was allowed to give up the presi- 
dency of the state council, but was persuaded to retain his 
other posts. However, he had lost favour with Margaret, who 
accused him to Philip of dishonesty and simony, while his ortho- 
doxy was suspected. When the duke of Alva arrived in the 
Netherlands Viglius at first assisted him; but he subsequently 



opposed the duke's scheme of extortion, and sought to induce 
Philip himself to visit the Low Countries. His health was 
now impaired and his work was nearly over. Having suffered 
a short imprisonment with the other members of the state 
council in 1576, he died at Brussels on the 5th of May 1577, 
and was buried in the abbey of St Bavon. 

Viglius was an advocate of peace and moderation, and as 
such could not expect support or sympathy from men engaged 
in a life-and-death struggle for liberty, or from their relentless 
enemies. He was undoubtedly avaricious, and accumulated 
great wealth, part of which he left to found a hospital at 
his native place, Zwichem, and a college at the university of 
Louvain. He married a rich lady, Jacqueline Damant, but 
had no children. 

He wrote a Tagebuch des Schmalkaldischen Dcmaukriegs, edited 
by A. von Druffel (Munich, 1877), and some of his lectures were 
published under the title Commenlarii in decern Institutionum 
titulos (Lyons, 1564). His Vita et opera historica are given in the 
Analecta Belgicaoi C. P. Hoynck van Papendrecht (the Hague, 1743). 
See L. P. Gachard, Correspondance de Philippe II. sur les affaires 
des Pays-Bas (Brussels, 1848-79) ; and Correspondance de Marguerite 
d'Aulrichc, duchesse de Parme, avec Philippe II. (Brussels, 1S67-81); 
and E. Poullet, Correspondance de cardinal de Granvelle (Brussels, 

VIONE, PAUL DE (1843-1901), Belgian sculptor, was born 
at Ghent. He was trained by his father, a statuary, and 
began by exhibiting his " Fra Angelico da Fiesole " at the 
Ghent Salon in 1868. In 1872 he exhibited at the Brussels 
Salon a marble statue, " Heliotrope " (Ghent Gallery), and in 
1875, at Brussels, "Beatrix" and " Domenica." He was 
employed by the government to execute caryatides for the 
conservatoire at Brussels. In 1876 at the Antwerp Salon he 
had busts of E. Hiel and W. Wilson, which were afterwards 
placed in the communal museum at Brussels. Until 1882 he 
lived in Paris, where he produced the marble statue " Immor- 
tality " (Brussels Gallery), and "The Crowning of Art," a 
bronze group on the facade of the Palais des Beaux-Arts at 
Brussels. His monument to the popular heroes, Jean Breydel 
and Tierre de Coninck, was unveiled at Bruges in 1887. At his 
death he left unfinished his principal work, the Anspach monu- 
ment, which was erected at Brussels under the direction of the 
architect Janlet with the co-operation of various sculptors. 
Among other notable works by De Vigne may be mentioned 
" Volumnia " (1875); " Poverella " (1878); a bronze bust of 
" Psyche " (Brussels Gallery), of which there is an ivory replica; 
the marble statue of Marnix de Ste Aldegonde in the Square du 
Sablon, Brussels; the Metdepenningen monument in the cemetery 
at Ghent; and the monument to Canon de Haerne at Courtrai. 

See E. L. Detage, Les Artistes Beiges contemporains (Brussels), 
and O. G. Destree, The Renaissance of Sculpture in Belgium (London, 

VIGNETTE (Fr. for " little vine "), in architecture, a running 
ornament, representing, as its name imports, a little vine, 
with branches, leaves and grapes. It is common in the Tudor 
period, and runs or roves in a large hollow or casement. It is 
also called trayle. From the transference of the term to book- 
illustration resulted the sense of a small picture, vanishing 
gradually at the edge. 

VIGNY, ALFRED DE (1797-1863), French poet, was born at 
Loches (Indre-et-Loire) on the 27th of March 1707. Sainte- 
Beuve, in the rather ill-natured essay which he devoted to 
Vigny after his death, expresses a doubt, whether the title of 
count which the poet bore was well authenticated, and hints 
that no very ancient proofs of the nobility of the family were 
forthcoming; but it is certain that in the 18th century persons 
of the name occupied positions which were not open to any 
but men of noble birth. For generations the ancestors of 
Alfred de Vigny had been soldiers, and he himself joined the 
army, with a commission in the Household Troops, at the 
age of sixteen. But the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars 
were over, and after twelve years of life in barracks he retired, 
preserving, however, a very high estimate of the duties and 
career of the soldier. While still serving he had made his 

mark, if as yet unrecognized, by the publication in 1822 of a 
volume of poems, and in 1826 by another, together with the 
famous prose romance of Cinq-Mars. Sainte-Beuve asserts 
that the poet antedated some of his most remarkable work. 
This may or may not be the case; he certainly could not ante- 
date the publication. And it so happens that some of his most 
celebrated pieces — Eloa, Dolorida, Mbise — appeared (1822-23) 
before the work of younger members of the Romantic school 
whose productions strongly resemble these poems. Nor is this 
originality limited to the point which he himself claimed in 
the Preface to his collected Poems in 1837 — that they were 
" the first of their kind in France, in which philosophic thought 
is clothed in epic or dramatic form." Indeed this claim is 
disputable in itself, and has misled not a few of Vigny's recent 
critics. It is in poetic, not philosophic quality, that his idiosyn- 
crasy and precursorship are most remarkable. It is quite 
certain that the other Alfred — Alfred de Musset — felt the 
influence of his elder namesake, and an impartial critic might 
discern no insignificant marks of the same effect in the work 
of Hugo himself. Even Lamartine, considerably Vigny's elder 
and his predecessor in poetry, seems rather to have been 
guided by Vigny than Vigny by him. No one can read Dolo- 
rida or Le Cor without seeing that the author had little to 
learn from any of his French contemporaries and much 
to teach them. At the same time Vigny, from whatever cause, 
hardly made any further public appearance in poetry proper 
during the more than thirty years of his life, and his entire 
poems, including posthumous fragments, form but one very 
small pocket volume. Cinq-Mars, which at least equalled the 
poems in popularity, will hardly stand the judgment of posterity 
so well. It had in its favour the support of the Royalist party, 
the immense vogue of the novels of Walter Scott, on which 
it was evidently modelled, the advantages of an exquisite style, 
and the taste of the day for the romance as opposed to the novel 
of analysis. It therefore gained a great name both in France 
and abroad. But any one who has read it critically must 
acknowledge it to be disappointing. The action is said to be 
dramatic; if it be so, it can only be said that this proves very 
conclusively that the action of drama and the action of the 
novel are two quite different things. To the reader who knows 
Scott or Dumas the story is singularly uninteresting (far less 
interesting than as told in history); the characters want life; 
and the book generally stagnates. 

Its author, though always as a kind of outsider (the phrase 
constantly applied to him in French literary essays and histories 
being that he shut himself up in a tour d'ivoire), attached 
himself more or less to the Romantic movement of 1830 and 
the years immediately preceding and following it, and was 
stimulated by this movement both to drama and to novel- 
writing. In the year before the revolution of July he pro- 
duced at the Theatre Francais a translation, or rather 
paraphrase, of Othello, and an original piece, La Martchale 
d'Ancre. In 1832 he published the curious bookStello, contain- 
ing studies of unlucky youthful poets — Gilbert, Chatterton, 
Chenier — and in 1835 he brought out his drama of Chatterton, 
which, by the hero's suicide, shocked French taste even after 
five years of Romantic education, but had a considerable success. 
The same year saw the publication of Servitude et grandeur 
militaires, a singular collection of sketches rather than a con- 
nected work in which Vigny's military experience, his idea of 
the soldier's duties, and his rather poetical views of history 
were all worked in. The subjects of Chatterton and Othello 
naturally suggest a certain familiarity with English, and in 
fact Alfred de Vigny knew English well, lived in England for 
some time and married in 1828 an Englishwoman, Lydia 
Bunbury. His father-in-law was, according to French gossip, 
so conspicuous an example of insular eccentricity that he never 
could remember his son-in-law's name or anything about him, 
except that he was a poet. By this fact, and the kindness 
of casual Frenchmen who went through the list of the chief 
living poets of their country, he was sometimes able to dis- 
cover his daughter's husband's designation. In 1845 Alfred de 

6 2 


Vigny was elected to the Academy, but made no compromise 
in his " discourse of reception," which was unflinchingly 
Romantic. Still, he produced nothing save a few scraps; 
and, beyond the work already enumerated, little has to be 
added except his Journal d'un poete and the poems called Les 
Destinies, edited, with a few fragments, by Louis Ratisbonne 
after his death. Among his dramatic work, however, should 
be mentioned Quitte pour la peur and an adaptation of the 
Merchant of Venice called Shylock. Les Destinies excited no 
great admiration in France, but they contain some exceedingly 
beautiful poetry of an austere kind, such as the magnificent 
speech of Nature in " La Maison du berger " and the remarkable 
poem entitled " La Colere de Samson." Vigny died at Paris 
on the 17th of September 1863. 

His later life was almost wholly uneventful, and for the most part, 
as has been said, spent in retirement. His reputation, however, is 
perfectly secure, ft may, and probably will, rest only on his small 
volume of poems, though it will not be lessened, as far as qualified 
literary criticism is concerned, should the reader proceed to the rest 
of the work. The whole of his non-dramatic verse does not amount 
to 5000 lines; it may be a good deal less. But the range of subject 
is comparatively wide, and extraordinary felicity of execution, not 
merely in language, but in thought, is evident throughout. Vigny, 
as may be seen in the speech of Nature referred to above, had the 
secret — very uncommon with French poets — of attaining solemnity 
without grandiosity, by means of an almost classical precision and 
gravity of form. The defect of volubility, of never leaving off, which 
mars to some extent his great contemporary Hugo, is never present 
in him, and he is equally free from the looseness and disorders of 
form which are sometimes blemishes in Musset, and from the 
effeminacy of Lamartine, while once more his nobility of thought and 
plentifulness of matter save him from the reproach which has been 
thought to rest on the technically perfect work of Theophile Gautier. 
The dramatic work is, perhaps, less likely to interest English than 
French readers, the local colour of Chatterton being entirely false, 
the sentiment conventional in the extreme, and the real pathos of 
the story exchanged for a commonplace devotion on the poet's part 
to his host's wife. In the same way, the finest passages of Othello 
simply disappear in Vigny's version. In his remaining works the 
defect of skill in managing the plot and characters of prose fiction, 
which has been noticed in Cinq-Mars, reappears, together (in the 
case of the Journal d'un pocte and elsewhere) with signs of the 
fastidious and slightly affected temper which was Vigny's chief fault 
as a man. In his poems proper none of these faults appears, and 
he is seen wholly at his best. It should be said that of his posthu- 
mous work not a little had previously appeared piecemeal in the 
Revue des deux mondes, to which he was an occasional contributor. 
The prettiest of the complete editions of his works (of which there are 
several)is to be foundin what is called thePetitebibliotheqtmCharpenlier. 
For many years the critical attention paid to him was not great. 
Recently there has been a revival of interest as shown by mono- 
graphs: M. Paleologue's " Alfred de Vigny " in the Grands ecrivains 
frangais (iSor); L. Dorison's Alfred de Vigny, poite-phUosophe 
(1892) and Un symbole social (1894); G. Asse's Alfred de Vigny et 
les Mitwns originates de sa poesie (1895); E. Dupuy's La Jeunesse 
des Romantiques (1905) ; and E. Lauvriere's Alfred ae Vigny (Paris, 
1910). But in most of these rather excessive attention has been 
paid to the philosophy " of a pessimistic kind which succeeded 
Vigny s early Christian Romanticism. This, though not unnote- 
worthy, is separable from his real poetical quality, and concentra- 
tion on it rather obscures the latter, which is of the rarest kind. 
It should be added that an interesting sidelight has been thrown on 
Vigny by the publication (1905) of his Fragments inidits sur P. et T. 
CornetUe. (G Sa j 

VIGO, a seaport and naval station of north-western Spain, in 
the province of Pontevedra; on Vigo Bay (Ria de Vigo) and 
on a branch of the railway from Tuy to Corunna. Pop. (1900) 
23,250- Vigo Bay, one of the finest of the Galician fjords, 
extends inland for 19 m., and is sheltered by low mountains and 
by the islands (Islas de Cies, ancient Insulae Siccae) at its 
mouth. The town is built on the south-eastern shore, and 
occupies a hilly site dominated by two obsolete forts. The 
older streets ate steep, narrow and tortuous, but there is also 
a large modern quarter. Vigo owes its importance to its 
deep and spacious harbour, and to its fisheries. It is a port 
of call for many lines trading between Western Europe and 
South America. Shipbuilding is carried on, and large quanti- 
ties of sardines are canned for export. In 1909, 2041 ships 
of 2,710,691 tons (1,153,564 being British) entered at Vigo; 
the imports in that year, including tin and tinplate, coal, 
machinery, cement, sulphate of copper and foodstuffs, were 

valued at £481,752; the exports, including sardines, mineral 
waters and eggs, were valued at £554,824. The town contains 
flour, paper and sawmills, sugar and petroleum refineries, 
tanneries, distilleries and soap works; it has also a large agri- 
cultural trade and is visited in summer for sea-bathing. 

Vigo was attacked by Sir Francis Drake in 1585 and 1589. 
In 1702 a combined British and Dutch fleet under Sir George 
Rooke and the duke of Ormonde destroyed a Franco-Spanish 
fleet in the bay, and captured treasure to the value of about 
£1,000,000; numerous attempts have been made to recover 
the larger quantity of treasure which was supposed, on doubtful 
evidence, to have been sunk during the battle. In 17 19 Vigo 
was captured by the British under Viscount Cobham. 

VIJAYANAGAR, or Bijanacak (" the city of victory "), 
an ancient Hindu kingdom and ruined city of southern India. 
The kingdom lasted from about 1336 to 1565, forming during 
all that period a bulwark against Mahommedan invasion from 
the north. Its foundation, and even great part of its history, 
is obscure; but its power and wealth are attested by more 
than one European traveller, and also by the character of 
the existing ruins. At the beginning of the 14th century 
Mahommedan raiders had effectually destroyed every Hindu 
principality throughout southern India, but did not attempt 
to occupy the country permanently. In this state of desolation 
Hindu nationality rose again under two brothers, named 
Harihara and Bukka, of whom little more can be said than 
that they were Kanarese by race. Hence their kingdom was 
afterwards known as the Carnatic. At its widest extent, it 
stretched across the peninsula from sea to sea, from Masulipatam 
to Goa; and every Hindu prince in the south acknowledged 
its supremacy. The site of the capital was chosen, with 
strategic skill, on the right bank of the river Tungabhadra, 
which here runs through a rocky gorge. Within thirty years 
the Hindu Rayas of Vijayanagar were able to hold their own 
against the Bahmani sultans, who had now established their 
independence of Delhi in the Deccan proper. Warfare with 
the Mahommedans across the border in the Raichur doab w-as 
carried on almost unceasingly, and with varying result. Two, 
or possibly three, different dynasties are believed to have 
occupied the throne of Vijayanagar as time went on; and 
its final downfall may be ascribed to the domestic dissensions 
thus produced. This occurred in 1565, when the confederate 
sultans of Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Golconda, who had 
divided amongst themselves the Bahmani dominions, over- 
whelmed the Vijayanagar army in the plain of Talikota, and 
sacked the defenceless city. The Raya fled south to Penukonda, 
and later to Chandragiri, where one of his descendants granted 
to the English the site of Fort St George or Madras. The city 
has ever since remained a wilderness of immense ruins, which 
are now conserved by the British government. 

See R. Sewell, A Forgotten Empire (1900) ; and B. S. Row, History 
of Vijayanagar (Madras, 1906).. 

VIKING. The word " Viking," in the sense in which it is 
used to-day, is derived from the Icelandic (Old Norse) Vikingr 
(m.), signifying simply a sea-rover or pirate. There is also in 
Icelandic the allied word vik in g (f .) , a predatory voyage. Asa 
loan-word viking occurs in A.S. poetry (vicing or wicing), e.g. 
in Widsith, Byrnoth, Exodus. During the Saga Age (900-1050), 
in the beginning of Norse literature, vikingr is not as a rule 
used to designate any class of men. Almost every young 
Icelander of sufficient means and position, and a very large 
number of young Norsemen, made one or more viking expedi- 
tions. We read of such a one that he went "a-viking" (fara i 
viking, vera i viking, or very often fara, &c, vestan i viking). 
The procedure was almost a recognized part of education, and 
was analogous to the grand tour made by our great-grandfathers 
in the 18th century. But the use of vikingr in a more generic 
sense is still to be found in the Saga Age. If the designation 
of this or that personage as mikill vikingr or rawoa vikingr (red 
viking) be not reckoned an instance of such use, we have it at 
all events in the name of a small quasi-nationality, the J6msvi- 
kingar, settled at Jomsborgon the Baltic (in modern Pomerania), 



to whom a saga is dedicated: who possessed rather peculiar 
institutions evidently the relic of what is now called the Viking 
Age, that preceded the Saga Age by a century. Another 
instance of such more generic use occurs in the following 
typical passage from the Landn&mabik (Sturlabok), where 
it is recorded how Harald Fairhair harried the vikings of the 
Scottish isles — that famous harrying which led to most of the 
settlement of Iceland and the birth of Icelandic literature: — 

" Haraldr en harfari herjaSi vestr am haf . . . Hann lagSi 
" undir sig allar Sudreyjar. . . . En er hann for vestann slogust 
" i eyjernar vikingar ok Skotar ok Irar ok herjuft'u ok raentu 
" vida " (Landn., ed. Jonsson, 1906, p. 135). 

It is in this more generic sense that the word " viking " is 
now generally employed. Historians of the north have dis- 
tinguished as the " Viking Age " (Vikingertiden) the time when 
the Scandinavian folk first by their widespread piracies brought 
themselves forcibly into the notice of all the Christian peoples 
of western Europe. We cannot to-day determine the exact 
homes or provenance of these freebooters, who were a terror 
alike to the Prankish empire, to England and to Ireland and 
west Scotland, who only came into view when their ships 
anchored in some Christian harbour, and who were called now 
Normanni, now Dacii, now Danes, now Lochlannoch; which 
last, the Irish name for them, though etymologically " men 
of the lakes or bays," might as well be translated " Norsemen," 
seeing that Locklann was the Irish for Norway. The exact 
etymology of vlkingr itself is not certain: for we do not know 
whether vtk is used in a general sense (bay, harbour) in this 
connexion, or in a particular sense as the Vik, the Skagerrack 
and Christiania Fjord. The reason for using " viking " in a 
more generic sense than is warranted by the actual employ- 
ment of the word in Old Norse literature rests on the fact that 
we have no other word by which to designate the early Scandi- 
navian pirates of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. 
We cannot tell for the most part whether they came from 
Denmark or Norway, so that we cannot give them a national 
name. " Normanner " is used by some Scandinavian writers 
(as by Steenstrup in his classical work Normannerne). But 
" Normans " has for us quite different associations. And 
even those who have preferred not generally to use the word 
" vikings " to designate the pirates and invaders, have adhered 
to the term " Viking Age " for the period in which they were 
most active (cf. Munch, Del Norske Folks Historie, Deel I. 
Bd. i. p. 356; Steenstrup and others, Danmarks Riges Historie, 
bk. ii. &c). At the same time, the significance which the 
word " viking " has had in our language is due in part to a false 
etymology, connecting the word with "king"; the effect of 
which stiU remains in the customary pronunciation vi-king 
instead of vik-ing, now so much embedded in the language 
that it is a pedantry to try and change it. 

We may fairly reckon the " Viking Age " to lie between the 
date of the first recorded appearance of a northern pirate 
fleet (a.d. 789) and the settlement of the Normans in Normandy 
by the treaty of St Clair-sur-Epte, A.D. 911 or 912. 1 For a 
few years previous to that date our chief authority for the 
history of the piracies and raids in the Frankish empire fails 
us:' we know that the Norsemen had a few years before that 
date been driven in great numbers out of Ireland; and England 
had been in a sense pacified through the concession of a great 
part of the island to the invaders by the peace of Wedmore, 
A.D. 878. Although, outside the information we get from 
Christian chroniclers, this age is for the people of the north 
one of complete obscurity, it is evident that the Viking Age 
corresponds with some universal disturbance or unrest among 
the Scandinavian nations, strictly analogous to the unrest 
among more southern Teutonic nations which many centuries 
before had heralded the break-up of the Roman empire, an 
epoch known as that of the Folk-wanderings (Vdlkerwander- 
ungen). We judge this because we can dimly see that the 

1 W. Vogel gives the former date; 912 is that more commonly 
'The Annates Vedastini. 

impulse which was driving part of the Norse and Danish peoples 
to piracies in the west was also driving the Swedes and perhaps 
a portion of the Danes to eastward invasion, which resulted 
in the establishment of a Scandinavian kingdom (GarBariki) 
in what is now Russia, with its capital first at Novgorod, after- 
wards at Kiev. 3 This was, in fact, the germ of the Russian 
empire. If we could know the Viking Age from the other, 
the Scandinavian side, it would doubtless present far more 
interest than in the form in which the Christian chroniclers 
present it. But from knowledge of this sort we are almost 
wholly cut off. We have to content ourselves with what is 
for the greater part of this age a mere catalogue of embarka- 
tions and plunderings along all the coasts of western Europe 
without distinctive characteristics. 

The Viking Raids. — The detail of these raids is quite beyond 
the compass of the present article, and a summary or synopsis 
must suffice. For all record which we have, the Viking Age 
was inaugurated in a.d. 789 by the appearance in England 
on our Dorset coast of three pirate ships " from Ilaerethaland " 
(Hardeland or Hardyssel in Denmark or Hordeland in Norway), 
which are said in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to be " the first 
ships of the Danish men " who sought the land of England. 
They killed the port-reeve, took some booty and sailed away. 
Other pirates appeared in 793 on a different coast, Northumbria, 
attacked a monastery on Lindisfarne (Holy Island), slaying 
and capturing the monks; the following year they attacked 
and burnt Jarrow; after that they were caught in a storm, 
and all perished by shipwreck or at the hands of the country- 
men. In 795 a fleet appeared off Glamorganshire. They 
attacked Man in 798 and Iona in 802. But after this date for 
the lifetime of a generation the chief scene of viking exploits 
was Ireland, and probably the western coasts and islands of 

The usual course of procedure among the northern adven- 
turers remains the same to whatever land they may direct 
their attacks, or during whatever years of the gth century these 
attacks may fall. They begin by more or less desultory raids, 
in the course of which they seize upon some island, which they 
generally use as an arsenal or point d'appui for attacks on the 
mainland. At first the raids are made in the summer: the 
first wintering in any new scene of plunder forms an epoch so 
far as that country or region is concerned. Almost always 
for a period all power of resistance on the part of the inhabitants 
seems after a while and for a limited time to break down, and 
the plunderers to have free course wherever they go. Then 
they show an ambition to settle in the country, and some sort 
of division of territory takes place. After that the northerners 
assimilate themselves more or less to the other inhabitants of 
the country, and their history merges to a less or greater extent 
in that of the country at large. This course is followed in the 
history of the viking attacks on Ireland, the earliest of their 
continuous series of attacks. Thus they begin by seizing the 
island of Rechru (now Lambay) in Dublin Bay (a.d. 795) ; in 
the course of about twenty years we have notice of them on 
the northern, western and southern coasts; by a.d. 825 they 
have already ventured raids to a considerable distance inland. 
And in a.d. 832 comes a large fleet (" a great royal fleet," say 
the Irish annals) of which the admiral's name is given, Turgesius 
(Thorgeis or Thorgisl?). The new invader, though with a 
somewhat chequered course, extended his conquests till in 
A.D. 842 one-half of Ireland (called Lethcuinn, or Con's Half) 
seems to have submitted to him; and we have the curious 
picture of Turgesius establishing his wife Ota as a sort of voha, 
or priestess, in what had been one of Ireland's most famous 
and most literary monasteries, Clonmacnoise. Turgesius was, 
however, killed very soon after this (in 845); and though in 
A.D. 853 Olaf the White was over-king of Ireland, the vikings' 
power on the whole diminished. In the end, territory was — 
if by no formal treaty — ceded to their influence; and the 
(Irish) kingdoms of Dublin and Waterford were established on 
the island. 

* The word garftr (fort) is preserved in the " gorod " of Novgorod. 

6 4 


This brief sketch may be taken as the prototype of viking 
invasion of any region of western Christendom which was the 
object of their continuous attacks. Of such regions we may 
distinguish five. Almost simultaneously with the attacks on 
Ireland came others, probably also from Norway, on the western 
regions (coasts and islands) of Scotland. Plunderings of Iona 
are mentioned in a.d. 802, 806. In the course of a genera- 
tion almost all the monastic communities in western Scotland 
had been destroyed. But details of these viking plunderings 
are wanting. On the continent there were three distinct 
regions of attack. First the mouth of the Scheldt. There 
the Danes very early settled on the island of Walcheren, which 
had in fact been given by the emperor Louis the Pious in fief 
to a Danish fugitive king, Harald by name, who sought the 
help of Louis, and adopted Christianity. After the partition 
of the territory of Charlemagne's empire among the sons of 
Louis the Pious, Walcheren and the Scheldt-mouth fell within 
the possessions of the emperor Lothair, and in the region sub- 
sequently distinguished as Lotharingia. From this centre, 
the Scheldt, the viking raids extended on either side; some- 
times eastward as far as the Rhine, and so into Germany 
proper, the territory assigned to Louis the German; at other 
times westward to the Somme, and thus into the territory 
of Charles the Bald, the future kingdom of France. In the event, 
toward the end of the 9th century all Frisia between Walcheren 
and the German Ocean seems to have become the permanent 
possession of the invaders. In like fashion was it with the 
next district, that of the Seine, only that here no important 
island served the pirates for their first arsenal and winter 
quarters. The serious attacks of the pirates in any part of the 
empire distant from their own lands begin about the time of 
the battle of Fontenoy between Louis' sons (a.d. 841). The 
first wintering of the vikings in the Seine territory (a.d. 850) 
was in " Givoldi fossa," the tomb of one Givoldus, not far from 
the mouth of the river, but no longer exactly determinable. 
Their first attack on Paris was in a.d. 845: a much more 
important but unsuccessful one took place in a.d. 885-87, un- 
successful that is so far as the city itself was concerned; but 
the invaders received an indemnity for raising the siege and 
leave to pass beyond Paris into Burgundy. The settlement of 
Danes under Rollo or Rolf on the lower Seine, i.e. in Normandy, 
dates from the treaty of St Clair-sur-Epte, a.d. 912 (or 911). 

The third region is the mouth of the Loire. Here the island 
point d'appui was Noirmoutier, an island with an abbey at the 
Loire mouth. The northmen wintered there in a.d. 843. No 
region was more often ravaged than that of the lower Loire, 
so rich in abbeys — St Martin of Tours, Marmoutiers, St Bene- 
dict, &c. But the country ceded to the vikings under Hasting 
at the Loire mouth was insignificant and not in permanent 

Near the end of the gth century, however, the plundering 
expeditions which emanated from these three sources became 
so incessant and so widespread that we can signalize no part 
of west France as free from them, at the same time that the 
vikings wrought immense mischief in the Rhine country and 
in Burgundy. The defences of west France seem quite to 
have broken down, as did the Irish when Turgesius took " Con's 
half," or when in a.d. 853 Olaf the White became over-king of 
Ireland. Unfortunately at this point our best authority 
ceases; and we cannot well explain the changes which brought 
about the Christianization of the Normans and their settlement 
in Normandy as vassals, though recalcitrant ones, of the West 
Frankish kings. 

For the viking attacks in the 5th (or 6th) territory, our own 
country, the course of events is much clearer. As a part of 
English history it is, however, sufficiently known, and the 
briefest summary thereof must suffice. That will show how 
in its general features it follows the normal course. The first 
appearance of the vikings in England we saw was in a.d. 789. 
The first serious attacks do not begin till 838. The island of 
Sheppey, however, was attacked in 835, and in the following year 
the vikings entrenched themselves there. The first wintering 

of the pirates in England was on the contiguous island of 
Thanet in a.d. 850. The breakdown of the English defences 
in all parts of the country save Wessex dates from 868: in 
Wessex that occurs in 877-88. But the position is suddenly 
recovered by Alfred in 878, by the battle of Acthandune, as 
suddenly though not so unaccountably as it was later in West 
Francia. As Rollo was to do in 9r2, the Danish leader Guthorm 
received baptism, taking the name of Aethelstan, and settled 
in his assigned territory, East Anglia, according to the terms 
of the peace of Wedmore. But the forces which Alfred de- 
feated at Aethandune represented but half of the viking army 
in England at the time. The other half under Half dan (Ragnar 
Lodbrog's son ?) had never troubled itself about Wessex, but 
had taken firm possession in Northumbria. 

The six territories which we have signalized — Ireland, Western 
Scotland, England, the three in West Francia which merge into 
each other by the end of the 9th century — do not comprise the 
whole field of viking raids or attempted invasion. For farther 
still to the east they twice sailed up the Elbe (a.d. 851, 880) 
and burnt Hamburg. Southwards they plundered far -up the 
Garonne, and in the north of Spain; and one fleet of them 
sailed all round Spain, plundering, but attempting in vain 
to establish themselves in this Arab caliphate. They plundered 
on the opposite African coast, and at last got as far as the 
mouth of the Rhone, and thence to Luna in Italy. 

What we found in the case of the Irish "raids, that at first 
they are quite anonymous, but that presently the names of the 
captains of the expeditions emerge, is likewise the case in all 
other lands. In Ireland, besides the important and successful 
Turgesius, we read of a Saxulf who early met his death, as well 
as of Ivar (Ingvar), famous also in England and called the son 
of Ragnar Lodbrog, and of Oisla, Ivar's comrade; finally (the 
vikings in Ireland being mostly of Norse descent) of the well- 
known Olaf the White, who became king of all the Scandinavian 
settlements in Ireland. In France, Oscar is one of the earliest 
and most successful of the invaders. Later the name of Ragnar 
(probably Ragnar Lodbrog) appears, along with Weland, Hast- 
ing and one of the sons of Ragnar, Bjorn. Farther to the east 
we meet the names of Rurik, Godfred and Siegfried. In the 
eastern region the viking leaders seem to have been closely 
connected with one of the Danish royal families, the kings of 
Jutland. The practical though short-lived conquest of England 
begins under Ivar, Ubbe and Halfdan, reputed sons of Ragnar, 
and is completed by the last of the three in conjunction with 
the Guthorm above mentioned. This is, of course, what we 
should expect, that larger acquaintance gives to the Christian 
chroniclers more knowledge of their enemy. Precisely the same 
process in a converse sense develops the casual raids of early 
times into a scheme of conquest. For at the outset the Christian 
world was wholly strange to these northmen. We have, it has 
been said, hardly any means of viewing these raids from the 
other side. But one small point of light is so suggestive that 
it may be cited here. The mythical saga of Ragnar Lodbrog is 
undoubtedly concerned with the Viking Age, though it is im- 
possible now to identify most of the expeditions attributed 
to this northern hero, stories of conquest in Sweden, in Finland, 
in Russia and in England, which belong to quite a different 
age from this one. In the Christian chronicles the name of 
Ragnar is associated with an attack on Paris in a.d. 845, when 
the adventurers were (through the interposition of St Germain, 
say the Christians) suddenly enveloped in darkness — in a thick 
fog ? — and fell before the arms of the defenders. In Saxo 
Grammaticus's account of Ragnar Lodbrog, this event seems to 
be reflected in the story of an expedition of Ragnar's to Bjarma- 
land or Perm in Russia. For Bjarmaland, though it gained 
a local habitation, is also in Norse tradition a wholly mythical 
and mythological place, more or less identical with the under- 
world (Niflhel, mist-hell). So it appears in the history given by 
Saxo Grammaticus of the voyage to Bjarmaland of one " Gorm 
the old." It " looks like a vaporous cloud " and is full of 
tricks and illusions of sense. We see then that in virtue 
of some quite historical misfortune to the viking invaders 



connected with a mist and with a great sickness which invaded 
the army, the place they have come to (in reality Paris) is in 
Scandinavian tradition identified with the mythic Bjarmaland; 
and later, in the history of Saxo Grammaticus, it is identified 
with the geographical Bjarmaland or Perm. (Saxo Grammat., 
Hist. Dan. p. 452, Gylfaginning (Edda Snorra); Acta SS. 18th 
May and nth Oct.; Steenstrup, Normannerne, i. p. 97 seq.; 
Keary, The Vikings in Western Christendom, pp. 162, 260.) 

No example could better than this bring home to us the 
strangeness of the Christian world to the first adventurers 
from the north, nor better explain the process of familiarity 
which gradually extended the sphere of their ambition. The 
expedition which we have made mention of took place almost in 
the middle of the oth century, and exactly fifty years after the 
effective opening of the Viking Age. But after this date events 
developed rapidly. It was fourteen years later (in a.d. 859) that 
Ragnar's son Bjbrn Ironside and Hasting made their great 
expedition round Spain to the Mediterranean. In 865 or 866 
came to England what we know as the Army, or the Great 
Army, whose first attacks were in the north of England. Five 
kings are mentioned in connexion with this veritable invasion 
of England, and many earls. Their course was not unchequered; 
but it was only in Wessex that they met with any effective 
resistance, and the victory of Ashdown (871) put no end to their 
advance; for, as we know, Alfred himself had at last to wander 
a fugitive in the fastnesses of Selwood Forest. Much was 
retrieved by the victory of Aethandune; yet even after the 
peace of Wedmore as large a part of the land lay under the 
power of the Danes as of the English. 

It is from this time that we discern two distinct tendencies 
in the viking people. While one section is ready to settle 
down and receive territory at the hands of the Christian rulers, 
with or without homage, another section still adheres to a life 
of mere adventure and of plunder. A large portion of the Great 
Army refused to be bound by the peace of Wedmore, made some 
further attempts on England which were frustrated by Alfred's 
powerful new-built fleet, and then sailed to the continent 
and spread devastation far and wide. We see them under 
command of two Danish " kings," Godfred and Siegfried, first 
in the country of the Rhine-mouth or the Lower Scheldt; after- 
wards dividing their forces and, while some devastate far into 
Germany, others extend their ravages on every side in northern 
France down to the Loire. The whole of these vast countries, 
Northern Francia, with part of Burgundy, and the Rhineland, 
seem to lie as much at their mercy as England had done before 
Aethandune, or Ireland before the death of Turgesius. But in 
every country alike the wave of viking conquest now begins to 
recede. The settlement of Normandy was the only permanent 
outcome of the Viking Age in France. In England under 
Edward the Elder and Aethelflaed, Mercia recovered a great 
portion of what had been ceded to the Danes. In Ireland a 
great expulsion of the invaders took place in the beginning of 
the roth century. Eventually the Norsemen in Ireland con- 
tented themselves with a small number of colonies, strictly 
confined in territory around certain seaports which they them- 
selves had created: Dublin, Waterford and Wexford; though 
as the whole of Ireland was divided into petty kingdoms, it 
might easily happen that the Norse king in Ireland rose to the 
position — not much more than nominal — of over-king (Ard-Ri) 
for the whole land. 

Character of the Vikings. — Severe, therefore, as were the 
viking raids in Europe, and great as was the suffering they 
inflicted — on account of which a special prayer, A furore 
Normannorum libera nos, was inserted in some of the litanies 
of the West — if they had been pirates and nothing more their 
place in history would be an insignificant one. If they had 
been no more than what the Illyrian pirates had been in the 
early history of Rome, or than the Arabic corsairs were at this 
time in southern Europe, the disappearance of the evil would 
have been quickly followed by its oblivion. But even at the out- 
set the vikings were more than isolated bands of freebooters. 
As we have seen, the viking outbreak was probably part of a 
xxvrn. 3 

national movement. We know that at the same time that 
some Scandinavian folk were harrying all the western lands, 
others were founding Garoariki (Russia) in the east; others were 
pressing still farther south till they came in contact with the 
eastern empire in Constantinople, which the northern folk knew 
as MikillgarSr (Mikklegard) ; so that when Hasting and Bjorn 
had sailed to Luna in the gulf of Genoa the northern folk 
had almost put a girdle round the Christian world. There is 
every evidence that the vikings were not a mere lawless folk — 
that is, in their internal relations — but that a system of laws 
existed among them which was generally respected. The nearest 
approach to it now preserved is probably the code of laws 
attributed to the mythic king FroSi (the Wise) and preserved in 
the pages of Saxo Grammaticus. It contains provisions for the 
partition of booty, punishments for theft, desertion and treachery. 
But some of the clauses securing a comparative liberty for 
women appear less characteristic of the Viking Age (cf. Alexander 
Bugge, Vikingerne, vol. i. p. 49). Women, indeed, did not 
take part in their first expeditions. In the constitution of 
the J6mborg state and again in that of the eastern Vaerings 
(a Scandinavian body in the service of the Ea3t Roman Empire) 
we see a constitution which looks like the foretaste of that of 
the Tempiars or the Teutonic Knights. Steenstrup thinks the 
code cited by Saxo may be identical with the laws which Rollo 
promulgated for his Norman subjects. In any case, they fall 
more near the viking period than any other northern table of 
laws. A certain republicanism was professed by these ad- 
venturers. " We have no king," one body answered to some 
Frankish delegates. We do read frequently of kings in the 
accounts of their hosts; but their power may not have extended 
beyond the leadership of the expedition; they may have been 
kings ad hoc. On the other hand, the whole character of northern 
tradition (Teutonic and Scandinavian tradition, alike) forbids 
us to suppose that any would be elected to that office who was 
not of noble or princely blood. They were not entirely un- 
lettered; for the use of runes dates back considerably earlier 
than the Viking Age. But these were used almost exclusively 
for lapidary inscriptions. What we can alone describe as a 
literature, first the early Eddie verse, next the habit of narrat- 
ing sagas: these things the Norsemen learned probably from 
their Celtic subjects, partly in Ireland, partly in the western 
islands of Scotland; and they first developed the new literature 
on the soil of Iceland. Nevertheless, some of the Eddie songs 
do seem to give the very form and pressure of the viking period. 1 
In certain material possessions — those, in fact, belonging to 
their trade, which was war and naval adventure — these viking 
folk were ahead of the Christian nations: in shipbuilding, 
for example. There is certainly a historical connexion between 
the ships which the tribes on the Baltic possessed in the days 
of Tacitus and the viking ships (Keary, The Vikings in Western 
Europe, pp. ro8-g) : a fact which would lead us to believe that 
the art of shipbuilding had been better preserved there than 
elsewhere in northern Europe. Merchant vessels must of course 
have plied between England and France or Frisia. But it is 
certain that even Charlemagne possessed no adequate navy, 
though a late chronicler tells us how he thought of building one. 
His descendants never carried out his designs. Nor was any 
English king before Alfred stirred up to undertake the same 
task. And yet the Romans, when threatened by the Carthaginian 
power, built in one year a fleet capable of holding its own against 
the, till then, greatest maritime nation in the world. The 
viking ships had a character apart. They may have owed their 
origin to the Roman galleys: they did without doubt owe 
their sails to them. 2 Equally certain it is that this special 
type of shipbuilding was developed in the Baltic, if not before 

1 More especially the beautiful series contained in _ book iii. of 
the Corpus Poeticum Boreale, and ascribed by the editors of that 
collection to one poet — "the Helgi Poet." Here vikings are 
mentioned by name — e.g. : — 

" VartJ ara ymr, ok iarna glymr ; 
Brast rond vir» r6nd; rero vikingar." 

2 " Sail " in every Teutonic language is practically the same 
word, and derived from the Latin sagulum. 



the time of Tacitus, long before the dawn of the Viking Age. 
Their structure is adapted to short voyages in a sea well studded 
with harbours, not exposed to the most violent storms or most 
dangerous tides. To the last, judging by the specimens of 
Scandinavian boats which have come down to us, they must 
have been not very seaworthy; they were shallow, narrow in 
the beam, pointed at both ends, and so eminently suitable 
for manoeuvring (with oars) in creeks and bays. The viking 
ship had but one large and heavy square sail. When a naval 
battle was in progress, it would depend for its manoeuvring on 
the rowers. The accounts of naval battles in the sagas show 
us, too, that this was the case. The rowers in each vessel, 
though among the northern folk these were free men and 
warriors, not slaves as in the Roman and Carthaginian galleys, 
would yet need to be supplemented by a contingent of fighting 
men, marines, in addition to their crew. Naturally the ship- 
building developed: so that vessels in the viking time would 
be much smaller than in the Saga Age. In saga literature 
we read of craft (of " long ships ") with 20 to 30 benches 
of rowers, which would mean 40 to 60 oars. There exist at 
the museum in Christiania the remains of two boats which 
were found in the neighbourhood: one, the G6kstad ship, is in 
very tolerable preservation. It belongs probably to the nth 
century. On this boat there are places for 16 oars a side. 
It is not probable that the largest viking ships had more than 
10 oars a side. As these ships must often, against a contrary 
wind, have had to row both day and night, it seems reasonable 
to imagine the crew divided into three shifts (as they call them 
in mining districts), which would give double the number of 
men available to fight on any occasion as to row. 1 Thus a 
20-oared vessel would carry 60 men. But some 40 men 
per ship seems, for this period, nearer the average. In 896, 
toward the end of our age, it is incidentally mentioned in one 
place that five vessels carried 200 vikings, an average of 40 per 
ship. Elsewhere about the same time we read of 12,000 men 
carried in 250 ships, an average of 48. 

The round and painted shields of the warriors hung outside 
along the bulwarks: the vessel was steered by an oar at the 
right side (as whaling boats are to-day), the steerboard or star- 
board side. Prow and stern rose high ; and the former was carved 
most often into the likeness of a snake's or dragon's head: so 
generally that " dragon " or " worm " (snake) became synony- 
mous with a war-ship. The warriors were well armed. The 
byrnie or mail-shirt is often mentioned in Eddie songs: so are 
the axe, the spear, the javelin, the bow and arrows and the 
sword. The Danes were specially renowned for their axes; 
but about the sword the most of northern poetry and mythology 
clings. An immense joy in battle breathes through the earliest 
Norse literature, which has scarce its like in any other literature; 
and we know that the language recognized a peculiar battle 
fury, a veritable madness by which certain were seized and 
which went by the name of " berserk's way " (berserksgangr) . 2 
The courage of the vikings was proof against anything, even as 
a rule against superstitious terrors. " We cannot easily realize 
how all-embracing that courage was. A trained soldier is- 
often afraid at sea, a trained sailor lost if he has not the pro- 
tecting sense of his own ship beneath him. The viking ventured 
upon unknown waters in ships very ill-fitted for their work. 
He had all the spirit of adventure of a Drake or a Hawkins, all 
the trained valour of reliance upon his comrades that mark a 
soldiery fighting a militia " ( The Vikings in Western Christendom, 
p. 143). He was unfortunately hardly less marked for cruelty 
and faithlessness. Livy's words, " mhumana crudelitas, per- 
fidia plus quara Punica," might, it is to be feared, have been 
applied as justly to the vikings as to any people of western 

1 Steenstrup (Normannerne, i. p. 352), to get the number of men 
on (say) a 30-oared vessel, adds but some 20 more. This seems 
an unlikely limitation, throwing an impossible amount of work 
upon the crew, and leaving each ship terribly weak supposing a 
naval battle had to be undertaken — as with some rival viking 
fleet, even before any Christian nation possessed a fleet. 

1 Cf. Grett. 5. ch. 42, Njala, ch. 104, &c, and many other 

Europe. It is also true, however, that they showed a great 
capacity for government, and in times of peace for peaceful 
organization. Normandy was the best-governed part of France 
in the nth century; and the Danes in East Anglia and the 
Five Burgs were in many regards a model to their Saxon neigh- 
bours (Steenstrup, op, cit. iv. ch. 2). Of all European lands 
England is without doubt that on which the Viking Age has 
left most impression: in the number of original settlers after 
878; in the way which these prepared for Canute's conquest; 
and finally in that which she absorbed from the conquering 
Normans. England's gain was France's loss: had the Normans 
turned their attention in the other direction, they might likely 
enough have gained the kingdom in France and saved that 
country from the intermittent anarchy from which it suffered 
from the nth till the middle of the 15th century. 

Sources of Viking History.— These are, as has been said, almost 
exclusively the chronicles of the lands visited by the vikings. For 
Ireland we have, as on the whole our best authority, the Annates 
Ultonienses (C. O'Conor, Scr. Rev. Hib. iv.), supplemented by the 
Annals of the Four Masters (ed. O'Donovan) and the Chronicon 
Scottorum (ed. Henessy). Finally, The War of the Gaidhill with the 
Gaill (ed. Todd); Three Fragments of Irish History (O'Donovan); 
cf. W. F. Skene, Celtic Scotland. For England the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, Annates Lindisfarnenses (in Pcrtz, Monumenta, vol. xix.) ; 
Simeon of Durham, Historic, Dunelmi Ecclesiae. For the Frankish 
empire the chief sources of our information are The Annales Regnl 
Francorum, Annales Bertiani (Pertz, vol. i.) in three parts (the first 
anonymous, the second by Prudentius, the third by Hincmar, 
a.d. 830^82). The Annates' Xantenses (a.d. 876, 873 ; Pertz, vol. ii.) 
are the authorities for the northern and eastern regions, and the 
Annates Fuldenses (which begin with Pipin of Herestel and go down 
to A.D. 900; Pertz, vol. i.) for Germany. Toward the end of the 
9th century the Annales Vedastini (Pertz, vols. i. and ii.) are almost 
the exclusive authority for the western raids. In the historians of 
Normandy, especially in Dudo of St Quentm, much incidental matter 
may be found. 

References to the Viking Age in a general way are to be found 
in a vast number of books, especially histories of the Scandinavian 
countries, of which Munch's Det Norske Fclks Historic (1852, &c.) 
is the most distinguished; JV J. A. Worsaae has written Minder om 
de Danske og Nord-Mandene i England, Skotland oglrland (1851), 
an antiquarian rather than an historical study; ,G. B. Depping, 
VHistoire des expeditions maritimes des Normands (1843), a not very 
critical work, and E. Mabille, " Les Invasions Normandes dans 
la Loire" (£cole des chartes bill. t. 30, 1869). A completer work 
than either of these is W- Vogel's Die Normannen und das Frtin- 
kische Reich (1906). It does not, however, break any fresh ground. 
J. C. H. Steenstrup's Normannerne (1876-82), in four volumes, is not 
a continuous history, but a series of studies of great learning and 
value; C. F. Keary, The Vikings in Western Europe (1891) is a 
history of the viking raids on all the western lands, but ends a.d. 888. 
A. Bugge's Vikingerne (1904-6) is a study of the moral and social 
side of the vikings, or, one should rather say, of the earliest Scandi- 
navian folk. (C. F. K.) 

VIKRAMADITYA, a legendary Hindu king of Uzjain, who 
is supposed to have given his name to the Vikram Samvat, 
the era which is used all over northern India, except in Bengal, 
and at whose court the " nine gems " of Sanskrit literature are 
also supposed to have flourished. The Vikram era is reckoned 
from the vernal equinox of the year 57 B.C., but there is no 
evidence that that date corresponds with any event in the life 
of an actual king. As a matter of fact, all dates in this era 
down to the 10th century never use the word Vikram, but that 
of Malava instead, that being the tribe that gives its name to 
Malwa, The name Vikramaditya simply means " sun of power," 
and was adopted by several Hindu kings, of whom Chand- 
ragupta II. (Chandragupta Vikramaditya), who ascended the 
throne of the Guptas about A.D. 375, approaches most nearly 
to the legend. 

See Alexander Cunningham, Book of Indian Eras (1883); and 
Vincent Smith, Early History of India U9<H)- 

VILAS, WILLIAM FREEMAN (1840-1908), American political 
leader and lawyer, was born in Chelsea, Vermont, on the 9th of 
July 1840. His father, Levi B. Vilas, a lawyer and Democratic 
politician, emigrated in 1851 to Madison, Wisconsin. William 
graduated at the university of Wisconsin in 1858, and at the 
Albany (New York) Law School in i860, and began to practise 
law in Madison with his father. In 1862 he recruited and be- 
came captain of Company A of the Twenty-Third Wisconsin 



Volunteers., of which he was made lieutenant -colonel in 1863, 
ind which he commanded in the siege of Vicksburg. In 
August 1863 he resigned his commission and resumed his law 
practice. He was professor of law in the university of Wisconsin 
in 1868-85, and again in 1880-02, and in 1875-78 was a 
member of the commissicn which revised the statutes of 
Wisconsin. From 1876 to 1S86 he was a member of the 
National Democratic Committee, and virtually the leader of 
his party in his state; he was a delegate to the National 
Democratic Conventions of 1876, 1880 and 1884, and was 
permanent chairman of the last. In 1885 he was a member 
of the state Assembly. He was postmaster-general in President 
Grover Cleveland's cabinet from March 1885 until January 1888, 
and was then secretary of the interior until March 1880. From 
i8or until 1897 he was a member of the United States Senate, 
in which, during President Cleveland's second term, he was 
recognized as the chief defender of the Administration, and 
he was especially active in securing the repeal of the silver- 
purchase clause of the Sherman Act. He was a delegate to the 
Democratic National Convention of 1896, but withdrew after 
the adoption of the free-silver plank. He then became one of 
the chief organizers of the National (or Gold) Democratic 
party, attended the convention at Indianapolis, and was 
chairman of its committee on resolutions. In 1881-85 and 
in 1898-1905 he was a regent of the university of Wisconsin; 
and he was a member (1897-1903) of the commission which 
had charge of the erection of the State Historical Library at 
Madison, and in 1906-8 of the commission for the con- 
struction of the new state capitol. He died at Madison on 
the 27th of August 1908. 

With E. E. Bryant he edited v-ols. i. to xx., except vol. v., of the 
Imports of the Wisconsin Supreme Court. 

VILL, the Anglicized form of the word villa, used in Latin 
documents to translate the Anglo-Saxon tun, township, " the 
unit of the constitutional machinery, the simplest form of 
social organization " (Stubbs, Const. Hist. § 39). The word 
did not always and at all times have this meaning in Latin- 
English documents, but " vill " and " township " were 
ultimately, in English law, treated as convertible terms for 
describing a village community, and they remained in use in 
legal nomenclature until the ecclesiastical parishes were con- 
verted into areas for civil administration under the Poor 
Law Acts. This technical sense is derived from the late Latin 
use of villa for views, a village. Thus Fleta (vi. c. 51), writing 
in the time of Edward I., distinguishes the villa, as a collection 
of habitations and their appurtenances, from the mansio, a 
single house, nulli viiina, and the manor, which may embrace 
one or more villae. In classical Latin villa had meant " country- 
house," " farm," " villa " (see Villa); but the word was pro- 
bably an abbreviation of vicula, diminutive of viens, and in 
the sense cf vlcus it is used by Apuleius in the 2nd century. 
Later it even displaced civitas, for city; thus Rutilius Numa- 
tianus in his Itinerarium speaks of villae ingmles, oppida 
parva; whence the French ville (see Du Cange, Glossarium lat. 
s.v. Villa). In the Frankish empire villa was also used of the 
royal and imperial palaces or seats with their appurtenances. 
In the sense of a small collection of habitations the word came 
into general use in England in the French form "village." 
From villa, too, are derived villein and villenage (q.v.) (see also 
Village Communities). 

VILLA, the Latin word (diminutive of vicus, a village) for 
a country-house. This term, which in England is usually 
given to a small country-house detached or semi-detached 
in the vicinity of a large town, is being gradually superseded 
by such expressions as " country " or " suburban house," 
" bungalow," &c, but in Italy it is still retained as in Roman 
times and means a summer residence, sometimes being of great 
extent. References to the villa are constantly made by Roman 
writers. Cicero is said to have possessed no less than seven 
villas, the oldest of which was near Arpinum, which he inherited. 
Pliny the younger had three or four, of which the example 
near Laurentium is the best known from his descriptions. 

There is too wide a divergence in the various conjectural 
restorations to make them of much value, but the remains 
of the villa of Hadrian at Tivoli, which covered . an area over 
seven miles long and in which reproductions were made of all 
the most celebrated buildings he had seen during his travels, 
those in Greece seeming to have had the most attraction for 
him, and the villas of the 16th century on similar sites, such 
as the Villa d'Este near Tivoli, enable one to form some idea 
of the exceptional beauty of the positions selected and of the 
splendour of the structures which enriched them. According 
to Pliny, there were two kinds of villas, the villa urbana, which 
was a country seat, and the villa rustica, the farm-house, 
occupied by the servants who had charge generally of the 
estate. The Villa Boscorcale near Pompeii, which was excavated 
in 1893-94, was an example of the villa rustica, in which the 
principal room was the kitchen, with the bakery and stables 
beyond and room for the wine presses, oil presses, hand mill, 
&c. The villas near Rome were all built on hilly sites, so that 
the laying out of the ground in terraces formed a very important 
element in their design, and this forms the chief attraction of 
the Italian villas of the 16th century, among which the following 
are the best known: the Villa Madama, the design of which, 
attributed to Raphael, was carried out by Giulio Romano in 
1520; the Villa Medici (1540); the Villa Albani, near the 
Porta Salaria; the Borghese; the Doria Pamphili (1650); 
the Villa di Papa Giulio (1550), designed by Vignola; the 
Aldobrandini (1592); the Falconieri and the Montdragon 
Villas at Frascati, and the Villa d'Este near Tivoli, in which 
the terraces and staircases are of great importance. In the 
proximity of other towns in Italy there are numerous villas, 
of which the example best known is that of the Villa Rotunda 
or Capra near Vicenza, which was copied by Lord Burlington 
in his house at Chiswick. 

The Italian villas of the 16th and 17th century, like those of 
Roman times, included not only the country residence, but the 
whole of the other buildings on the estate, such as bridges, 
casinos, pavilions, small temples, rectangular or circular, which 
were utilized as summer-houses, and these seem to have had 
a certain influence in England, which may account for the 
numerous examples in the large parks in England of similar 
erections, as also the laying out of terraces, grottos and formal 
gardens. In France the same influence was felt, and at 
Fontainebleau, Versailles, Meudon and other royal palaces, the 
celebrated Le Notre transformed the parks surrounding them 
and introduced the cascades, which in Italy are so important 
a feature, as at St Cloud near Paris. (R. P. S.) 

VILLACH, a town in Carinthia, Austria, 24 m. W. of Klagen- 
furt by rail. Pop. (1900) 9690. It is situated on the Drave, 
near its confluence with the Gail, in a broad fertile basin at the 
foot of the Dobratsch or Villacher Alp (7107 ft.). The parish 
church is an interesting Gothic edifice of the 15th century. The 
principal industry of Villach consists in the fabrication of various 
lead wares, and is mostly dependent on the lead mines of 
Bleiberg, which is situated about 9 m. to the west. This village 
(pop. 3435) is one of the richest lead-mining centres in Europe. 
The ores found here comprise silver-free galena, sulphate of zinc 
and calamine. The mines were already worked during the 
middle ages. Warmbad Villach, a watering-place with hot 
sulphur baths, and Mittewald, a favourite summer resort, whence 
the ascent of the Dobratsch can be made, are in the neighbour- 
hood of Villach. Some of the prettiest Carinthian lakes are 
to be found near Villach, as the Ossiacher-see, on whose southern 
shore stands the ruined castle of Landskron, dating from the 
middle of the 16th century, the Worther-see and the small but 
lovely Faaker-see. 

Villach is an old town, which was given by Heinrich II. to 
the bishopric of Bamberg in 1007. During the middle ages it 
was an important centre of commerce between Germany and 
Italy. With the advent of new trade routes at the beginning 
of modern times the town lost its importance, and in 1745 
the citizens nearly decided to emigrate en masse. Its trade 
revived during the French occupation of 1809-13, and it 



continued to improve during the 19th century. The Turks were 
defeated here in 1492 by Maximilian I., and an engagement 
between the Austrians and the French took place here on the 
21st of August 1813. 

VILLA DEL PILAR, a city of Paraguay, 104 m. S. by E. of 
Asuncion, on the left bank of the navigable river Paraguay, 
which receives the Bermejo from the right immediately opposite. 
Pop. (1910) about 10,000. Villa del Pilar is a thriving modern 
city, containing barracks, law courts, a national college, several 
schools and a branch of the Agricultural Bank. It has a fine 
harbour, and is one of the principal centres in the republic for 
the exportation of oranges. 

VILLAFRANCA DI VERONA, a town of Venctia, Italy, in 
the province of Verona, n m. S.S.W. of Verona, on the railway 
to Mantua, 174 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) 5037 (town); 
9635 (commune). It has considerable silk industries. Here 
preliminaries of peace were signed between Napoleon III. and 
the Austrians in 1859 after the battle of Solferino. Five miles 
to the N. is Custozza, where the Italians were defeated by the 
Austrians in 1S48 and 1S66. Villafranca is a common place 
name in Italy. 

VILLAGE COMMUNITIES/ The study of village communities 
has become one of the fundamental methods of discussing the 
ancient history of institutions. It would be out of the question 
here to range over the whole field of human society in search for 
communal arrangements of rural life. It will be sufficient to 
confine the present inquiry to the varieties presented by nations 
of Aryan race, not because greater importance is to be attached 
to these nations than to other branches of humankind, although 
this view might also be reasonably urged, but principally because 
the Aryan race in its history has gone through all sorts of 
experiences, and the data gathered from its historical life can 
be tolerably well ascertained. Should the road be sufficiently 
cleared in this particular direction, it will not be difficult to 
connect the results with similar researches in other racial 

The best way seems to be to select some typical examples, 
chiefly from the domain of Celtic, Slavonic and Germanic 
social history, and to try to interpret them in regard to the 
general conditions in which communal institutions originate, 
grow and decay. As the principal problem will consist in 
ascertaining how far land was held in common instead of being 
held, as is usual at present, by individuals, it is advisable to 
look out for instances in which this element of holding in common 
is very clearly expressed. We ought to get, as it were, acclima- 
tized to the mental atmosphere of such social arrangements in 
order to counteract a very natural but most pernicious bent 
prompting one to apply to the conditions of the past the key 
of our modern views and habitual notions. A certain acquaint- 
ance with the structure of Celtic society, more especially the 
society of ancient Wales, is likely to make it clear from the out- 
set to what extent the husbandry and law of an Aryan race 
may depend on institutions in which the individual factor is 
greatly reduced, while the union first of kinsmen and then of 
neighbours plays a most decisive part. 

F. Seebohm has called our attention to the interesting surveys 
of Welsh tracts of country made in the 14th century, soon after 
these regions passed into the hands of English lords. The frag- 
ments of these surveys published by him and his commentary 
on them are very illuminating, but further study of the docu- 
ments themselves discloses many important details and helps 
to correct some theories propounded on the subject. Let us 
take up a concrete and simple case, e.g. the description of 
Astret Canon, a trev or township (irillata) of the honour of 
Denbigh, surveyed in 1334. In the time of the native Welsh 
princes it was occupied entirely by a kindred (progenies) of free 
tribesmen descended from a certain Canon, the son of Lawaurgh. 
The kindred was subdivided into four gavells or bodies of joint- 
tenants. On the half-gavell of Monryk ap Canon, e.g. there are 
no less than sixteen coparceners, of whom eight possess houses. 
The peculiarity of this system of land tenure consists in the 
fact that all the tenants of these gavells derive their position 

on the land from the occupation of the township by their 
kindred, and have to trace their rights to shares in the original 
unit. Although the village of Astret Canon was occupied under 
the Survey by something like fifty-four male tenants, the majority 
of whom were settled in houses of their own, it continued 
to form a unit as well in regard to the payment of tungpound, 
that is, of the direct land tax and other services and pay- 
ments, but also in respect of the possession and usage of the soil. 
On the other hand, movable property is owned in severalty. 
Services have to be apportioned among the members of the 
kindreds according to the number of heads of cattle owned by 
them. From the description of another township — Pireyon — 
we may gather another important feature of this tribal tenure. 
The population of this village also clustered in gavells, and we 
hear that these gavells ought to be considered as equal shares 
in respect of the arable, the wood and the waste of the town- 
ship. If the shares were reduced into acres there would have 
fallen to each of the eight gavells of Pireyon ninety-one acres, 
one rood and a half and six perches of arable and woodland, 
and fifty-three and one-third of an acre and half a rood of waste 
land. But as a matter of fact the land was not divided in such 
a way, and the rights of the tenants of the gavell were realized 
not through the appropriation of definite acres, but as propor- 
tionate opportunities in regard to tillage and as to usages fn 
pasture, wood and waste. Pastoral habits must have greatly 
contributed to give the system of landholding its peculiar 
character. It was not necessary, it would have been even 
harmful, to subdivide sharply the area on which the herds of 
cows and the flocks of sheep and goats were grazing. Still 
Welsh rural life in the 14th century had already a definite 
though subordinate agricultural aspect, and it is important to 
notice that individual appropriation had as yet made very 
slight progress in it. 

We do not notice any systematic equalization betw'een 
members of the tribal communities of the trevs. In fact, 
both differences in the ownership of cattle and differences of 
tribal standing, established by complex reckonings of pedigree 
and of social rank, led to marked inequalities. But there 
was also the notion of birthright, and we find in the laws that 
every free tribesman considered himself entitled to claim from 
his kindred grazing facilities and five crws for tillage. Such 
a claim could be made unconditionally only at a time when 
there was a superabundance of land to dispose of. In the 
14th century, to which our typical descriptions refer, this state 
of things had ceased to be universal. Although great tracts of 
Welsh land were undoubtedly still in a state of wilderness, the 
soil in more conveniently situated regions was beginning to be 
scarce, and considerable pressure of population was already 
felt, with a consequent transition from pastoral pursuits to 
agriculture. The tract appropriated to the township of Astret 
Canon, for instance, contained only 574 acres of land of all 
kinds. In this case there was hardly room for the customary 
five erws per head of grown-up males besides commons. And 
yet although the population lived on a small pittance, the system 
of tribal tenure was not abandoned. 

Although there are no rearrangements or redivision within 
the tribe as a whole, inside every gavell, representing more 
narrow circles of kinsmen, usually the descendants of one great- 
grandfather, i.e. second cousins, the shares are shifted and 
readjusted according to one of two systems. In one case, 
that of the trevcyvriv or joint-account village, every man 
receives " as much as another yet not of equal value " — which 
means, of course, that the members of such communities were 
provided with equal allotments, but left to make the best of 
them, each according to chance and ability. This practice of 
reallotment was, however, restricted in the 14th century to 
taeog trevs, to villages occupied by half-free settlers. The 
free tribesmen, the priodarii of Wales, held by daddenhud, 
and reallotted shares within the trev on the coming of each 
new generation or, conversely, on the going out, the dying out, 
of each older generation. In other words: at the demise of 
the last of the grandfathers in a gavell, all the fathers took 



equal rank and claimed equal shares, although formerly some 
of the portions had been distributed equally only between the 
grandfathers or their offspring (stirps). The right to claim 
redivision held good only within the circle of second cousins. 
Members of the kindred who stood further than that from 
each other, that is, third cousins, were not entitled to reallot- 
ment on the strength of daddcnhud. 

Another fact which is brought out with complete evidence 
by the Welsh Surveys is that the tenure is ascribed to com- 
munities of kinsmen and not to chiefs or headmen. The latter 
certainly existed and had exerted a powerful influence on the 
disposal of common land as well as on government and justice. 
But in the view of 14th-century surveys each township is 
owned not by this or the other elder, but by numerous bodies 
of coparceners. The gavell of Owen Gogh, for instance, 
contained twenty-six coparceners. In this way there is a 
clear attribution of rights of communal ownership, if we like 
to use the term, and not merely of rights of maintenance. Nor 
is there any warrant for a construction of these arrangements 
on a supposed patriarchal system. 

Let us now compare this description of Celtic tribal tenure 
with Slavonic institutions. The most striking modern ex- 
amples of tribal communities settled on a territorial basis are 
presented by the history of the Southern Slavs in the Balkan 
Peninsula and in Austria, of Slovenes, Croats, Serbs and Bul- 
garians, but it is easy to trace customs of the same kind in the 
memories of Western Slavs conquered by Germans, of the 
Poles and of the different subdivisions of the Russians. A good 
clue to the subject is provided by a Serb proverb which says 
that a man by himself is bound to be a martyr. One might 
almost suggest that these popular customs illustrate the Aristo- 
telian conception of the single man seeking the " autarkeia," 
a complete and self-sufficient existence in the society of his 
fellow-men, and arriving at the stage of the tribal village, the 
•ykvm, which is also a Kcofirj, as described in the famous intro- 
ductory chapter of the Greek philosopher's Politic. The 
Slavs of the mountainous regions of the Balkans and of the 
Alps in their stubborn struggle with nature and with human 
enemies have clustered and still cluster to some extent e.g. in 
Montenegro) in closely united and widely spreading biotner- 
hoods {bratstva) and tribes (plemena). Some of these brother- 
hoods derive their names from a real or supposed common 
ancestor, and are composed of relatives as well as of affiliated 
strangers. They number sometimes hundreds of members, 1 of 
guns, as the fighting males are characteristically called. Such 
are — the Vukoticf, Kovacevici, as one might say in Old English 
— the Vukotings or Kovachevings, of Montenegro. The dwell- 
ings, fields, and pasturages of these brotherhoods or kindreds 
are scattered over the country, and it is not always possible to 
trace them in compact divisions on the map. But there was 
the closest union in war, revenge, funeral rites, marriage ar- 
rangements, provision for the poor and for those who stand 
in need of special help, as, for instance, in case of fires, inunda- 
tions and the like. And corresponding to this union there 
existed a strong feeling of unity in regard to property, especially 
property in land. Although ownership was divided among 
the different families, a kind of superior or eminent domain 
stretched over the whole of the bratstva, and was expressed in 
the participation in common in pasture and wood, in the right 
to control alienations of land and to exercise pre-emption. If 
any of the members of the brotherhood wanted to get rid of his 
share he had to apply first to his next of kin within the family 
and then to the further kinsmen of the bratstva. 

As the Welsh -kindred {progenies) were subdivided into 
gavells formed of extended family communities, even so the 
Bosnian, Montenegrin, Servian, Slovene tribes fell into house 
communities, Kutas, Zadrugas, which were built up on the 
principle of keeping blood-relatives and their property to- 
gether as long as possible. They consisted generally of some 
15 to 20 grown-up persons, some 6 or 7 first and second cousins 
with their wives and children, living in a hamlet around the 
1 They range from 80 or 90 to 700. 

central house of the domadn, the house leader. In some in- 
stances the number of coparceners increased to 50 or even to 
70. The members of the united house community, which in 
fact is a small village or hamlet, joined in meals and work. 
Their rights in the undivided household of the hamlet were 
apportioned according to the pedigree, i.e. this apportion- 
ment took account first of the stirpes or extant descendants of 
former scions of the family, so that, say, the offspring of each 
of two grandfathers who had been brothers were considered 
as equal sharers although the stirps, the stock, of one was 
represented only by one person, while the stirps of the other 
had grown to consist of two uncles and of three nephews all 
alive. There was no resettlement of shares, as in the case of 
Wales, but the life of the house community while it existed 
unbroken led to work in common, the contributions to which 
are regulated by common consent and supervised by the leader. 
Grounds, houses, implements of agriculture (ploughs, oxen, 
carts) and of viniculture — casks, cauldrons for the making 
of brandy, &c, are considered to be common capital and ought 
not to be sold unless by common consent. Divisions were not 
prohibited. Naturally a family had to divide sooner or later, 
and the shares have to be made real, to be converted into fields 
and vineyards. But this was an event which marks, as it were, 
the close of the regular existence of one union and the birth of 
similar unions derived from it. As a rule, the kula kept together 
as long as it could, because co-operation was needed and isola- 
tion dangerous — for economic considerations as well as for the 
sake of defence. 

Attention, however, should be called more particularly to 
the parallel phenomena in the social history of the Russians, 
where the conditions seem to stand out in specially strong 
contrast with those prevailing among the mountain Slavs of 
the Balkans and of the Alps. In the enormous extent of 
Russia we have to reckon with widely different geographical 
and racial areas, among other, with the Steppe settlements of 
the so-called Little Russians in the Ukraina and the forest 
settlements of the Great Russians in the north. In spite of 
great divergencies the economic history of all these branches of 
Slavonic stock gravitates towards one main type, viz. towards 
rural unions of kinsmen, on the basis of enlarged households. 
In the south the typical village settlement is the dvoris'e'e, the 
big court or hamlet consisting of some four to eight related 
families holding together; in the north it is the pettite, the big 
oven, a hamlet of somewhat smaller size in which three to five 
families are closely united for purposes of common husbandry. 

It is interesting to notice that even the break-up of the joint 
household does not lead to an entire severance of the ties 
between its members. They mostly continue in another form, 
viz. in the shape of an open-field system with intermixture 
of strips, compulsory rotation of crops, commons of pasture, 
of wood, sometimes shifting allotments as regards meadows. 
There is, e.g. an act of division between six brothers from the 
north of Russia of the year 1640. They agree to divide bread 
and salt, house and liberties, money, cloth and stores of all 
kinds and to settle apart. As to arable, Shumila is to take 
the upper strip in the field by the settlement, and next to him 
Tretjak, then Maxim, then Zaviala, then Shestoy, then Luke. 
In the big harvest furlong likewise, and in the small likewise, 
and by the meadow likewise and so on through all the furlongs. 
So that in this case and in innumerable other cases of the same 
kind the open-field system with its inconvenient intermixture 
of plots and limited power of every husbandman to manage 
his land appears as a direct continuation of the joint tribal 

Another fact to be noticed is the tendency to form artificial 
associations on the pattern of the prevailing unions of kinsmen. 
People who have no blood-relations to appeal to for clearing 
the waste, for providing the necessary capital in the way of 
cattle and plough implements, for raising and fitting out 
buildings, join in order to carry on these economic under- 
takings, and also to help each other against enemies and 
aggressors. The members of these voluntary associations, 



which at once call to mind German, Norse and English gilds, are 
called " siabri," " skladniki," and the gilds themselves " sp61kie," 
in south Russia. In a district of the Ukraina called the 
" Ratensky Sharostvo " there were no fewer than 278 such 
gilds interchanging with natural kindreds. The organization 
of all these unions could in no way be called patriarchal. 
Even in cases when there is a definite elder or headman (bol- 
shoy), he was only the first among equals and exercised only a 
limited authority over his fellows: all the important decisions 
had to be taken by the council of the community. 

In Great Russia, in the districts gathered under the sway 
of the Moscow tsars, the basis of the household community and 
of the rural settlements which sprang from it was modified 
in another direction. The entire agricultural population was 
subjected to strict supervision and coercive measures for 
purposes of military organization and taxation. Society was 
drilled into uniformity and service on the principle that every 
man has to serve the tsar, the upper class in war and civil 
administration, the lower class by agricultural labour. A 
consequence of the heavy burden laid on the land and of the 
growth of a landed aristocracy somewhat resembling the gentry 
and the noblesse of the West was a change in the management 
of land allotments. They became as much a badge of service 
and a basis for fiscal requirements as a means of livelihood. 
The result was the practice of reallotments according to the 
strength and the needs of different families. The shifting of 
arable (peredel) was not in this case a reapportionment of 
rights, but a consequence of the correspondence between rights 
and obligations. But although this admeasurement of claims 
appears as a comparatively recent growth of the system, the 
fundamental solidarity between kinsmen or neighbourly asso- 
ciates grouped into villages was in no way an invention of 
the tsars or of their officials: it was rooted in traditional 
customs and naturally suggested by the practices of joint 
households. When these households become crowded in cer- 
tain areas, open-field systems arise; when they are burdened 
with public and private service their close co-operation pro- 
duces occasional or periodical redivisions of the soil between 
the shareholders. 

Let us now pass to village communities in Teutonic countries, 
including England. A convenient starting-point is afforded 
by the social and economic conditions of the southern part of 

Now the Saxon or Ditmarschen portion of this region gives 
us an opportunity of observing the effects of an extended 
and highly systematized tribal organization on Germanic soil. 
The independence of this northern peasant republic, which 
reminds one of the Swiss cantons, lasted until the time of the 
Reformation. We find the Ditmarschen organized in the 15th, 
as they had been in the 10th century, in a number of large 
kindreds, partly composed of relatives by blood and partly of 
"cousins" who had joined them. The membership of these 
kindreds is based on agnatic ties — that is, on relationship 
through males — or on affiliation as a substitute for such agnatic 
kinship. The families or households are grouped into brother- 
hoods, and these again into clans or " Schlachten " (Geschlechter), 
corresponding to Roman genks. Some of them could put 
as many as 500 warriors in the field. They took their names 
from ancestors and chieftains: the Wollersmannen, Henne- 
mannen, Jerremannen, &c— that is, the men of Woll, the men 
of Henne, the men of Jerre. . In spite of these personal names 
the organization of the clans was by no means a monarchical 
one: it was based on the participation of the full-grown fight- 
ing men in the government of each clan and on a council of 
co-opted elders at the head of the entire federation. We need 
not repeat here what has already been stated about the mutual 
support which such clans afforded to their members in war 
and in peace, in judicial and in economic matters. 

Let us notice the influence of this tribal organization on 
husbandry and property. The regular economic arrangement 
was an open-field one based on a three-field and similar systems. 
The furlongs were divided into intermixed strips with com- 

pulsory rotation on the usual pattern. And it is interesting 
to notice that in these economic surroundings indivisible 
holdings corresponding to the organic unities' required for 
efficient agriculture arose of themselves. In spite, of the equal 
right of all coheirs to an estate, this estate does not get divided 
according to their numbers, but either remains undivided or 
else falls into such fractions, halves or fourths, which will enable 
the farming to be carried on successfully, without mischievous 
interruption and disruption. Gradually the people settled 
down into the custom of united succession for agrarian units. 
The Hufe or Hof , the virgate, as might have been said in 
England, goes mostly to the eldest son, but also sometimes 
to the youngest, while the brothers of the heir either remain 
in the same household with him, generally unmarried, or leave 
the house after having settled with the heir, who takes charge 
of the holding, as to an indemnity for their relinquished claims. 
This indemnity is not equivalent to the market price, but is 
fixed, in case of dispute or doubt, by an award of impartial 
and expert neighbours, who have to consider not only the 
claims of interested persons but also the economic quality and 
strength of the holding. In other words, the heir has to pay 
so much as the estate can conveniently provide without being 
wrecked by the outlay. 

This evidence is of decisive importance in regard to the 
formation of unified holdings; we are on entirely free soil, with 
no vestige whatever of manorial organization or of coercion 
of tenants by the lord, and yet the Hufe, the normal holding, 
comes to the fore as a result of the economic situation, on the 
strength of considerations drawn from the efficiency of the 
farming. This " Anerben " system is widely spread all through 
Germany. The question whether the eldest or the youngest 
succeeds is a subordinate one. Anyhow, manorial authority 
is not necessary to produce the limitation of the rights of succes- 
sion to land and the creation of the system of holdings, although 
this has been often asserted, and one of the arguments for a 
servile origin of village communities turns on a supposed incom- 
patibility between unified succession and the equal rights of 
free coheirs. 

We need not speak at any length about other parts of Germany, 
as space does not permit of a description of the innumerable 
combinations of communal and individual elements in German 
law, the various shapes of manorial and political institutions 
with which the influence of blood relationship, gild and neigh- 
bourly union had to struggle. 

But we must point out some facts from the range of. Scandi- 
navian customs. In the mountainous districts of Norway we 
notice the same tendency towards the unification of holdings 
as iu the plains and hills of Schleswig and Holstein. The 
bonder of Gudbrandsdalen and Telemarken, the free peasantry 
tilling the soil and pasturing herds on the slopes of the hills 
since the days of Harold Harfagr to our own times, sit in Odal- 
gaards, or freehold estates, from which supernumerary heirs 
are removed on receiving some indemnity, and which are pro- 
tected from alienation into strange hands by the privilege of 
pre-emption exercised by relatives of the seller. Equally 
suggestive are some facts on the Danish side of the Straits, 
viz. the arrangements of the bids which correspond to the 
hides and virgates of England and to the Hufen of Germany. 
Here again we have to do with normal holdings independent 
of the number of coheirs, but dependent on the requirements 
of agriculture — on the plough and oxen, on certain constant 
relations between the arable of an estate and its outlying com- 
mons, meadows and woods. The bol does not stand by itself 
like the Norwegian gaard, but is fitted into a very close union 
with neighbouring bols of the same kind. Practices of coaration, 
of open-field intermixture, of compulsory rotation of lot-meadows, 
of stinting the commons, arise of themselves in the villages of 
Denmark and Sweden. Laws compiled in the 13th century 
but based on even more ancient customs give us most inter- 
esting and definite information as to Scandinavian practices of 

We catch a glimpse, to begin with, of a method of dividing 



fields which was considered archaic even in those early times. 
The Swedish laws • use the expression " forniskift," which 
means ancient mode of allotment, and another term corre- 
sponding to it is " hamarskift," which may possibly be con- 
nected with throwing the hammer in order to mark the boundary 
of land occupied by a man's strength. The two principal features 
of form or hamar skift are the irregularity of the resulting 
shapes of plots and the temporary character of their occupation. 
The first observation may be substantiated by a description 
like that of Laasby in Jutland: " These lands arc to that 
extent scattered and intermixed by the joint owners that it 
cannot be said for certain what (or how much) they are." 
Swedish documents, on the other hand, speak expressly of 
practices of shifting arable and meadows periodically, some- 
times year by year. 

Now the uncertainty of these practices based on occupa- 
tion became in process of time a most inconvenient feature 
of the situation and evidently led to constant wrangling as 
to rights and boundaries. The description of Laasby which 
I have just quoted ends with the significant remark: " They 
should be compelled to make allotment by the cord." This 
making of allotments by the cord is the process of rebning, 
from reb, the surveyor's cord, and the juridical procedure 
necessary for it was called " solskift " — because it was a division 
following the course of the sun. 

The two fundamental positions from which this form of 
allotment proceeds are: (1) that the whole area of the village 
is common land (Jaellesjord) , which has to be lotted out to the 
single householders; (2) that the partition should result in the 
creation of equal holdings of normal size (b61s). In some 
cases we can actually recognize the effect of these allotments 
by ancient solskift in the 18th century, at a time when the 
Danish enclosure acts produced a second general revolution in 
land tenure. 

The oldest twelve inhabitants, elected as sworn arbitrators 
for effecting the allotment, begin their work by throwing to- 
gether into one mass all the grounds owned by the members 
of the community, including dwellings and farm-buildings, 
with the exception of some privileged plots. There is a close 
correspondence between the sites of houses and the shares in 
the field. The first operation of the surveyors consists in 
marking out a village green for the night-rest and pasture of 
the cattle employed in the tillage (forti), and to assign sites 
to the houses of the coparceners with orchards appendant to 
them (tofts); every householder getting exactly as much 
as his neighbour. From the tofts they proceed to the fields 
on the customary notion that the toft is the mother of the 
field. The fields are disposed into furlongs and shots, as they 
were called in England, and divided among the members of 
the village with the strictest possible equality. This is effected 
by assigning to every householder a strip in every one of the 
furlongs constituting the arable of the village. Meadows 
were often treated as lot -meadows in the same way as in Eng- 
land. According to the account of a solrebning executed in 
'5'3 (Oester Hoejsted), every otting, the eighth part of a bol 
(corresponding to the English oxgang or bovate), got a toft 
of 40 roods in length and 6 in breadth. One of the coparceners 
received, however, 8 roods because his land was worse than that 
of his neighbours. Of the arable there were allotted to each 
otting two roods' breadth for the plough in each furlong and 
appendant commons " in damp and in dry " — in meadow and 
pasture. After such a " solskift " the peasants held their 
tenements in undisturbed ownership, but the eminent demesne 
of the village was recognized and a revision of the allotment 
was possible. Many such revisions did actually take place, 
and in such cases all rights and claims were apportioned accord- 
ing to the standard of the original shares. Needless to say 
that these shares were subjected to all the usual limitations of 
champion farming. 

After having said so much about different types of village 
communities which occur in Europe it will be easier to analyse 
the incidents of English land tenure which disclose the work- 

ing of similar conceptions and arrangements. : Features which 
have been very prominent in the case of the Welsh* Slavs, 
Germans or Scandinavians recur in the English instances some- 
times with equal force and at other times in a mitigated shape. 

There are some vestiges of the purely tribal form of com- 
munity on English soil. Many of the place-names of early 
Saxon and Anglican settlements are derived from personal 
names with the suffix ing, as designations like Oakington, the 
town of the Hockings. 

True, it is just possible to explain some of these place-names 
as pointing to settlements belonging to some great man and 
therefore taking their designation from him with the adjunct 
of an ing indicating possession. But the group of words in 
question falls in exactly with the common patronymics of 
Saxon and German families and kindreds, and therefore it is 
most probable, as Kemble supposed, that we have to do in 
most of these instances with tribal and family settlements, 
although the mere fact of belonging to a great landowner or 
a monastery may have been at the root of some cases. 

A very noticeable consequence of tribal habits in regard 
to landownership is presented by the difficulties which stood 
in the way of alienation of land by the occupiers of it. The 
Old English legal system did not originally admit of any aliena- 
tion of folkland, land held by folkright, or, in other words, of 
the estates owned under the ordinary Customary law of the 
people. Such land could not be bequeathed out of the kindred 
and could not be sold without the consent of the kinsmen. 
Such complete disabilities cculd not be upheld indefinitely, 
however, in a growing and progressive community, and we 
find the ancient folkright assailed from different points of view. 
The Church insists on the right of individual possessors to give 
away land for the sake of their souls; the kings grant exemption 
from folkright and constitute privileged estates held by book 
and following in the main the rules of individualized Roman 
law; the wish of private persons to make provision for daughters 
and to deal with land as with other commodities produces con- 
stant collisions with the customary tribal views. Already, 
by the end of the Saxon period transfer and alienation of land 
make their way everywhere, and the Norman conquest brings 
these features to a head by substituting the notion of tenure 
— that is, of an estate burdened with service to a superior — for 
the ancient notion of tribal folkland. 

But although the tribal basis of communal arrangements 
was shaken and removed in England in comparatively early 
times, it had influenced the practices of rural husbandry and 
landholding, and in the modified form of the village com- 
munity it survived right through the feudal period, leaving 
characteristic and material traces of its existence down to the 
present day. 

To begin with, the open-field system with intermixture of 
strips and common rights in pasture and wood has been the 
prevailing system in England for more than a thousand years. 
Under the name of champion farming it existed everywhere in 
the country until the Inclosure Acts of the 1 8th and roth centuries 
put an end to it; it may be found in operation even now in 
some of its features in backward districts. It would have 
been absurd to build up these practices cf compulsory rotation 
of crops, of a temporary relapse of plots into common pasture 
between harvest and ploughing time, of the interdependence 
of thrifty and negligent husbandmen in respect of weeds and 
times of cultivation, &c, from the point of view of individual 
appropriation. On the other hand, it was the natural system 
for the apportionment of claims to the shareholders Of an 
organic and perpetual joint-stock company. 

Practices of shifting arable are seldom reported in English 
evidence. There are some traces of periodical redivisions of 
arable land in Northumberland: under the name of runrig 
system such practices seem to have been not uncommon in the 
outer fields, the non-manured portions of townships in Scotland, 
both among the Saxon inhabitants of the lowlands and the 
Celtic population of the highlands. The joining of small tenants 
for the purpose of coaration, for the formation of the big, 



heavy ploughs, drawn by eight oxen, also produced sometimes 
the shifting in the possession of strips between the coparceners 
of the undertaking. But, as a rule, the arable was held in 
severalty by the different members of the township. 

On the other hand, meadows were constantly owned by entire 
townships and distributed between the tenements entitled to 
shares from year to year either by lot or according to a definite 
order. These practices are in full vigour in some places even 
at the present day. Any person living in Oxford may witness 
the distribution by lot on Lammas day (ist of August) of the 
Lammas meadows, that is, the meadows inclosed for the sake 
of raising hay-grass in the village of Yarnton, some three miles 
to the north of Oxford. 

Let us, however, return for a moment to the arable. Although 
held in severalty by different owners it was subjected to all 
sorts of interference on the part of the village union as repre- 
sented in later ages by the manorial court framing by-laws 
and settling the course of cultivation. It might also happen 
that in consequence of encroachments, disputes and general 
uncertainty as to possession and boundaries, the whole distri- 
bution of the strips of arable in the various fields had to be gone 
over and regulated anew. In an interesting case reported from 
a Cartulary of Dunstable in Bedfordshire, all the possessions 
of the villagers in a place called Segenhoe were thrown together 
in the 12th century and redivided according to an award of 
experts chosen by a meeting of the villagers from among the 
oldest and wisest inhabitants. 

Exactly as in the Danish examples quoted before, the strips 
were apportioned, not to the single owners, but to the normal 
holdings, the hides, and the actual owners had to take them 
in proportion to their several rights in the hides. This point 
is very important. It gives the English village community its 
peculiar stamp. It is a community not between single members 
or casual households, but between determined holdings con- 
structed on a proportional scale. Although there was no 
provision for the admeasurement and equalization of the claims 
of Smith and of Brown, each hide or ploughland of a township 
took as much as every other hide, each virgate or yardland as 
every other yardland, each bovate or oxgang as every other 
oxgang. Now the proportions themselves, although varying 
in respect of the number of acres included in each of these 
units in different places, were constant in their relation to each 
other. The yardland was almost everywhere one-fourth of the 
hide or ploughland, and corresponded to the share of two 
oxen in an eight-oxen plough; the oxgang was reckoned at 
one-half of the yardland, and corresponded to the share of one 
ox in the same unit of work. The constant repetition of these 
fractions and units proves that we have to do in this case with 
phenomena arising not from artificial devices but from the very 
nature of the case. Nor can there be a doubt that both the 
unit and the fractions were produced by the application to land 
of the chief factor of working strength in agrarian husbandry, 
the power of the ploughteam for tillage. 

The natural composition of the holdings has its counterpart, 
as in Schleswig-Holstein and as in the rest of Germany, in the 
customs of united succession. The English peasantry worked 
out customary rules of primogeniture or of so-called Borough 
English or claim of the youngest to the land held by his father. 
The German examples adduced in the beginning of this article 
teach us that the device is not suggested primarily by the inte- 
rest of the landlord. Unified succession takes the place of the 
equal rights of sons, because it is the better method for preserving 
the economic efficiency of the household and of the tenement 
corresponding to it. There are exceptions, the most notorious 
being that of Kentish gavelkind, but in agricultural districts the 
holding remains undivided as long as possible, and if it gets 
divided, the division follows the lines not of the casual number 
of coheirs, but of the organic elements of the ploughlands. 
Fourths and eighths arise in connexion with natural fractions of 
the ploughteam of eight oxen. 

One more feature of the situation remains to be noticed, 
and it is the one which is still before <jnr eyes in all parts of 

the country, that is, the commons which have survived the 
wholesale process of inclosure. They were an integral part 
of the ancient village community from the first, not only because 
the whole ground of a township could not be taken up by arable 
and meadows, at a time when population was scanty, but 
because there existed the most intimate connexion between 
the agricultural and pastoral part of husbandry in the time of 
the open-field system. Pasture was not treated as a commodity 
by itself but was mostly considered as an adjunct, as appendant 
to the arable, and so was the use of woods and of turf. This 
fact was duly emphasized, e.g. in an Elizabethan case reported 
by Coke — Tyrringham's case. The problem of admeasurement 
of pasture was regulated in the same way as that of the appor- 
tionment of arable strips, by a reference to the proportional 
holdings, the hides, yardlands and oxgangs of the township, 
and the only question to be decided was how many heads of 
cattle and how many sheep each hide and yardland had the 
right to send to the common pasturage grounds. 

When in course of time the open-field system and the tenure 
of arable according to holdings were given up, the right of free- 
holders and copyholders of the old manors in which the ancient 
townships were, as it were, encased, still held good, but it became 
much more difficult to estimate and to apportion such rights. 

In connexion with the individualistic policy of inclosure 
the old writ of admeasurement of commons was abolished 
in 1837 (3 & 4 Will. IV.). The ordinary expedient is to make 
out how much commonable cattle could be kept by the tene- 
ments claiming commons through the winter. It is very 
characteristic and important that in the leading modern case 
on sufficiency of commons — in Robertson v. Hartopp— it was 
admitted by the Court of Appeal that the sufficiency has to 
be construed as a right of turning out a certain number of 
beasts on the common, quite apart from the number which 
had been actually turned out at any given time. Now a vested 
right has to be construed from the point of view of the time 
when it came into existence. The standards used to estimate 
such rights ought not to be drawn from modern practice, which 
might help to dispense altogether with commons of pasture by 
stable feeding, substitutes for grass, &c. but ought to correspond 
to the ordinary usages established at a time when the open-field 
system was in full vigour. The legal view stands thus at 
present, but we cannot conceal from ourselves that after all the 
inroads achieved by individual appropriation it is by no means 
certain that the reference to the rights and rules of a previous 
period will continue to be recognized. However this may be, 
in the present commons we have certainly a system which 
draws its roots from customs, as to the origin of which legal 
memory does not ran. 

We may, in conclusion, summarize very briefly the principal 
results of our inquiry as to the history of European village 
communities. It seems that they may be stated under the 
following heads: (1) Primitive stages of civilization disclose 
in human society a strong tendency towards mutual support 
in economic matters as well as for the sake of defence. (2) The 
most natural form assumed by such unions for defence and 
co-operation is that of kinship. (3) In epochs of pastoral 
husbandry and of the beginnings of agriculture land is mainly 
owned by tribes, kindreds and enlarged households, while 
individuals enjoy only rights of usage and possession. (4) In 
course of time unions of neighbours are substituted for unions 
of kinsmen. (5) In Germanic societies the community of the 
township rests on the foundation of efficient holdings — bols, 
hides, hufen — kept together as far as possible by rules of united 
or single succession. (6) The open-field system, which prevailed 
in the whole of Northern Europe for nearly a thousand years, 
was closely dependent on the customs of tribal and neighbourly 
unions. (7) Even now the treatment of commons represents 
the last manifestations of ancient communal arrangements, and 
it can only be reasonably and justly interpreted by reference 
to the law and practice of former times. 

Authorities. — Sir H. 5. Maine, Village Communities in the 
East and West (1872); E. de Laveleye, Das Ureigentkum, iibers. von 



K. Biicher (Leipzig, 1879) ; A. Mcitzen, Siedelung und Agrarwesen der 
Wesigermanen und Oslgermanen, derKelten, Rbmer, FinnennudS laven. 
Wanderungen, Anbau und AgrarreclU der Vdlker Europas nbrdlich der 
Alpen {4 vols., Berlin, 1895); F. de Coulanges, Les Origines de la 
propriHi (Paris, 1893) ; M. Kovalcwsky, Die bkonomische Enlwicklung 
Europas bis zum Beginn der kapitalischen Wirtschaftsform (Berlin, 
1901) ; B. II. Baden-Powell, The Indian Village Community (London, 
1896); The Land Systems of British India (Oxford, 1892); J. 
Jolly, Tagore Lectures on the Law of Inheritance and Succession in 
India; Th. Mommsen, Rbmische Forschungen (Berlin, 1864); P. 
Guiraud, La Propriele fonciere en Grece jusqu' ala conquete Romaine 
(Paris, 1893) ; R. Pohfmann, Geschichte des antiken Kommunismus 
und Socialismus (Miinchcn, 1893); F. de Coulanges, La Cite antique 
(Paris, 1872) ;F. Seebohm, The Tribal System in Wales (London, 1904) ; 
H. S. Maine, Lectures en the Early History of Institutions (London, 
1875) ; H. d'Arhoir, de Jubainville, La Familte celtique (Paris, 1905) ; 
Cours de litterature celtique (Paris, 1902) ; R. Anderson, History of 
Scotland (Edinburgh, 1874) ; C. Innes, Lectures on Scotch Legal Anti- 
quities (Edinburgh, 1872); W. F. Skene, Celtic Scotland (Edinburgh, 
1880); A. Dopsch, Die altere Sozial- und Wirtschaflsverfassung der 
Alpenslaven (Weimar, 1909) ; J. Peisxer, Die dlteren Bcziehungen der 
Slawen zu Turkotalaren und Germanen und ihre sozialgeschichtliche 
Bedeulung (Stuttgart, 1905); G. Cohn, Gemeindenschafl und 
Hausgenossenschaft (Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Rechtswisscn- 
schaft, XI 1L, 1899) ; Bogisic, Zborniken (Servian Collection of modern 
legal customs of the Southern Slavs (Agram, 1874) ; De la forme fate 
Inokosna de lafamille rurale chezles Serbes et les Croates (Paris, 1884) ; 
T. T. Smirnoff, Sketch of Culture History of the Southern Slavs (Kazan, 
1900) (Russian) ; F. Krauss, Sille und Brauch der Sildslaven (Wien, 
1885) ; A. Tschuproff, Die Feldgemeinschaft (Strassburg, 1902) ; 
A. Efimcnko, Southern Russia (Russian), vol. i. (1901); Peasant 
Land-tenure in the Extreme North, I. (Russian) (1884) ; B. Cicerin, 
Essays on the History of Russian Law (Russian) ; V. Sergievic, 
Antiquities of Russian Law, III. (Russian) (St Petersburg, 1903); 
Kocarovsky, The Russian Village Community (Russian) (1906) ; 
A. Kaufmann, The Russian Village Community, I. (Russian) (Moscow, 
1908) ; G. L. von-Maurer, Einleilung zur Geschichte der Mark-, Ilof-, 
Dorf- und Stadtverfassung und der offentlichen Gewall (Miinchen, 
1854) ; Geschichte der Markenverfassung in Deutschland (Erlangen, 
1856); Geschichte der Fronhbfe, der Bauemhbfe und der Hofvcr- 
fassung in Deutschland (4 vols., Erlangen, 1862); Geschichte 
der Dorfverfassung in Deutschland (2 vols., Erlangen, 1865); 
F. de Coulanges, Histcire des institutions poliiiques de Vancienne 
France (Paris, 1875-91); J. Flach, Les Origines de Vancienne 
France (Paris, 1893); E. Glasson, Les Communaux et le domaine 
rurale d Vepoque franqtte: reponse a M. Fustel de Coulanges (Paris, 
1890); K. Lamprccht, Deutsches Wirlschaflsleben im Mittelalter 
(4 vols., Leipzig, 1885); F. Knapp, Grundherrschaft und Riltergul 
(Leipzig, 1897); W. Wittich, Die Grundherrschaft in Nordwest 
Deutschland (Leipzig, 1896) ; Rhamm, Die Grosshafen der Nordger- 
manen (1905); G. Haussen, Agrarhistorische Abhandlungen (2 vols., 
Leipzig, 1880); H. Brunner, Deutsche Rechlsgesckichle (Leipzig, 
1887); R. Schroder, Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte (2nd ed., 1894); 
Fr. Seebohm, Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law (London, 1902); 
M. Sering, Erbrechl und Agrarverfassung in Schleswig-Holstein 
(Berlin, 1908); F. W. Maitland and Sir F. Pollock, The History 
of English Law before the Time of Edward I. (Cambridge, 1895) ; F. W. 
Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond: Three Essays in the Early 
History of England (Cambridge, 1897) ; Township and Borough (Cam- 
bridge, 1 898) ; Fr. Seebohm, The English Village Community (London, 
18S4); P. Vinogradoff, Villainage in England (Oxlord, 1892); The 
Growth of the Manor (London, 1905); English Society in the nth 
Century (Oxford, 1907) ; G. L. Gomme, The Village Community 
(London, i890);C. I. Elton, A Treatiseon Commons and Waste Lands 
(London, 1868); Th. E. Scrutton, Commons and Commonfields 
(Cambridge, 1887); J. Williams. Rights of Commons (London); 
J. Stecnstrup, Studier over Kong Valdemars Jordebog (Copenhagen); 
Lauridsen, Aarboger for Norilsk Oldkyndighed, II Raekke, vol. ii. 
(Copenhagen, l896);Steman,Z><msfe Retshislorie (Copenhagen, 187 1) ; 
A. Taranger, Norsk Retshislorie (Christiania, 1899). (P. Vi.) 

VILLALBA, a town of north-western Spain, in the province 
of Lugo; on the left bank of the river Ladra, one of the head- 
streams of the Mifto, and at the junction of the main roads 
from Ferrol and Mondonedo to the city of Lugo. Pop. (1000) 
13,572. Villalba is the chief town of the district watered by 
the Ladra, Tamboga and other small streams — a fertile 
plateau 1500 ft. above sea-level. Cloth and pottery are 
manufactured, and there is some trade in grain and live stock. 
The nearest railway station is Otero, 15 m. S. by E., on the 
Lugo-Corunna line. 

VILLAMEDIANA, COUNT DE (1582-1622), Spanish poet, 
was born at Lisbon towards the end of 1582. His father, a 
distinguished diplomatist, upon whom the dignity of count 
was conferred in 1603, entrusted the education of the brilliant 
boy (Juan de Tassis y Peralta) to Luis Tribaldos de Toledo, 

the future editor of Mendoza's Guerras de Granada, and to 
Bartolome Jimenez Paton, who subsequently dedicated 
Mercurius Trismcgistus to his pupil. On leaving Salamanca the 
youth married in 1601, and succeeded to the title on the death 
of his father in 1607; he was prominent in the dissipated life 
of the capital, acquired a bad reputation as a gambler, was 
forbidden to attend court, and resided in Italy from i6ij to 
1617. On his return to Spain, he soon proved himself a fearless, 
pungent satirist. Such public men as Lerma, Rodrigo 
Calder6n and Jorge de Tobar writhed beneath his murderous 
invective; the foibles of humbler private persons were exposed 
to public ridicule in verses furtively passed from hand to hand. 
So great was the resentment caused by these envenomed 
attacks that Villamediana was once more ordered to withdraw 
from court in 1618. He returned on the death of Phiiip III. 
and was appointed gentleman in waiting to Philip IV. 's young 
wife, Isabel de Bourbon, daughter of Henri IV. Secure in 
his position, he scattered his scathing epigrams in profusion; 
but his ostentatious attentions to the queen supplied his 
countless foes with a weapon which was destined to destroy 
him. A fire broke out while his masque. La- Gloria de Niguea, 
was being acted before the court on the 15th of May 1622, and 
Villamediana carried the queen to a place of safety. Suspicion 
deepened; Villamediana neglected a significant warning that 
his life was in peril, and on the 21st of August 1622 he was 
murdered as he stepped out of his coach. The responsibility 
for his death was divided between Philip IV. and Olivares; the 
actual assassin was either Alonso Mateo or Ignacio Mendez; 
and naturally the crime remained unpunished. 

Villamediana's works, first published at Saragossa in 1629, 
contain not only the nervous, blighting verses which made 
him widely feared and hated, but a number of more serious 
poems embodying the most exaggerated conceits of gongorism. 
But, even when adopting the perverse conventions of the hour, 
he remains a poet of high distinction, and his satirical verses, 
more perfect in form, are instinct with a cold, concentrated 
scorn which has never been surpassed. (J. F.-K.) 

VILLANELLE, a form of verse, originally loose in construc- 
tion, but since the 16th century bound in exact limits of an arbi- 
trary kind. The word is ultimately derived from the Latin villa, 
a country house or farm, through the Italian villano, a peasant 
or farm hand, and a villanelle was primarily a round song 
taken up by men on a farm. The Spaniards called such a song 
a villancejo or villancete or a villancico, and a man who impro- 
vised villanelles was a villanciquero. The villanelle was a 
pastoral poem made to accompany a rustic dance, and from the 
first it was necessary that it should contain a regular system 
of repeated lines. The old French villanelles, however, were 
irregular in form. One of the most celebrated, the " Rosette, 
pour un peu d'absence " of Philippe Desportes (1545-1606), is 
a sort of ballade, and those contained in the Astrle of d'Uife, 
1610, are scarcely less unlike the villanelles of modern times. It 
appears, indeed, to have been by an accident that the special 
and rigorously denned form of the villanelle was invented. In 
the posthumous poems of Jean Passerat (1534-1602), which 
were printed in 1606, several villanelles were discovered, in 
different forms. One of these became, and has remained, so 
deservedly popular, that it has given its exact character to 
the subsequent history of the villanelle. This famous poem 
runs as follows; — 

" J'ai perdu ma tourterelle: 
Est-ce point celle que j'oi? 
Je vcux aller apres elle. 

Tu regrettes ta femelle? 
Helas! aussi fais-jc moi : 
J'ai perdu ma tourterelle. 

Si ton amour est fidelc, 
Aussi est ferme ma foi: 
Je veux aller apres elle. 

Ta plainte se renouvelle? 
Toujours plaindre je me dois : 
J'ai perdu ma tourterelle. 



En ne voyant plus la belle 
Plus rien de beau je ne vois: 
Je veux aller apres elle. 

Mort, que tant de fois j'appelle, 
Prends ce qui se donnc a toi: 
J'ai perdu ma tourterelle, 
Je veux aller apres elle." 

This exquisite lyric has continued to be the type of its class, 
and the villanelle, therefore, for the last three hundred years 
has been a poem, written in tercets, on two rhymes, the first 
and the third line being repeated alternatively in each tercet. 
It is usual to confine the villanelle to five tercets, but that is 
not essential; it must, however, close with a quatrain, the 
last two lines of which are the first and third line of the original 
tercet. The villanelle was extremely admired by the French 
poets of the Parnassej and orie of them, Theodore de Banville, 
compared it to a ribband of silver and gold traversed by a 
thread of rose-colour. Boulmier, who was the first to point 
out that Passerat was the inventor of the definite villanelle, 
published collections of these poems in 1878 and 1879, and 
was preparing another when he died in 1881. When, in 1877, 
so many of the early French forms of verse were introduced, or 
reintroduced, into English literature, the villanelle attracted 
a great deal of attention; it was simultaneously cultivated by 
W. E. Henley, Austin Dobson, Lang and Gosse. Henley wrote 
a large number, and he described the form itself in a specimen 
beginning : — 

" A dainty thing's the Villanelle, 
Sly, musical, a jewel in rhyme, 
It serves its purpose passing well." 

It has since then been very frequently used by English and 
American poets. There are several excellent examples in 
English of humorous villanelles, especially those by Austin 
Dobson and by Henley. 

See Joseph Boulmier, Les Villanelles (Paris, 1 878; 2nd enlarged 
edition, 1879). (E. G.) 

VILLANI, GIOVANNI {c. 1275-1348), Italian chronicler, was 
the son of Villano di Stoldo, and was born at Florence in the 
second half of the 13th century; the precise year is unknown. 
He was of good burgher extraction, and, following the traditions 
of his family, applied himself to commerce. During the early 
years of the 14th century he travelled in Italy, France and 
the Netherlands, seeing men and things with the sagacity 
alike of the man of business and of the historian. Before 
leaving Florence, or rather in the interval between one journey 
and another, he had at least taken some part in that troubled 
period of civil contentions which Dino Compagni has described 
and which swept Dante Alighieri into banishment. In 1301 
Villani saw Charles, count of Valois, ruining his country under 
the false name of peacemaker, and was witness of all the misery 
which immediately followed. Somewhat later he left Italy, 
and in September 1304 he visited Flanders. It is not well 
ascertained when he returned to his native city. He was 
certainly living there shortly after the emperor Henry VII. 
visited Italy in 1312, and probably he had been there for some 
time before. While still continuing to occupy himself with 
commerce, he now began to take a prominent part in public 
affairs. In 1316 and 1317 he was one of the priors, and shared 
in the crafty tactics whereby Pisa and Lucca were induced to 
conclude a peace with Florence, to which they were previously 
averse. In 1317 he also had charge of the mint, and during 
his administration of this office he collected its earlier records 
and had a register made of all the coins struck in Florence. 
In 1 32 1 he was again chosen prior; and, the Florentines having 
just then undertaken the rebuilding of the city walls, he and 
some other citizens were deputed to look after the work. They 
were afterwards accused of having diverted the public money 
to private ends, but Villani clearly established his innocence. 
He was next sent with the army against Castruccio Castracani, 
lord of Lucca, and was present at its defeat at Altopascio. In 
1328 a terrible famine visited many provinces of Italy, including 
Tuscany, and Villani was appointed to guard Florence from 

the worst effects of that distressing period. He has left a record 
of what was done in a chapter of his Chronicle, which shows 
the economic wisdom in which the medieval Florentines were 
often so greatly in advance of their age. In 1339, some time 
after the death of Castruccio, some rich Florentine merchants, 
and among them Villani, treated for the acquisition of Lucca 
by Florence for 80,000 florins, offering to supply the larger 
part of that sum out of their own private means; but the 
negotiations fell through, owing to the discords and jealousies 
then existing in the government {Chron. x. 143). The following 
year Villani superintended the making of Andrea Pisano's 
bronze doors for the baptistery. In the same year he watched 
over the raising of the campanile of the Badia, erected by 
Cardinal Giovanni Orsini {Chron. x. 177). In 1341 the acquisi- 
tion of Lucca was again under treaty, this time with Martino 
della Scala, for 250,00c florins. Villani was sent with others 
as a hostage to Ferrara, where he remained for some months. 
He was present in Florence during the unhappy period that 
elapsed between the entry of Walter of Brienne, duke of Athens, 
and his expulsion by the Florentines (1342-43). Involved 
through no fault of his own in the failure of the commercial 
company of the Bonaccorsi, which in its turn had been drawn 
into the failure of the company of the Bardi, Villani, towards 
the end of his life, suffered much privation and for some time 
was kept in prison. In 1348 he fell a victim to the plague 
described by Boccaccio. 

The idea of writing the Chronicle was suggested to Villani under 
the following circumstances: " In the year of Christ 1300 Pope 
Boniface VIII. made in honour of Christ's nativity a special and 
great indulgence. And I, finding myself in that blessed pilgrim- 
age in the holy city of Rome, seeing her great and" ancient remains, 
and reading the histories and great deeds of the Romans as written 
by Virgil, Sallust, Lucan, Livy, Valerius, Paulus Orosius and other 
masters of history who wrote the exploits and deeds, both great and 
small, of the Romans and also of strangers, in the whole world . . . 
considering that our city of Florence, the daughter and offspring 
of Rome, is on the increase and destined to do great things, as 
Rome is in her decline, it appeared to me fitting to set down in 
this volume and new chronicle all the facts and beginnings of the 
city of Florence, in as far as it has been possible to me to collect 
and discover them, and to follow the doings of the Florentines at 
length . . . and so in the year 1300, on my return from Rome, 
I began to compile this book, in honour of God and of the blessed 
John, and in praise of our city of Florence." Villani's work, written 
in Italian, makes its appearance, so to speak, unexpectedly in the 
historical^ literature of Italy, just as the history of Florence, the 
moment it emerges from the humble and uncertain origin assigned 
to it by legend, rises suddenly into a rich and powerful lite of 
thought and action. Nothing but scanty and partly legendary 
records had preceded Villani's work, which rests in part on. them. 
The Gesta Florentinorum of Sanzanome, starting from these vague 
origins, begins to be more definite about 1125, at the time of the 
union of Fiesole with Florence. The Chronica de Origins Civitatis 
seems to be a compilation, made by various hands and at various 
times, in which the different legends regarding the city's origin 
have been gradually collected. The Annales Florentini Primi 
(ino-1173) and the Annales Florentini Secundi (1107-1247), to- 
gether with a list of the consuls and podestas from 1197 to 1267, 
and another chronicle, formerly attributed, but apparently with- 
out good reason, to Brunetto Latini, complete the series of ancient 
Florentine records. To these must, however, be added a certain 
quantity of facts which were to be found in various manuscripts, 
being used and quoted by the older Florentine and Tuscan writers 
under the general name of Gesta Florentinorum. Another work, 
formerly reckoned among the sources of Villani, is the Chronicle 
of the Malespini; but grave doubts are now entertained as to its 
authenticity, and many hold that at best it is merely a remodel- 
ling, posterior to Villani's time, of old records from which several 
chroniclers may have drawn, either without citing them at all or 
only doing so in a vague manner. 

The Historie Fiorentine, or Cronica universale, of Villani begins 
with Biblical times and comes down to 1348. The universality of 
the narrative, especially in the times near Villani's own, while it 
bears witness to the author's extensive travels and to the compre- 
hensiveness of his mind, makes one also feel that the book was 
inspired within the walls of the universal city. Whereas Dino 
Compagni's Chronicle is confined within definite limits of time and 
place, this of Villani is a general chronicle extending over the 
whole of Europe. Dino Compagni feels and lives in the facts of 
his history; Viilani looks at them and relates them calmly and 
fairly, with a^ serenity which makes him seem an outsider, even 
when he is mixed up in them. While very important for Italian 
history in the 14th century, this work is the cornerstone of the 



early medieval history of Florence. Of contemporary events 
Villani has a verv exact knowledge. Having been a sharer in the 
public affairs and' in the intellectual and economic life of his native 
city, at a time when in both it had no rival in Europe, he depicts 
what he saw with the vividness natural to a clear mind accustomed 
to business and to the observation of mankind. He was Guelph, 
but without passion; and his book is much more taken up with an 
inquiry into what is useful and true than with party considerations. 
He is really a chronicler, not an historian, and has but little method 
in his narrative, often reporting the things which occurred long 
ago just as he heard them and without criticism. Every now and 
then he falls into some inaccuracy ; but such defects as he has are 
largely compensated for by his valuable qualities. He was for half 
a century eyewitness of his history, and he provides abundant 
information on the constitution of Florence, its customs, industries, 
commerce and arts; and among the chronicleis throughout Europe 
he is perhaps unequalled for the value of the statistical data he has 
preserved. As a writer Villani is clear and acute; and, though 
his prose has not the force and colouring of Compagni's, it has the 
advantage of greater simplicity, so that, taking his work as a whole, 
he may be regarded as the greatest chronicler who has written in 
Italian. The many difficulties connected with the publication of 
this important text have hitherto prevented the preparation of a 
perfect edition. However, the Chronicle has been printed by L. A. 
Muratori in tome xiii. of the Rerum Italicarum Scriptores (Milan, 
1728). and has been edited by I. Moutier and F. G. Dragomanni 
(Florence, 1844). Among other editions is one published at Trieste 
in 1857 and another at Turin in 1879. Selections have been trans- 
late-l'into English by R. E. Selfe (1896). 

Yillani's Chronicle was continued by two other members of his 
family. (1) Matteo Villani, his brother, of whom nothing is 
known save that he was twice married and that he died of the 
plague in 1363, continued it down to the year of his death. Matteo's 
work, though inferior to Giovanni's, is nevertheless very valuable. 
A more prolix writer than his brother and a less acute observer, 
Matteo is well informed in his facts, and for the years of which he 
writes is one of the most important sources of Italian history. 
(2) Filippo Villani, the son of Matteo, flourished in the end of the 
14th and the beginning of the 15th century. In his continuation 
which goes down to 1364, though showing greater literary ability, 
he is very inferior as an historian to his predecessors. His most 
valuable work was a collection of lives of illustrious Florentines. 
Twice, in 1401 and 1404, he was chosen to explain in public the 
Divina Commedia. The year of his death is unknown. 

See P. Scheffer-Boichorst, Florentiner Sludien (Leipzig, 1874); 
G. Gervinus, " Geschichte der Florentinen Historiographie " in his 
Historische Schriflm (1833); U. Balzani, Le cronache Italians 
ml medio evo (Milan, 1884); A. Gaspary, Geschuhte der italienischen 
Literatur (Berlin, 1885); O. Knoll, Beitrdge zur italienischen Historio- 
graphie im 14. Jahrhunderl (Gottingen 1876), and O. Hartwig, " G. 
Villani und die Leggenda di Messer Gianni di Procida " in Band 
xxv. of H. von Sybel's Historische Zeitschrift. (U. B.) 

VILLANOVA, the name given to an ancient cemetery in 
the neighbourhood of Bologna, Italy, and generally applied by 
archaeologists to all the remains of that period, and to the 
period itself, owing to the discovery therein of a large 
number of the characteristic remains of the earliest Iron Age of 
Italy. The antiquities of this culture are widely spread over 
upper Italy and differ essentially from, those of the previous 
epoch known as Terramara, and they have been described 
by some as following at a considerable interval, for they show 
a great advance in metal work. The chief cemeteries of the 
Villanova period are at Bologna, Este, Villanova, Golasecca, 
Trezzo, Rivoli and Oppiano. As there can be no doubt that 
the Terramara culture was that of the aboriginal Ligurians 
(see. however, Terramara), so the Villanova is that of the 
Umbrians, who, according to the historians, were masters of 
all northern Italy, as far as the Alps at the time of the 
Etruscan conquest (c 1000 B.C.). They contain cist-graves, 
the bottoms, sides and tops being formed of flat unhewn 
stones, though sometimes there are only bottom and top 
slabs: the dead were burnt, and the remains are usually 
in urns, each grave containing as a rule but one ossuary; 
sometimes the vessel is covered with a flat stone or a dish 
inverted, sometimes the urns are deposited in the ground 
without any protection. The vases are often hand-made 
and adorned with incised linear ornament, though in later 
times the bones were often placed in bronze urns or buckets. 
Though iron is steadily making its way into use, flat, flanged, 
and socketed and looped celts of bronze are found in con- 
siderable numbers. Brooches of many kinds, ranging from 
the most primitive safety-pin fashioned out of a common 

bronze pin (such as those found in the Bronze Age settlement 
at Peschiera on Lake Maggiore), through many varieties, are 
in universal use. Representations of the human figure are 
practically unknown, but models of animals of a rude and 
primitive kind are very common, probably being votive 
offerings. These are closely parallel to the bronze figures 
found at Olympia, where human figures were likewise rare. 
All these objects are decorated in repousse with geometric 
designs. The culture of the Villanova period is part of the 
Hallstatt civilization, though the contents of the Hallstatt 
(q.v.) graves differ in several marked features from the anti- 
quities of the ordinary Villanova period, there is no breach 
of continuity between Hallstatt and Villanova, for the types 
of Vadena, Este, Golasecca and Villanova are found in the 
Hallstatt culture. The connexion between the north and the 
south of the Alps is never interrupted. The chief difference 
lies in the fact that the Celts of the Danubian region made 
greater advances in the development of weapons and defensive 
armour than their kindred in northern Italy. The Po and 
Danube regions alike are characterized by bronze buckets, 
cists, girdles and the like, wrought in repoussi with animal and 
geometric designs; but the introduction of iron into Italy is 
considerably posterior to its development in the Hallstatt 

See Montelius, La Civilisation primitive en lialie; Ridgeway, 
Early Age of Greece, vol. i. ; Brizio, in C. R. Acad. Inscr. (1906), 
315 sqq. ; Grenier, in Melanges de I'ecole francaise (1907), 325 sqq.; 
Pigorini and Vaglieri have contributed articles to the Rendiconli 
del Lincei and the Notizie degli scavi from 1907 onwards. (W. Ri.) 

VILLANUEVA DE LA SERENA, a town of western Spain, 
in the province of Badajoz, near the left bank of the river 
Guadiana, and on the Madrid-Badajoz railway. Pop. (1900) 
13,489. Villanucva is a clean and thriving place, with good 
modern public buildings — -town hall, churches, convents and 
schools. It is the chief town of an undulating plain. La Serena, 
locally celebrated for red wine and melons. Grain and hemp 
are also cultivated, and live stock extensively reared in the 

VILLANUEVA Y GELTRD, a seaport of north-eastern Spain, 
in the province of Barcelona; on the Barcelona-Tarragona 
section of the coast railway. Pop. (1900) 11,850. Villanueva 
is a busy modern town, with manufactures of cotton, woollen 
and linen goods, and of paper. It has also iron foundries and 
an important agricultural trade. The harbour affords safe 
and deep anchorage; it is a lifeboat station and the head- 
quarters of a large fishing fleet. The coasting trade is also 
considerable. Villanueva has a museum, founded by the 
Catalan poet, historian and diplomat, Vittorio Balaguer (1824- 
1901), which contains collections of Roman, Egyptian and 
prehistoric antiquities, besides paintings, engravings, sculptures, 
coins and a large library, including many valuable MSS. 

VILLARD, HENRY (1835-1900), American journalist and 
financier, was born in Speyer, Rhenish Bavaria, on the 10th of 
April t835. His baptismal name was Ferdinand Heinrich 
Gustav Hilgard. His parents removed to Zweibriicken in 
1839, and in 1856 his father, Gustav Leonhard Hilgard (d.1867), 
became a justice of the Supreme Court of Bavaria, at Munich. 
Henry was educated at the gymnasium of Zweibriicken, at 
the French semi-military academy in Phalsbourg in 1840-50, 
at the gymnasium of Speyer in 1850-52, and at the universities 
of Munich and Wilrzburg in 1852-53; and in 1853, having had 
a disagreement with his father, emigrated — without his parents' 
knowledge — to the United States. It was at this time that 
he adopted the name Villard. Making his way westward in 
1854, he lived in turn at Cincinnati, Belleville (Illinois), Peoria 
(Illinois) and Chicago, engaged in various employments, and 
in 1856 formed a project, which came to nothing, for establish- 
ing a colony of " free soil " Germans in Kansas. In 1856-57 
he was editor, and for part of the time was proprietor, of the 
Racine (Wis.) Volksblatt, in which he advocated the election 
of John C. Fremont (Republican). Thereafter he was associ- 
ated (in 1857) with the Staats-Zeitung, Frank Leslie's and the 
Tribune, of New York, and with the Cincinnati Commercial 



in 1859-60; was correspondent of the New York Herald in 
1861 and of the New York Tribune (with the Army of the 
Potomac) in 1862-63, and in 1864 was at the front as the 
representative of a news agency established by him in that 
year at Washington. In 1865 he became Washington corre- 
spondent of the Chicago Tribune, and in 1866 was the corre- 
spondent of that paper in the Prusso-Austrian War. He began 
to take an interest in railway financiering in 1871, was elected 
president of the Oregon & California railroad and of the Oregon 
Steamship Company in 1876, was receiver of the Kansas Pacific 
railway in 1876-78, organized the Oregon Railway & Naviga- 
tion Company in 1879, the Oregon Improvement Company in 
1880, and the Oregon & Transcontinental Company in 1881, 
becoming in that year president of the Northern Pacific rail- 
way, which was completed under his management, and of 
which he remained president until 1883. In 1887 he again 
became connected with the Northern Pacific, and in 1880 was 
chosen chairman of its finance committee. He was actively 
identified with the financing of other Western railway projects ' 
until 1893. In 1881 he acquired the New York Evening Post 
and the Nation. In 1883 he paid the debt of the state uni- 
versity of Oregon, and gave to the institution $50,000, and 
he also gave to the town of Zwcibriicken, the home of his 
boyhood, an orphan asylum (1891). He died on the 12th of 
November 1900. 

See Memoirs of Henry Villard, Journalist and Financier, 1835- 
1900 (2 vols., Boston, 1904). 

VILLA REAL, the capital of the district of Villa Real, 
Portugal; 10 m. N. of the river Douro and 47 m. by road 
E.N.E. of Oporto. Pop. (1900) 6716. The town has a large 
transit trade in wine, mineral w T aters and live stock, especially 
pigs. The administrative district of Villa Real corresponds 
with the western part of the ancient province of Traz os Montes 
{q.v.). Pop. (1900) 242,196; area, 1650 sq. m. There are 
alkaline waters and baths at Vidago (near Chaves) and at 
Pedras Salgadas (near Villa Pouca d'Aguiar). The district 
adjacent to the Douro is known as the Paiz do vinho, or " wine 
country "; here are the vineyards from which " port " wine is 

French admiral, was born at Auch, of a noble family of Lan- 
guedoc. He was originally destined for the church, but served 
for some time in the royal guard, which he had to leave at 
the age of sixteen after killing one of his comrades in a duel. 
He then entered the navy, and in 1773 was lieutenant on the 
" Atalante " in Indian waters. In 1778 he distinguished him- 
self at the siege of Pondicherry, and was promoted captain. He 
afterwards served under Suffren, took part in the battle of 
Cuddalore, and in 1781 was taken prisoner after a fierce 
encounter with an English vessel. He was released in 1783, 
and, unlike the majority of naval officers, did not emigrate 
during the Revolution. In 1791 he was in command of the 
" Prudente " in the waters of San Domingo, and in 1794 was 
appointed rear-admiral and assisted the Conventional, St 
Andre, in the reorganization of the fleet. Villaret was in com- 
mand of the French fleet at the battle of the First of June. He 
was appointed a member of the Council of the Ancients in 1796, 
and was sentenced to deportation in the following year on ac- 
count of his royalist sympathies. He escaped arrest, however, 
and until the Consulate lived in obscurity at Oleron. In 1801 
he commanded the squadron w T hich transported the French 
army to San Domingo, and the following year was made captain- 
general of Martinique, which he surrendered to the English in 
1809 after a brave defence. In 181 1, after some hesitation on 
the part of Napoleon, Villaret was rewarded for his services with 
the command of a military division and the post of governor- 
general of Venice. He died at Venice. 

VILLARI, PASQUALE (1827- ), Italian historian and 
statesman, was born at Naples on the 3rd of October 1827. 
He studied together with Luigi la Vista under Francesco de 
Sanctis. He was implicated in the riots of the 1 5th of May T848 
at Naples, against the Bourbon government, and had to take 

refuge in Florence. There he devoted himself to teaching 
and historical research in the public libraries, and in 1859 he 
published the first volume of his Storia di Girolamo Savona- 
rola e de* suoi tempi, in consequence of which he was appointed 
professor of history at Pisa. A second volume appeared in 
1861, and the work, which soon came to be recognized as an 
Italian classic, was translated into various foreign languages. 
It was followed by a work of even greater critical value, 
Niccold Machiavelli e i suoi tempi (1877-82). In the mean- 
while Villari had left Pisa and was transferred to, the chair 
of philosophy of history at the Institute of Studii Superior! in 
Florence, and he was also appointed a member of the council 
of education (1862). He served as a juror at the international 
exhibition of that year in London, and contributed an important 
monograph on education in England and Scotland. In 1869 
he was appointed under-secretary of state for education, and 
shortly afterwards was elected member of parliament, a position 
which he held for several years. In 1884 he was nominated 
senator, and in 1891-92 he was minister of education in the 
Marchcse di Rudini's first cabinet. In 1893-94 he collected a 
number of essays on Florentine history, originally published in 
the Nuova Anlologia, under the title of / primi due secoli delta 
storia di Firenze, and in 1901 he produced Le Invasioni bar- 
bariche in Italia, a popular account in one volume of the events 
following the dissolution of the Roman empire. All these 
works have been translated into English by the historian's 
wife, Linda White Villari. Another side of Villari's activity 
was his interest in the political and social problems of the 
day, and although never identified with any political party, 
his speeches and writings have always commanded considerable 
public attention. 

Among his other literary works may be mentioned : Saggi 
Critici (1868); Arte, Storia, e Filosofia (Florence, 1884); Scriiti 
varii (Bologna; 1894) ; another volume of Saggi Critici (Bologna, 
1896); and a volume of Discussioni critiche e discorsi (Bologna, 
1905), containing his speeches as president of the Dante Alighieri 
Society. His most important political and social essays are col- 
lected in his Lettere Meridionali ed altri scritti sulla questione sociale 
in Italia (Turin, 1885), and Scritti sulla questione sociale in Italia 
(Florence/1902). The Lettere Meridionali (originally published in the 
newspaper UOpinione in 1875) produced a deep impression, as they 
were the first exposure of the real conditions of southern Italy. A 
selection of Villari's essays, translated by his wife, has been published 
in England (1907). 

See also Francesco Baldasseroni, Pasquale Villari (Florence, 1907;. 

VILLA RICA, the largest city in the interior of Paraguay, 
on the railway from Asuncion (70 m. N.W.) to Encarnacion. 
Pop. (1910) about 25,000. Situated in a rich agricultural 
region watered by the upper Tepicuary, with finely timbered 
mountains extending to the E. and W., Villa Rica has an im- 
portant trade in tobacco and yerba mate. It is to a great 
extent modern, and contains some fine buildings, including a 
national college, a church, many schools, and a branch of the 
Agricultural Bank. 

VILLARREAL, a town of eastern Spain, in the province of 
Castcll6n de la Plana; 4 m. from the Mediterranean Sea, near 
the right bank of the river Mijares, and on the Barcelona- 
Valencia railway. Pop. (1900) 16,068. Villarreal has a 
station on the light railway between Onda and the seaports 
of Castellon de la Plana and Burriana. Under Moorish rule, 
and up to the expulsion of the Moriscoes in 1609, it was the 
headquarters of a flourishing trade, and in modem times its 
industries have revived. Palm-groves, churches with blue- 
tiled cupolas, and houses with flat roofs and view-turrets 
{miradores) to some extent preserve the Moorish character 
of the town. There are extensive orange-groves, watered 
by the irrigation canal of Castellon, which is a good example 
of Moorish engineering skill. The local industries include 
manufactures of paper, woollen goods and spirits. 



(1653-1734), marshal of France, one of the greatest generals 
of French history, was born at Moulins on the 8th of May 1653, 
and entered the army through the corps of pages in 1671. He 



served in the light cavalry in the Dutch wars, and distinguished 
himself by his daring and resourcefulness. But in spite of a 
long record of excellent service under Turenne, Condi and 
Luxembourg, and of his aristocratic birth, his promotion was 
but slow, for he had incurred the enmity of the powerful Louvois, 
and although he had been proprietary colonel {mestre tie camp) 
of a cavalry regiment since 1674, thirteen years elapsed 
before he was made a marshal de camp. In the interval be- 
tween the Dutch wars and the formation of the League of Augs- 
burg, Villars, who combined with his military gifts the tact 
and subtlety of the diplomatist, was employed in an unofficial 
mission to the court of Bavaria, and there became the constant 
companion of the elector, with whom he took the field against 
the Turks and fought at Mohacs. He returned to France in 
1690 and was given a command in the cavalry of the army in 
Flanders, but towards the end of the Grand Alliance War he 
went to Vienna as ambassador. His part in the next war 
(see Spanish Succession Was), beginning with Friedlingen 
(1702) and Ilochstett (1703) and ending with Denain (1712), 
has made him immortal. For Friedlingen he received the 
marshalate, and for the pacification of the insurgent Cevennes 
the Saint-Esprit order and the title of duke. Friedlingen and 
Hochstett were barren victories, and the campaigns of which 
they formed part records of lost opportunities. Villars's glory 
thus begins with the year 1709 when France, apparently help- 
less, was roused to a great effort of self-defence by the exorbi- 
tant demands of the Coalition. In that year he was called to 
command the main army opposing Eugene and Marlborough 
on the northern frontier. During the famine of the winter he 
shared the soldiers' miserable rations. When the campaign 
opened the old Marshal Boufflers volunteered to serve under 
him, and after the terrible battle of Malplaquet (q.v.) , in which 
he was gravely wounded, he was able to tell the king: " If 
it please God to give your majesty's enemies another such 
victory, they are ruined." Two more campaigns passed without a 
battle and with scarcely any advance on the part of the invaders, 
but at last Marlborough manoeuvred Villars out of the famous 
Ne plus ultra lines, and the power of the defence seemed to be 
broken. But Louis made a last effort, the English contingent 
and its great leader were withdrawn from the enemy's camp, 
and Villars, though still suffering from his Malplaquet wounds, 
outmanoeuvred and decisively defeated Eugene in the battle 
of Denain. This victory saved France, though the war dragged 
on for another year on the Rhine, where Villars took Landau, 
led the stormers at Freiburg and negotiated the peace of Rastatt 
with Prince Eugene. 

He played a conspicuous part in the politics of the Regency 
period as the principal opponent of Cardinal Dubois, and only 
the memories of Montmorency's rebellion prevented his being 
made constable of France. He took the field for the last time 
in the War of the Polish Succession (1734), with the title 
" marshal-general of the king's armies," that Turenne alone 
had held before him. But he was now over eighty years of 
age, and the war was more diplomatic than earnest, and after 
opening the campaign with all the fire and restless energy of 
his youth he died at Turin on the 17th of June 1734. 

Villars's memoirs show us a " fanfaron plein d'honneur," 
as Voltaire calls him. He was indeed boastful, with the gas- 
conading habit of his native province, and also covetous of 
honours and wealth. But he was an honourable man of high 
courage, moral and physical, and a soldier who stands above 
all his contemporaries and successors in the 18th century, on 
the same height as Marlborough and Frederick. 

The memoirs, part of which was published in 1734 and afterwards 
several times republished in untrustworthy versions, were for the 
first time completely edited by the Marquis de Vogue in 1884-92. 

VILLA VICIOSA, a seaport of northern Spain, in the province 
of Oviedo; on the Ria de Villaviciosa, an estuary formed by the 
small river Villaviciosa which here enters the Bay of Biscay. 
Pop. (1900) 20,995. The town is the headquarters of a large 
fishery, and has some coasting trade. Its exports are chiefly 
agricultural produce. Villaviciosa suffers from the competition 

of the neighbouring ports of Gijon and Aviles, and from the lack 
of railway communication. It is connected by good roads with 
Siero (13 m.) and Infiesto (9 m.) on the Oviedo-Infiesto railway. 

VILLEFRANCHE-DE-ROUERGUE, a town of France, capital 
of an arrondissement in the department of Aveyron, 36 m. W. 
of Rodez by road. Pop. (1906) town, 6297; commune, 3352. 
Villefranche, which has a station on the Orleans railway, lies 
amongst the hills on the right bank of the Aveyron at its junction 
with the Alzou. One of the three bridges that cross the river 
belongs to the 13th century, and the straight, narrow streets are 
full of gabled houses of the 13th and 14th centuries. One of the 
principal thoroughfares passes beneath the porch of Notre-Dame, 
the principal church of Villefranche. Notre-Dame was built 
from 1260 to 1 58 1, the massive tower which surmounts its 
porch being of late Gothic architecture. The remarkable wood- 
work in the choir dates from the 15th century. A Carthusian 
monastery overlooking the town from the left bank of the 
Aveyron derives much interest from the completeness and 
fine preservation of its buildings, which date from the 15th 
century. They include a fine refectory and two cloisters, the 
smaller of which is a masterpiece of the late Gothic style. The 
manufacture of leather, animal-traps, hosiery, bell-founding, 
hemp-spinning, &c, are carried on. Quarries of phosphates 
and mines of argentiferous lead are worked near Villefranche. 

Villefranche, founded about 1252, owes its name to the 
numerous immunities granted by its founder Alphonse, count 
of Toulouse (d. 1271), and in 1348 it was so flourishing that 
sumptuary laws were passed. Soon afterwards the town fell 
into the hands of Edward, the Black Prince, but was the first 
place in Guienne to rise against the English. New privileges 
were granted to the town by King Charles V., but these were 
taken away by Louis XI. In 1588 the inhabitants repulsed the 
forces of the League, and afterwards murdered a governor sent by 
Henry IV. The town was ravaged by plague in ^63, 1558 and 
1628, and in 1643 a revolt, excited by the exactions of the 
intendants, was cruelly repressed. 

VILLEFRANCHE-SUR-SAONE, a manufacturing town of east- 
central France, capital of an arrondissement in the department 
of Rhone, on the Morgon near its junction with the Saone, 21m. 
N. by W. of Lyons by rail. Pop (1906) 14,794. Among its 
industries the chief are the manufacture of working clothes, the 
manufacture, dyeing and finishing of cotton fabrics, the spinning 
of cotton thread, copper founding and the manufacture of 
machinery and agricultural implements. The wines of Beau- 
jolais, hemp, cloth, linen, cottons, drapery goods and cattle . 
are the principal articles of trade. An old Renaissance house is 
used as the town hall. The church of Notre-Dame des Marais, 
begun at the end of the 14th and finished in the 16th century, 
has a tower and spire (rebuilt in 1862), standing to the right of 
the facade (15th century), in which are carved wooden doors. 
Villefranche is the seat of a sub-prefect and has tribunals of first 
instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce and a com- 
munal college among its public institutions. 

Founded in 1212 by Guichard IV. count of Beaujeu, Ville- 
franche became in the 14th century capital of the Beaujolais. 
As a punishment for an act of violence towards the mayor's 
daughter, Edward II. was forced to surrender the Beaujolais to 
the duke of Bourbon. 

VILLEGAS, ESTEBAN MANUEL DE (1389-1669), Spanish 
poet, was born at Matute (Logrono) on the 5th of February 1589, 
matriculated at Salamanca on the 20th of November 1610, and 
challenged attention by the mingled arrogance and accomplish- 
ment of Las Erilicas (1617), a collection of clever translations 
from Horace and Anacreon, and of original poems, the charm of 
which is marred by the writer's petulant vanity. Marrying 
in 1626 or earlier, Villcgas practised law at Najera till 1659, when 
he was charged with expressing unorthodox views on the 
subject of free will; he was exiled for four years to Santa Maria 
de Ribaredonda, but was allowed to return for three months 
to Najera in March 1660. It seems probable that the rest of the 
sentence was remitted, for the report of the local inquisition lays 
stress on Villegas's simple piety, on the extravagance of his attire, 



ridiculous in a man' of his age, and on the eccentricity of his 
general conduct and conversation, so marked as to suggest ." a 
kind of mania or lesion of the imagination/' In his version of 
Boetius (1665), Villegas showed that he had prdfited by his 
experience, for he made no attempt to translate the last book 
(in which the problem of free will is discussed), and reprinted 
the Latin text without comment. He died at NaVjera on the 3rd 
of September 1669. His tragedy El Hipilito, imitated from 
Euripides, and a series of critical dissertations entitled Variae 
Philologiae, finished in 1650, are unpublished; and " a book of 
satires," found among his papers by the inquisitors, was con- 
fiscated. . 

VILLEHARDOUIN, GEOFFROY DE (c. 1160-c. 1213), the 
first vernacular historian of France, and perhaps of modern 
Europe, who possesses literary merit, is rather supposed than 
known to have been born at the chateau from which he took 
his name, near Troyes, in Champagne, about the year 1160. 
Not merely his literary and historical importance, but almost all 
that is known about him, comes from his chronicle of the fourth 
crusade, or Conqutte de Constantinople. Nothing is positively 
known of his ancestry, for the supposition (originating with Du 
Cange) that a certain William, marshal of Champagne between 
1 163 and 1 1 79, was his father appears to be erroneous. Ville- 
hardouin himself, however, undoubtedly held this dignity, and 
certain minute and perhaps not very trustworthy indications, 
chiefly of an heraldic character, have led his most recent bio- 
graphers to lay it down that he was not born earlier than 1150 
or later than 1164. He introduces himself to us with a certain 
abruptness, merely specifying his own name as one of a list of 
knights of Champagne who with their count, Thibault, took 
the cross at a tournament held at Escry-sur-Aisne in Advent 
1199, the crusade in contemplation having been started by the 
preaching of Fulk de Neuilly, who was commissioned thereto by 
Pope Innocent III. The next year six deputies, two appointed 
by each of the three allied counts of Flanders, Champagne and 
Blois, were despatched to Venice to negotiate for ships. Of 
these deputies Villehardouin was one and Quesnes de Bethune, 
the poet, another. They concluded a bargain with the seigniory 
for transport and provisions at a fixed price. Villehardouin 
had hardly returned when Thibault fell sick and died; but this 
did not prevent, though it somewhat delayed, the enterprise of 
the crusaders. The management of that enterprise, however, 
was a difficult one, and cost Villehardouin another embassy into 
Italy to prevent if possible some of his fellow-pilgrims from 
breaking the treaty with the Venetians by embarking at other 
ports and employing other convoy. He was only in part suc- 
cessful, and there was great difficulty in raising the charter- 
money among those who had actually assembled (in 1202) at 
Venice, the sum collected falling far short of the stipulated 
amount. It is necessary to remember this when the somewhat 
erratic and irregular character of the operations which followed 
is judged. The defence that the crusaders were bound to pay 
their passage-money to the Holy Land, in one form or other, to 
the Venetians, is perhaps a weak one in any case for the attack 
on two Christian cities, Zara and Constantinople; it becomes 
weaker still when it is found that the expedition never went or 
attempted to go to the Holy Land at all. But the desire to 
discharge obligations incurred is no doubt respectable in itself, 
and Villehardouin, as one of the actual negotiators of the 
bargain, must have felt it with peculiar strength. 

The crusaders set sail at last, and Zara, which the Venetians 
coveted, was taken without much trouble. The question then 
arose whither the host should go next. Villehardouin does not 
tell us oi any direct part taken by himself in the debates on the 
question of interfering or not in the disputed succession to the 
empire of the East — debates in which the chief ecclesiastics 
present strongly protested against the diversion of the enterprise 
from iLs proper goal. It is quite clear, however, that the mar- 
shal of Champagne, who was one of the leaders and inner 
counsellors of the expedition throughout, sympathized with the 
majority,- and it is fair to point out that the temptation of 
chivalrous adventure was probably as great as that of gain. 

He narrates spiritedly enough the dissensions and discussions 
in the winter camp of Zara and at Corfu, but is evidently much 
more at ease when the voyage was again resumed, and, after a 
fair passage round Greece, the crusaders at last saw before 
them the great city of Constantinople which they had it in 
mind to attack. When the assault was decided upon, Ville- 
hardouin himself was in the fifth " battle," the leader of which 
was Mathieu de Montmorency. But, though his account of the 
siege is full of personal touches, and contains one reference to 
the number of witnesses whose testimony he took for a certain 
wonderful fact, he does not tell us anything of his own prowess. 
After the flight of the usurper Alexius, and when the blind 
Isaac, whose claims the crusaders were defending, had been 
taken by the Greeks from prison and placed on the throne; 
Villehardouin, with Montmorency and two Venetians, formed 
the embassy sent to arrange terms. He was again similarly 
distinguished when it became necessary to remonstrate with 
Alexius, the blind man's son and virtual successor, on the non- 
keeping of the terms. Indeed Villehardouin's talents as a 
diplomatist seem to have been held in very high esteem, for 
later, when the Latin empire had become a fact, he was charged 
with the delicate business of mediating between the emperor 
Baldwin and Boniface, marquis of Montferrat, in which task 
he bad at least partial success. He was also appointed marshal 
of " Romanie "—a term very vaguely used, but apparently 
signifying the mainland of the Balkan Peninsula, while his 
nephew and namesake, afterwards prince of Achaia, took a 
great part in the Latin conquest of Peloponnesus. Villehardouin 
himself before long received an important command against 
the Bulgarians. He was left to maintain the siege of Adrianople 
when Baldwin advanced to attack the relieving force, and 
with Dandolo had much to do in saving the defeated crusaders 
from utter destruction, and conducting the retreat, in which 
he commanded the rearguard, and brought his troops in safety 
to the sea of Rodosto, and thence to the capital. As he occupied 
the post of honour in this disaster, so he had that (the command 
of the vanguard) in the expedition which the regent Henry 
made shortly afterwards to revenge his brother Baldwin's 
defeat and capture. And, when Henry had succeeded 10 the 
crown on the announcement of Baldwin's death, it was Ville- 
hardouin who fetched home his bride Agnes of Montferrat, 
and shortly afterwards commanded under him in a naval 
battle with the ships of Theodore Lascaris at the fortress of 
Cibotus. In the settlement of the Latin empire after the truce 
with Lascaris, Villehardouin received the fief of Messinople 
(supposed to be Mosynopolis, a little inland from the modern 
Gulf of Lagos, and not far from the ancient Abdera) from 
Boniface of Montferrat, with the record of whose death the 
chronicle abruptly closes. 

In the foregoing account only those particulars which bear 
directly on Villehardouin himself have been detailed; but the 
chronicle is as far as possible from being an autobiography, and 
the displays of the writer's personality, numerous as they are, are 
quite involuntary, and consist merely in his way of handling the 
subject, not in the references (as brief as his functions as chronicler 
will admit) to his own proceedings. . The chronicle of Villehardouin 
is justly held to be the very best presentation we possess of the 
spirit of chivalry-r^not the designedly exalted and poetized chivalry 
of the romances, not the self-conscious and deliberate chivalry of 
the 14th century, but the Unsophisticated mode of thinking and 
acting which brought about the crusades, stimulated the vast 
literary development of the 12th and 13th centuries, and sent 
knights-errant, principally though not wholly of French blood, to 
establish principalities and kingdoms throughout Europe and the 
nearer East. On the whole, no doubt, it is the more masculine 
and practical side of this enthusiastic state of mind which Ville- 
hardouin shows. No woman makes any but the briefest appear- 
ance in his pages, though in reference to this it must of course be 
remembered that he was certainly a man past middle life when the 
events occurred, and perhaps a man approaching old age when he 
set them down. Despite the strong and graphic touches here and 
there, exhibiting the impression which the beauty of sea and land, 
the splendour of Constantinople, the magnitude' of the effete but 
still imposing Greek power, made on him, there is not only an entire 
absence of dilation on such- subjects as a modern would have 
dilated on (that wa-, to be expected), but an absence likewise of the 
elaborate and painful description of detail in which contemporary 



trouveres would have indulged. It is curious, for instance, to 
compare the scanty references to the material marvels of Constan- 
tinople which Villehardouin saw in their glory, which perished by 
^ack and fire under his very eyes, and which live chiefly in the 
melancholy pages of his Greek contemporary Nicetas, with the 
elaborate descriptions of the scarcely greater wonders of fabulous 
courts at Constaniinople itself, at Babylon, and elsewhere, to be 
found in his other contemporaries, the later chanson de geste writers 
and the earlier embroiderers of the Arthurian' romances and romans 
d'avcntures. And this later contrast is all the more striking that 
Villehardouin agrees with, and not impossibly borrows from, these 
very writers in many points of style and phraseology. The brief 
chapters of his work have been justly compared to the laisses or 
tirades of a chanson in what may be called the vignetting of the 
subject of each, in the absence of any attempt to run on the narra- 
tive, in the stock forms, and in the poetical rather than prosaic 
word-order of the sentences. Undoubtedly this half-poetic style 
{animated as it is and redeemed from any charge of bastardy by the 
freshness and vigour which pervade it) adds not a little to the 
charm of the book. Its succession of word pictures, conventional 
and yet vigorous as the illuminations of a medieval manuscript, 
and in their very conventionality free from all thought of literary 
presentation, must charm all readers. The sober lists of names 
with which it opens; the account of the embassy, so business-like 
in its eiti males of costs and terms, and suddenly breaking into 
a fervent description of how the six deputies, " prostrating them- 
selves on the earth and weeping warm tears, begged the doge and 
people of Venice to have pity on Jerusalem " ; the story immediately 
following, how the young count Thibault of Champagne, raising 
himself from a sickbed in his joy at the successful return of his 
ambassadors, " leva sus et chcvaucha, et laz! com grant do mages, 
car onques puis ne chevaucha que cele foiz," compose a most striking 
overture. Then the history relapses into the business vein and tells 
of the debates which took place as to the best means of carrying 
out the vow after the count's decease, the rendezvous, too ill kept 
at Venice, the plausible suggestion of the Venetians that the balance 
due to them should be made up by a joint attack on their enemy, 
the king of Hungary. Villehardouin does not in the least conceal 
the fact that the pope (" I'apostoilles de Rome," as he calls him, 
in the very phrase of the chansons) was very angry with this; 
for his own part he seems to think of little or nothing but the 
reparation due to the republic, which had loyally kept its bargain 
and been defrauded of the price, of the infamy of breaking company 
on the part of members of a joint association, and perhaps of the 
unknightliness of not taking up an adventure whenever it presents 
itself. For here again the restoration of the disinherited prince of 
Constantinople supplied an excuse quite as plausible as the liquida- 
tiun of the debt to Venice. A famous passage, and one short enough 
to quote, is that describing the old blind doge Dandolo, who had 
" Grant ochoison de remanoir (reason for staying at home), car viels 
horn ere, et si avoit les yaulx en la teste biaus et n'en veoit gote 
(goutte)," and yet was the foremost in fight. 

It would be out of place to attempt any further analysis of the 
Conquele here. But it is not impertinent, and is at the same time 
an excuse for what has been already said, to repeat that Villehaf- 
douin's book, brief as it is, is in reality one of the capital books of 
literature, not merely for its merit, but because it is the most 
authentic and the most striking embodiment in contemporary 
literature of the sentiments which determined the action of a great 
and important period of history. There are but very few books 
which hold this position, and Villehardouin's is one of them. If 
even.' other contemporary record of the crusades perished, we should 
still be able by aid of this to understand and realize what the 
mental attitude of crusaders, of Teutonic knights, and the rest was, 
and without this we should lack the earliest, the most undoubtedly 
genuine, and the most characteristic of all such records. The very 
inconsistency with which Villehardouin is chargeable, the absence 
of compunction with which he relates the changing of a sacred 
religious pilgrimage into something by no means unlike a mere 
filibustering raid on the great scale, add a charm to the book. For, 
religious as it is, it is entirely free from the very slightest touch of 
hypocrisy or indeed of self-consciousness of any kind. The famous 
description of the crusades, gesta Dei per Francos, was evidently to 
Villehardouin a plain matter-of-fact description, and it no more 
occurred to him to doubt the divine favour being extended to the 
expeditions against Alexius or 1'heodore than to doubt that it was 
shown to expeditions against Saracens and Turks. 

The person of Villehardouin reappears for us once, but once 
only, in the chronicle of his continuator, Henri de Valenciennes. 
There is a great gap in style, though none in subject, between 
the really poetical prose of the first historian of the fifth crusade 
and the Latin empire and the awkward mannerism (so awkward 
that it has been taken to represent a " disrhymed " verse 
chronicle) of his follower. But the much greater length at 
which Villehardouin appears on this one occasion shows us the 
restraint which he must have exercised in the passages which 
deal with himself in his own work. He again led the vanguard 

in the emperor Henry's expedition against Burilas the Bulgarian, 
and he is represented by the Valenciennes scribe as encouraging 
his sovereign to the attack in a long speech. Then he disappears 
altogether, with the exception of some brief and chiefly diplo- 
matic mentions. Du Cange discovered and quoted a deed of 
donation by him dated 1207, by which ccitain properties were 
devised to the churches of Notre Dame de Foissy and Notre 
Dame de Troyes, with the reservation of life interests to his 
daughters Alix and Damerones, and his sisters Emmeline and 
Haye, ah of whom appear to have embraced a monastic life. 
A letter addressed from the East to Blanche of Champagne is 
cited, and a papal record of 1.212 styles him still "marshal of 
Romania. " The next year this title passed to his son Erard; 
and 1213 is accordingly given as the date of his death, which, 
as there is no record or hint of his having returned to France, 
may be supposed to have happened at Messinople, wh ere also 
he must have written the Conquete. 

The book appears to have been known in the ages immediately 
succeeding his own; and, though there is no contemporary manu- 
script in existence, there are some half-dozen which appear to date 
from the end of the 13th or the course of the 14th century, while 
one at least appears to be a copy made from his own work in that 
spirit of unintelligent faithfulness which is much more valuable 
to posterity than more pragmatical editing. The first printed 
edition of the book, by a certain Blaise de Vigenere, dates from 
1585, is dedicated to the seigniory of Venice (Villehardouin, it should 
be said, has been accused of a rather unfair predilection for the 
Venetians), and speaks of either a part or the whole of the memoirs 
as having been printed twelve years earlier. Of this earlier copy 
nothing seems to be known. A better edition, founded on a Nether- 
landish MS., appeared at Lyons in 1601. But both these were 
completely antiquated by the great edition of Du Cange in 1657, 
wherein that learned writer employed all his knowledge, never 
since equalled, of the subject, but added a translation, or rather 
paraphrase, into modern French which is scarcely worthy either of 
himself or his author. Dom Brial gave a new edition from different 
MS. sources in 1823, and the book figures with different degrees of 
dependence on Du Cange and Brial in the collections of Petitot, 
Buchon, and Michaud and Poujoulat. All these, however, liave 
been superseded for the modern student by the editions of Natalis de 
Wailly (1872 and 1874), in which the text is critically edited from 
all the available MSS. and a new translation added, while there is a 
still later and rather handier one by E. Bouchet (2 vols., Paris, 1891)', 
which, however, rests mainly on N. de Wailly for text. The charm 
of Villehardouin can escape no reader; but lew readers will fail to 
derive some additional pleasure from the two essays which Sainte- 
Beuve devoted to him, reprinted in the ninth volume of the Cauteries 
du lundi. See also A. Debidour, Les Chraniqueurs (1888). There are 
English translations by T. Smith (1829), and (more literally) Sir 
F. T. Marzials (Everyman's Library, J908). (G. Sa.) 


SlSRAPHIN. Comte de (1773-1854), French statesman, was 
born at Toulouse on the 14th of April 1773 and educated for 
the navy. He joined the " Bayonnaisc " at Brest in July 
1788 and served in the West and East Indies. Arrested in 
the Isle of Bourbon under the Terror, he was set free by 
the revolution of Thermidor (July 1794). He acquired some 
property in the island, and married in 1799 the daughter 
of a great proprietor, M. Desbassyns de Richemont, whose 
estates he had managed. His apprenticeship to politics was 
served in the Colonial Assembly of Bourbon, where he fought 
successfully to preserve the colony from the consequences of 
perpetual interference from the authorities in Paris, -and .on 
the other hand to prevent local discontent from appealing to 
the English for protection. The arrival of General Decaen, 
sent out by Bonaparte in 1802, restored security to the island, 
and five years later Villele, who had now realized a large fortune, 
returned to France. He was mayor of his commune, and a 
member of the council of the Haute-Garonne under the Empire. 
At the restoration of 1814 he at once declared for royalist 
principles. He was mayor of Toulouse in 1814-15 and deputy 
for the Haute-Garonne in the " Chambrc Introuvable " of 1815. 
Villele, who before the promulgation of the charter had written 
some Observations sur le projet de constitution opposing it, as 
too democratic in character, naturally took his place, on the 
extreme right with the ultra-royalists. In the new Chamber 
of 1816 Villdle found his party in a minority, but his personal 
authority nevertheless increased. He was looked on by the 



ministerialists as the least unreasonable of his party, and by 
the " ultras " as the safest of their leaders. Under the 
electoral law of 1817 the Abbe Gregoire, who was popularly 
supposed to have voted for the death of Louis XVI. in the 
Convention, was admitted to the Chamber of Deputies. The 
Conservative party gained strength from the alarm raised by 
this incident and still more from the shock caused by the 
assassination of the due de Berri. The due de Richelieu was 
compelled to admit to the cabinet two of the crrefs of the Left, 
Villele and Corbiere. Villele resigned within a year, but on 
the fall of Richelieu at the end of 1821 he became the real chief 
of the new cabinet, in which he was minister of finance. 
Although not himself a courtier, he was backed at court by 
Sosthenes de la Rochefoucauld and Madame du Cayla, and in 
1822 Louis XVIII. gave him the title of count and made him 
formally prime minister. He immediately proceeded to muzzle 
opposition by stringent press laws, and the discovery of minor 
liberal conspiracies afforded an excuse for further repression. 
Forced against his will into interference in Spain by Mathieu 
de Montmorency and Chateaubriand, he contrived to reap 
some credit for tbe monarchy from the successful campaign 
of 1823. Meanwhile he had consolidated the royal power by 
persuading Louis XVIII. to swamp the liberal majority in 
the upper house by the nomination of twenty-seven new peers; 
he availed himself of the temporary popularity of the monarchy 
after the Spanish campaign to summon a new Chamber of 
Deputies. This new and obedient legislature, to which only 
nineteen liberals were returned, made itself into a septennial 
parliament, thus providing time, it was thought, to restore 
some part of the ancien regime. Villele's plans were assisted 
by the death of Louis XVIII. and the accession of his bigoted 
brother. Prudent financial administration since 1815 had made 
possible the conversion of the state bonds from 5 to 4%. It 
was proposed to utilize the money set free by this operation 
to indemnify by a milliard francs the emigres for the loss of their 
lands at the Revolution; it was also proposed to restore their 
former privileges to tbe religious congregations. Both these 
propositions were, with some restrictions, secured. Sacrilege 
was made a crime punishable by death, and the ministry were 
preparing a law to alter the law of equal inheritance, and thus 
create anew the great estates. These measures roused violent 
opposition in the country, which a new and stringent press 
law, nicknamed the "law of justice and love," failed to put 
down. The peers rejected the law of inheritance and the press 
law; it was found necessary to disband tbe National Guard; 
and in November 1827 seventy-six new peers were created, and 
recourse was had to a general election. The new Chamber proved 
hostile to Villele, who resigned to make way for the thort-lived 
moderate ministry of Martignac. 

The new ministry made Villele's removal to the upper house 
a condition of taking office, and he took no further part in 
public affairs. At the time of his death, on the 13th of March 
1854, he had advanced as far as 1816 with his memoirs, which 
were completed from his correspondence by his family as 
Mfmoires et correspondance du comte de Villele (Paris, 5 vols., 
1 83 7-90). 

See also C. de Mazade, IS Op position royalisle (Paris, 1894); J. G. 
Hyde de Neuville. Notice sur le comte de Villele (Paris, 1899); and 
M. Chotard, " L'CEuvre fmancifere de M. de Villele," in Annates des 
sciences politiques (vol. v., 1890). 

VILLEMAIN, ABEL FRANCOIS (1790-1867), French politician 
and man of letters, was born in Paris on the 9th of June 1790. 
He was educated at the lycee Lou is -le- Grand, and became 
assistant master at the lycee Charlemagne, and subsequently 
at the £cole Normale. In 181 2 he gained a prize from the 
Academy with an eloge on Montaigne. Under the restoration 
he was appointed, first, assistant professor of modern history, 
and then professor of French eloquence at the Sorbonne. Here 
he delivered a series of literary lectures which had an extra- 
ordinary effect on his younger contemporaries. Villemain had 
the great advantage of coming just before the Romantic move- 
ment, of having a wide and catholic love of literature without 

being an extremist. All, or almost all, the clever young men 
of the brilliant generation of 1830 passed under his influence; 
and, while he pleased the Romanticists by his frank apprecia- 
tion of the beauties of English, German, Italian and Spanish 
poetry, he had not the least inclination to decry the classics — 
either the classics proper of Greece and Rome or the so-called 
classics of France. In 1819 he published a book on Cromwell, 
and two years later he was elected to the Academy. Ville- 
main was appointed by the restoration government " chef de 
rimprimerie et de la libraine," a post involving a kind of 
irregular censorship of the press, and afterwards to the office 
of master of requests. Before the revolution of July he had 
been deprived of his office for his liberal tendencies, and had 
been elected deputy for fivreux. Under Louis Philippe he re- 
ceived a peerage in 1832. He was a member of the council of 
public instruction, and was twice minister of that department, 
and he also became secretary of the Academy. During the 
whole of the July monarchy he was thus one of the chief dis- 
pensers of literary patronage in France, but in his later years 
his reputation declined. He died in Paris on the 8th of May 

Villemain 's chief work is his Cours de la Htterature francaise (5 vols., 
1828-29). Among his other works are: Tableau de la litter aturedu 
moyen dge (2 vols., 1846); Tableau de la Htterature au XVIIP 
siecle (4 vols., 1864); Souvenirs contemporains (2 vols., 1856) ; 
Histoire de Gregoire VII. (2 vols,, 1873; Eng. trans.. 1874). 

Among notices on Villemain may be cited that of Louis de Lomenie 
(1841), E. Mirecourt (1858), J. L. Dubut (1875). See also Sainte- 
Beuve, Portraits (1841, vol. iii.), and Causeries du lundi (vol. xi. 
" Notes et pens£es "). 

VILLENA, ENRIQUE DE (1384-1434), Spanish author, was 
born in 1384. Through his grandfather, Alphonso de Aragon, 
count de Denia y Ribagorza, he traced his descent from Jaime II. 
of Aragon and Blanche of Naples. He is commonly known 
as the marquess de Villena; but, although a marquessate was 
at one time in the family, the title was revoked and annulled 
by Henry III. Villena's father, Don Pedro de Villena, was 
killed at Aljubarrota; the boy was educated by his grand- 
father, showed great capacity for learning and was reputed 
to be a wizard. About 1402 he married Maria de Albornoz, 
sefiora del Infantado, who speedily became the recognized 
mistress of Henry III.; the complaisant husband was rewarded 
by being appointed master of the military order of Calatrava 
in 1404, but on the death of Henry at the end of 1406 the knights 
of the order refused to accept the nomination, which, after a 
long contest, was rescinded in 1415. He was present at the 
coronation of Ferdinand of Aragon at Saragossa in 1414, retired 
to Valencia till 1417, when he moved to Castile to claim com- 
pensation for the loss of his mastership. He obtained in return 
the lordship (senorio) of Miesta, and, conscious of his unsuita- 
hility for warfare or political life, dedicated himself to literature. 
He died of fever at Madrid on the 15th of December 1434. 
He is represented by a fragment of his Arte de irobar (1414), 
an indigestible treatise composed for the Barcelona Consistory 
of Gay Science; by Los Trabajos de Hercules (1417), a pedantic 
and unreadable allegory; by his Tratado de la Consolacidn 
and his handbook to the pleasures and fashions of the table, 
the Arte cisoria, both written in 1423; by a commentary on 
Psalm viii. ver. 4, which dates from 1424; by the Libro de 
Aojamiento (1425), a ponderous dissertation on the evil eye and 
its effects; and by a translation of the Aeneid, the first ever 
made, which was finished on the 10th of October 1428. His 
treatise on leprosy exists but has not been published. Villena's 
writings do not justify his extraordinary fame; his subjects 
are devoid of charm, and his style is so uncouth as to be almost 
unintelligible. Yet he has an assured place in the history of 
Spanish literature; he was a generous patron of letters, his 
translation of Virgil marks him out as a pioneer of the Re- 
naissance, and he set a splendid example of intellectual curiosity. 
Moreover, there is an abiding dramatic interest in the baffling 
personality of the solitary high-born student whom Lope de 
Vega introduces in Forjlar kasta morir, whom Ruiz de Alarcfin 
presents in La Cueva de Salamanca, and who reappears in the 



19th century in Larra's Macias and in Hartzenbusch's play 
La Redcma encantada. (J. F.-K.) 

VILLENA, a town of eastern Spain, in the province of Alicante; 
on the right bank of the river Vinalapo, and at the junction 
of railways from Valencia, Alicante, Albacete and Yecla. Pop. 
(1900) 14,099. Villena is a labyrinth of winding alleys, which 
contain some interesting examples of Moorish domestic archi- 
tecture. It is dominated by a large and picturesque Moorish 
castle. The surrounding hills are covered with vines, and to 
the east there is an extensive salt lagoon. Silk, linen, flour, 
wine, brandy, oil, salt and soap are the chief industrial products. 

VILLENAGE (Villainage, Villanage, Villeinage), a 
medieval term (from villa, villanus), pointing to serfdom, a 
condition of men intermediate between freedom and slavery. 
It occurs in France as well as in England, and was certainly im- 
norted into English speech through the medium of Norman 
French. The earliest instances of its use are to be found in the 
Latin and French versions of English documents in the nth 
and 1 2th centuries (cf. Domesday Book; Liebermann, Glossary 
to the Gesetze der Angelsachsen, s.v. villanus, vilain). The 
history of the word and of the condition is especially instructive 
in English usage. 

The materials for the formation of the villein class were 
already in existence in the Anglo-Saxon period. On the one 
hand, the Saxon ceorls (twihyndemen) , although considered as 
including the typical freemen in the earlier laws (^Ethelberht, 
Hlothhere and Edric, Ine), gradually became differentiated 
through the action of political and economic causes, and many 
of them had to recognize the patronage of magnates or to seek 
livelihood as tenants on the estates of the latter. These ceorls, 
silting on gafol-land, were, though personally free, considered 
as a lower order of men, and lapsed gradually into more or less 
oppressive subjection in respect of the great landowners. It is 
characteristic in this connexion that the West Saxon laws do 
not make any distinction between ceorls and laets or half- 
freemen as the Kentish laws had done: this means that the 
half-free people were, if not Welshmen, reckoned as, members 
of the ceorl class. Another remarkable indication of the decay 
of the ceorl's estate is afforded by the fact that in the treaties 
with the Danes the twihynde ceorls are equated with the Danish 
leysings or freedmen. It does not mean, of course, that their 
condition was practically the same, but in any case the fact 
testifies to the gulf which had come to separate the two principal 
subdivisions of the free class — the ceorl and the thane. The 
Latin version of the Rcctitudines Singularum Personarum, a 
document compiled probably in the nth century, not long 
before the Conquest, renders geneat (a peasant tenant of a 
superior kind performing lighter services than the gebur, as he 
was burdened with heavy week-work) by villanus; but the gebur 
came to be also considered as a villanus according to Anglo- 
Norman terminology. The group designated as geburs in 
Anglo-Saxon charters, though distinguished from mere slaves 
(thcow baerde-burbaerde, Kemble, Cod. Dipt. 1079), undoubtedly 
included many freedmen who in point of services and economic 
subjection were not very much above the slaves. Both ceorls 
and geburs disappear as separate classes, and it is clear that the 
greater part of them must have passed into the rank of villeins. 

In the terminology of the Domesday Inquest we find the 
villeins as the most numerous element of the English popula- 
tion. Out of about 240,000 households enumerated in Domes- 
day 1 00,000 are marked as belonging to villeins. They are 
rustics performing, as a rule, work services for their lords. But 
not all the inhabitants of the villages were designated by that 
name. Villeins are opposed to socmen and freemen on one 
hand, to bordarii, cottagers and slaves on the other. The 
distinction in regard to the first two of these groups was evi- 
dently derived from their greater freedom, although the differ- 
ence is only one in degree and not in kind. In fact, the villein 
is assumed to be a person free by birth, but holding land of 
which he cannot dispose freely. The distinction as against 
bordarii and cottagers is based 011 the size of the holding: the 
villeins are holders of regular shares in the village — that is, of the 

virgates, bovates or half-hides which constitute the principal 
subdivisions in the fields and contribute to form the plough- 
teams — whereas the bordarii hold smaller plots of some 5 acres, 
more or less, and coUarii are connected with mere cottages and 
crofts. Thus the terminology of Domesday takes note of two 
kinds of differences in the status of rustics: a legal one in con- 
nexion with the right to dispose of property in land, and an 
economic one reflecting the opposition between the holders of 
shares in the fields and the holders of auxiliary tenements. The 
feature of personal serfdom is also noticeable, but it provides a 
basis only for the comparatively small group of servi, of whom 
only about 25,000 arc enumerated in Domesday Book. The 
contrast between this exceptionally situated class and the rest 
of the population shows that personal slavery was rapidly dis- 
appearing in England about the time of the Conquest. It is also 
to be noticed that the Domesday Survey constantly mentions 
the terra vittanorum as opposed to the demesne in the estates or 
manors of the time, and that the land of the rustics is taxed 
separately for the geld, so that the distinction between the 
property of the lord and that of the peasant dependent on him is 
clearly marked and by no means devoid of practical importance. 
The Domesday Survey puts before us the state of things in 
England as it was at the very beginning of the Norman and 
at the close of the Saxon period. The development of feudal 
society, of centralizing kingship and ultimately of a system of 
common law, brought about great changes which all hinge on 
the fundamental fact that the kings, while increasing the power 
of the state in other respects, surrendered it completely as 
regards the relations between the peasants and their lords. 
The protection of the assizes was tendered in civil matters to 
free tenants and refused to villeins. The royal courts refused 
to entertain suits of villeins against their lords, although there 
was a good deal of vacillation before this position was definitely 
taken up. Bracton still speaks in his treatise of the possibility 
for the courts to interfere against intolerable cruelty on the part 
of the lord involving the destruction of the villein's waynage, 
that is, of his ploughteam, and in the Notebook of Bracton there 
are a couple of cases which prove that 13th-century judges 
occasionally allowed themselves to entertain actions by persons 
holding in villenage against their lords. Gradually, however, 
the exception of villenage became firmly settled. As the 
historical and practical position was developing on these lines 
the lawyers who fashioned English common law in the 12th and 
13th centuries did not hesitate to apply to it the teaching of 
Roman law on slavery. Bracton fits his definition of villenage 
into the Romanesque scheme of Azo's Summa of the Institutes, 
and the judges of the royal courts made sweeping inferences 
from this general position. To begin with, the relation between 
the villein and his lord was regarded as a personal and not a 
praedial one. Everyone born of villein stock belonged to his 
master and was bound to undertake any service which might be 
imposed on him by the master's or the steward's command. 
The distinction between villeins in gross and villeins regardant, 
of which much is made by modern writers, was suggested by 
modes of pleading and does not make its appearance in the 
Year-Books before the 15th century. Secondly, all independent 
proprietary rights were denied to the villein as against his lord, 
and the legal rule " quicquid servo acquiritur domino acquiri- 
tur " was extended to villeins. The fact that a great number 
of these serfs had been enjoying protection as free ceorls in 
former ages made itself felt, however, in three directions. (1) In 
criminal matters the villein was treated by the King's Court 
irrespectively of any consideration as to his debased condition. 
More especially the police association, organized for the keeping 
of the peace and the presentation of criminals — the frankpledge 
groups were formed of all " worthy of were and wite," villeins 
as well as freemen. (2) Politically the villeins were not elimin- 
ated from the body of citizens: they had to pay taxes, to serve 
in great emergencies in the militia, to serve on inquests, &c, 
and although there was a tendency to place them on a lower 
footing in all these respects yet the fact of their being lesser 
members of the commonwealth did not remove the fundamental 



qualification of citizenship. (3) Even in civil matters villeins 
were deemed free as regards third persons. They could sue 
and be sued in their own name, and although they were able 
to call in their lords as defendants when proceeded against, 
there was nothing in law to prevent them from appearing in 
their own right. The state even afforded them protection 
against extreme cruelty on the part of their masters in respect 
of life and limb, but in laying down this rule English lawyers 
were able to follow the precedents set by late Roman juris- 
prudence, especially by measures of Hadrian, Antonine and 
Constantine the Great. 

There was one exception to this harsh treatment of villeins, 
namely, the rustic tenantry in manors of ancient demesne, 
that is, in estates which had belonged to the crown before the 
Conquest, had a standing-ground even against their lords as 
regards the tenure of their plots and the fixity of their services. 
Technically this right was limited to the inhabitants of manors 
entered in the Domesday Survey as terra regis of Edward the 
Confessor. On the other hand the doctrine became effective 
if the manors in question had been granted by later kings to 
subjects, because- if they remained in the hand of the king the 
only remedy against ejectment and exaction lay in petitioning 
for redress without any definite right to the latter. If, however, 
the two conditions mentioned were forthcoming, villeins, or, as 
they were technically called, villein socmen of ancient demesne 
manors, could resist any attempt of their lords to encroach 
on their rights by depriving them of their holdings or increasing 
the amount of their customary services. Their remedy was to 
apply for a little writ of right in the first case and for a writ 
of monstraverunt in the second. These writs entitled them 
to appear as plaintiffs against the lord in his own manorial 
court and, eventually, to have the question at issue examined 
by way of appeal, on a writ of error, or by reservation on some 
legal points in the upper courts of the king. A number of cases 
arising from these privileges of the men of ancient demesne 
are published in the Notebook of Bracton and in the Abbreviatio 
placitorum. This exceptional procedure does not simply go 
back to the rule that persons who had been tenants of the king 
ought not to have their condition altered for the worse in con- 
sequence of a royal grant. If this were the only doctrine 
applicable in the case there would be no reason why similar 
protection should be denied to all those who held under grantees 
of manors escheated after the Conquest. A material point 
for the application of the privilege consists in the fact that 
ancient demesne has to be proved from the time before the 
Conquest, and this shows clearly that the theory was partly 
derived from the recognition of tenant right in villeins of the 
Anglo-Saxon period who, as we have said above, were mostly 
ceorls, that is, freeborn men. 

In view of the great difference in the legal position of the free 
man and of the villein in feudal common law, it became very 
important to define the exact nature of the conditions on which 
the status of a villein depended. The legal theory as to these 
conditions was somewhat complex, because it had to take 
account of certain practical considerations and of a rather 
abrupt transition from a previous state of things based on 
different premises. Of course, persons born from villein 
parents in lawful wedlock were villeins, but as to the condition 
of illegitimate children there was a good deal of hesitation. 
There was a tendency to apply the rule that a bastard follows 
the mother, especially in the case of a servile mother. In 
the case of mixed marriages, the condition of the child is 
determined by the free or villein condition of the tenement in 
which it was born. This notion of the influence of the tene- 
ment is well adapted to feudal notions and makes itself felt 
again in the case of the pursuit of a fugitive villein. He can 
be seized without further formalities if he is caught in his 
"' nest/' that is, in his native place. If not, the lord can follow 
him in fresh pursuit for four days; once these days past, the 
fugitive is maintained provisionally in possession of his liberty, 
and the lord has to bring an action de natho habendo and has to 
assume the burden of proof. 

So much as to the proof of villenage by birth or previous 
condition. But there were numbers of cases when the dis- 
cussion as to servile status turned not on these formal points 
but on an examination of the services performed by the person 
claimed as a villein or challenged as holding in villenage. In 
both cases the courts had often recourse to proof derived not 
from direct testimony but from indirect indications as to the 
kind of services that had been performed by the supposed 
villein. Certain services, especially the payment of fnerchel — 
the fine for marrying a daughter — were considered to be the 
badge of serfdom. Another service, the performance of which 
established a presumption as to villenage, was compulsory 
service as a reeve. The courts also tried to draw a distinction 
from the amount and regularity of agricultural services to 
which a tenant was subjected. Bracton speaks of the contrast 
between the irregular services of a serf, " who could not know 
in the evening what he would have to do in the morning," 
and services agreed upon and definite in their amount. The 
customary arrangements of the work of villeins, however, 
render this contrast rather fictitious. The obligations of down- 
right villeins became to that degree settled and regular that 
one of the ordinary designations of the class was custumarii. 
Therefore in most cases there were no arbitrary exactions 
to go by, except perhaps one or the other tallage imposed at 
the will of the lord. The original distinction seems to have 
been made not between arbitrary and agreed but between 
occasional services and regular agricultural week-work. While 
the occasional services, even when agricultural, in no way 
established a presumption of villenage, and many socmen, 
freemen and holders by serjeanty submitted to them, agri- 
cultural week-work was primarily considered as a trait of 
villenage and must have played an important paTt in the 
process of classification of early Norman society. The villein 
was in this sense emphatically the man holding " by the fork 
and the flail." 

This point brings us to consider the matter-of-fact conditions 
of the villeins during the feudal period, especially in the 12th, 
13th and t4th centuries. As is shown by the Hundred Rolls, 
the Domesday of St Paul, the Surveys of St Peter, Glouc, 
Glastonbury Abbey, Ramsey Abbey and countless other records 
of the same kind, the customary conditions of villenage did not 
tally by any means with the identification between villenage 
and slavery suggested by the jurists. It is true that in nomen- 
clature the word " servi " is not infrequently used (e.g. in the 
Hundred Rolls) where villani might have been mentioned, and 
the feminine nief (nativa) appears as the regular parallel of 
villanus, but in the descriptions of usages and services we find 
that the power of the lord loses its discretionary character and 
is in every respect moderated by custom. As personal depend- 
ents of the lord native villeins were liable to be sold, and we find 
actual sales recorded: Glastonbury Abbey e.g. sells a certain 
Philipp Hardyng for 20 shillings. But such transfers of human 
chattels occur seldom, and there is nothing during the English 
feudal period corresponding to the brisk trade in men character- 
istic of the ancient world. Mercliet was regarded, as has been 
stated already, as a badge of serfdom in so far as it was said 
to imply a " buying of one's own blood " (serms de sanguine 
sua emando). The explanation is even more characteristic 
than the custom itself, because fines on marriage may be 
levied and were actually levied from people of different con- 
dition, from the free as well as from the serf. Still the tendency 
to treat mtrchet as a distinctive feature of serfdom has to be 
noted, and we find that the custom spread for this very reason 
in consequence of the encroachments of powerful lords: in 
the Hundred Rolls it is applied indiscriminately to the whole 
rustic population of certain hundreds in a way which can 
hardly be explained unless by artificial extension. Heriot, 
the surrender of the best horse or ox, is also considered as the ■ 
common incident of villein tenure, although, of course, its very 
name proves its intimate connexion Tvith the outfit of soldiers 

Economically the institution of villenage was bound up 



with the manorial organization — that is, with the fact that the 
country was divided into a numbered" districts in which central 
home farms were cultivated by the help of work supplied by 
villein households. 

The most important of villein services is the week-work per- 
formed by the peasantry. Every virgater or holder of a bovate 
has to send a labourer to do work on the lord's faxm for some days 
in the week. Three days is indeed the most common standard 
for service of this kind, though four or even five occur sometimes; 
as well as two. It must be borne in mind in the case of heavy 
charges, such as four or five days' week-work, that only one 
labourer from the whole holding is meant, while generally there 
were several men living on every holding — otherwise the service 
of five days would be impossible to perform. In the course of 
these three days, or whatever the number was, many require- 
ments of the demesne had to be met. The principal of these 
was ploughing the fields belonging to the lord, and for such 
ploughing the peasant had not only to appear personally as a 
labourer, but to bring his oxen and plough, or rather to join with 
his oxen and plough in the work imposed on the village: the 
heavy, costly plough with a team of eight oxen had to be made up 
by several peasants contributing their beasts and implements 
towards its composition. In the same way the villagers had to 
go through the work of harrowing with their harrows, and of 
removing the harvest in their vans and carts. Carriage duties 
in carts and on horseback were also apportioned according to 
the time they took as a part of the week-work. Then came 
innumerable varieties of manual work for the erection and 
keeping up of hedges, the preservation of dykes, canals and 
ditches, the threshing and garnering of corn, the tending and 
shearing of sheep and so forth. All this hand-work was reckoned 
according to customary standards as day-work and week-work. 
But besides all these services into which the regular week-work 
of the peasantry was differentiated, stood some additional duties. 
The ploughing for the lord, for instance, was not only imposed 
in the shape of a certain number of days in the week, but took 
sometimes the shape of a certain number of acres which the 
village had to plough and to sow for the lord irrespectively 
of the time employed on it. This was sometimes termed 
gafolearth. Exceedingly burdensome services were required 
in the seasons when farming processes are, as it were, at their 
height — in the seasons of mowing and reaping, when every day 
is of special value and the working power of the farm hands is 
strained to the utmost. At that time it was the custom to call 
up the whole able-bodied population of the manor, with the 
exception of the housewives for two, three or more days of 
mowing and reaping on the lord's fields; to these boon-works 
the peasantry was asked or invited by special summons, and 
their value was so far appreciated that the villagers were 
usually treated to. meals in cases where they were again and 
again called off from their own fields to the demesne. The 
liberality of the lord actually went so far, in exceptionally hard 
straits, that some ale was served to the labourers to keep them in 
good humour. 

In the 14th century this social arrangement, based primarily 
on natural economy and on the feudal disruption of society , began 
to give way. The gradual spread of intercourse rendered un- 
necessary the natural husbandry of former times which sought 
to produce a complete set of £oods in every separate locality. 
Instead of acting as a little world by itself for the raising of corn, 
the breeding of cattle, the gathering of wool, the weaving of 
linen and common cloths, the fabrication of necessary imple- 
ments of all kinds, the local group began to buy some of these 
goods and to sell some others, renouncing isolation and making 
its destiny dependent on commercial intercourse. Instead of 
requiring from its population all kinds of work and reducing 
its ordinary occupations to a hard-and-fast routine meeting 
in a slow and unskilled manner all possible contingencies, the 
local group began to move, to call in workmen from abroad for 
tasks of a special nature, and to send its own workmen to 
look out for profitable employment in other places. Instead 
of managing the land by the constant repetition of the same 

processes, by a customary immobility of tenure and service, by 
communalistic restrictions on private enterprise and will, local 
society began to try improvements, to escape from the bounds 
of champion farming. Instead of producing and collecting 
goods for immediate consumption, local society came more and 
more into the habit of exchanging corn, cattle, cloth, for money, 
and of laying money by as a means of getting all sorts of 
exchangeable goods, when required. In a word, the time of 
commercial, contractual, cash intercourse was coming fast. What 
was exceptional and subsidiary in feudal times came to obtain 
general recognition in the course of the 14th and 15th centuries, 
and, for this very reason, assumed a very different aspect. 
A similar transformation took place in regard to government. 
The local monarchy of the manorial lords was fast giving way to 
a central power which maintained its laws, the circuits of its 
judges, the fiscal claims of its exchequer, the police interference 
of its civil officers all through the country, and, by prevailing 
over the franchises of manorial lords, gave shape to a vast 
dominion of legal equality and legal protection, in which the 
forces of commercial exchange, of contract, of social intercourse, 
found a ready and welcome sphere of action. In truth both 
processes, the economic and the political one, worked so much 
together that it is hardly possible to say which influenced 
the other more, which was the cause and which the effect. 
Government grew strong because it could draw on a society 
which was going ahead in enterprise and well-being; social 
intercourse progressed because it could depend on a strong 
government to safeguard it. 

If we now turn to the actual stages by which this momentous 
passage from the manorial to the commercial arrangement was 
achieved, we have to notice first of all a rapid development of 
contractual relations. We know that in feudal law there ran a 
standing contrast between tenure by custom— villein tenure — and 
tenure by contract — free tenure. While the manorial system was 
in full force this contrast led to a classification of holdings and 
affected the whole position of people on the land. Still, even at 
that time it might happen that a freeholder owned some land 
in villenage by the side of his free tenement, and that a villein 
held some land freely by agreement with his lord or with a 
third person. But these cases, though by no means infrequent, 
were still' exceptional. As a rule people used land as holdings, 
and those were rigidly classified as villein or free tenements. The 
interesting point to be noticed is that, without any formal break, 
leasing land for life and for term of years is seen to be rapidly 
spreading from the end of the 13th century, and numberless small 
tenancies are created in the 14th century which break up the 
disposition of the holdings. From the close of the 13th century 
downwards countless transactions on the basis of leases for .terms 
of years occur between the peasants themselves, any isuit- 
ably kept set of 14th-century court rolls containing entries in 
which such and such a villein is said to appear in the halimolt 
and to surrender for the use of another person named a piece of 
land belonging to the holding. The number of years and the 
conditions of payment are specified. Thus; behind the screen of 
the normal shares a number of small tenancies arise which run 
their economic concerns independently from the cumbersome 
arrangements of tenure and service; and, needless to add,, all these 
tenancies are burdened with money rents. 

Another series of momentous changes took place in the 
arrangement of services. Even the manorial system admitted 
the buying off for money of particular dues in kind and of 
specific performance of work. A villein might be allowed 
to bring a penny instead of bringing a chicken or to pay a rent 
instead of appearing with his oxen three times a week on the 
lord's fields. Such rents were called mai or mail in contrast 
with the gafol, ancient rents which had been imposed inde-> 
pendently , apart from any buying off of customary services. 
There were even whole bodies of peasants called Molmen, because 
they had bought off work from the lord by settling with him 
on the basis of money rents. As time went on these practices 
oi commutation became more and more frequent. There were, 
for both sides, many advantages in arranging their mutual 

8 4 


relations on this basis. The lord, instead of clumsy work, got 
clear money, a much-coveted means of satisfying needs and 
wishes of any kind — instead of cumbrous performances which 
did not come always at the proper moment, were carried out 
in a half-hearted manner, yielded no immediate results, and 
did not admit of convenient rearrangement. The peasant got 
rid of a hateful drudgery which not only took up his time and 
means in an unprofitable manner, but placed him under the 
rough control and the arbitrary discipline of stewards or reeves 
and gave occasion to all sorts of fines and extortions. 

With the growth of intercourse and security money became 
more frequent and the number of such transactions increased 
in proportion. But it must be kept in mind that the con- 
version of services into rents went on very gradually, as a 
series of private agreements, and that it would be very wrong 
to suppose, as some scholars have done, that it had led to a 
general commutation by the middle or even the end of the 
14th century. The 14th century was marked by violent fluctua- 
tions in the demand and supply of labour, and particularly 
the tremendous loss in population occasioned in the middle of 
this century by the Black Death called forth a most serious 
crisis. No wonder that many lords clung very tenaciously 
to customary services, and ecclesiastical institutions seem to 
have been especially backward in going over to the system of 
money rents. There is evidence to show, for instance, that 
the manors of the abbey of Ramsey were managed on the 
system of enforced labour right down to the middle of the 
15th century, and, of course, survivals of these customs in the 
shape of scattered services lived on much longer. A second 
drawback from the point of view of the landloids was called 
forth by the fact that commutation for fixed rents gradually 
lessened the value of the exactions to which they were entitled. 
Money not only became less scarce but it became cheaper, 
so that the couple of peace for which a day of manual work 
was bought off in the beginning of the 13th century did not 
fetch more than half of their former value at its end. As quit 
rents were customary and not rack rents, the successors of 
those who had redeemed their services were gaining the whole 
surplus in the value of goods and labour as against money, 
while the successors of those who had commuted their right 
to claim services for certain sums in money lost all the 
corresponding difference. These inevitable consequences came 
to be perceived in course of time and occasioned a backward 
tendency towards services in kind which could not prevail 
against the general movement from natural economy to money 
dealings, but was strong enough to produce social friction and 
grave disturbances. 

The economic crisis of the 14th century has its complement 
in the legal crisis of the 15th. At that time the courts of 
law begin to do away with the denial of protection to villeins 
which, as we have seen, constituted the legal basis of villenage. 
This is effected by the recognition of copyhold tenure (see 

It is a fact of first-rate magnitude that in the 15th century 
customary relations on one hand, the power of government 
on the other, ripened, as it were, to that extent that the judges 
of the king began to take cognizance of the relations of the 
peasants to their lords. The first cases which occur in this 
sense are still treated not as a matter of common law, but as a 
manifestation of equity. As doubtful questions of trust, of 
wardship, of testamentary succession, they were taken up not 
in the strict course of justice, but as matters in which redress 
was sorely needed and had to be brought by the exceptional 
power of the court of chancery. But this interference of 
15th-century chancellors paved the way towards one of the 
greatest revolutions in the law; without formally enfranchising 
villeins and villein tenure they created a legal basis for it in 
the law of the realm: in the formula of copyhold — tenement 
held at the will of the lord and by the custom of the manor — the 
first pan lost its significance and the second prevailed, in down- 
right contrast with former times when, on the contrary, the 
second part had no legal value and the first expressed the view 

of the courts. One may almost be tempted to say that these 
obscure decisions rendered unnecessary in England the work 
achieved with such a flourish of trumpets in France by the 
emancipating decree of the 4th of August 1789. 

The personal condition of villenage did not, however, dis- 
appear at once with the rise of copyhold. It lingered through 
the 16th century and appears exceptionally even in the 17th. 
Deeds of emancipation and payments for personal enfranchise- 
ment are often noticed at that very time. But these are 
only survivals of an arrangement which has been destroyed in 
its essence by a complete change of economic and political 

Bibliography. — P. Vinogradoff, Villainage in England (Oxford, 
1892); Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law (1895), book ii. 
c. i. §§ 5, 12, 13; F. W. Maitland, Domesday and Beyond (1897), 
Essay I. §§ 2, 3, 4; F. Secbohm, The English Village Community 
(1883); W. S. Holdsworth, History of English Law, iii. (1909); 
P. Vinogradoff, Growth of the Manor (1905) ; P. Vinogradoff, English 
Society in the Kith Century (1908) ; A. Savine in the English Historical 
Review, xvii. (1902); A. Savine in the Economic Quarterly Review 
(1904); A. Savine, " Bondmen under the Tudors," in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Historical Society, xvii. (1903). (P. Vi.) 

VESTRE (1763-1806), French admiral, was born at Valensoles in 
Provence on the 31st of December 1763. He entered the French 
royal navy as a " garde du Pavilion. 5 ' Although he belonged to 
the corps of " noble " officers, who were the object of peculiar 
animosity to the Jacobins, he escaped the fate of the majority 
of his comrades, which was to be massacred, or driven into exile. 
He sympathized sincerely with the general aims of the Revolu- 
tion, and had a full share of the Provencal fluency which enabled 
him to make a timely and impressive display of " civic " 
sentiments. In the dearth of trained officers he rose with what 
for the French navy was exceptional rapidity, though it would 
have caused no surprise in England in the case of an officer who 
had good interest. He was named post-captain in 1793, and 
rear-admiral in 1796. At the close of the year he was appointed 
to take part in the unsuccessful expedition to Ireland which 
reached Bantry Bay, but the ships which were to have come to 
Brest from Toulon with him arrived too late, and were forced 
to take refuge at L'Orient. He accompanied the expedition to 
Egypt, with his flag in the " Guillaume Tell " (86). She was 
the third ship from the rear of the French line at the battle of 
the Nile, and escaped from the general destruction in company 
with the " Gcnereux " (7S). Villeneuve reached Malta on the 
23rd of August. His conduct was severely blamed, and he 
defended himself by a specious letter to his colleague Blanquet- 
Duchayla on the 12th of November 1800, w r hen he had returned 
to Paris. At the time, Napoleon approved of his action. In a 
letter written to him on the 21st of August 1798, three weeks 
after the battle, Napoleon says that the only reproach Villeneuve 
had to make against himself was that he had not retreated 
sooner, since the position taken by the French commander-in- 
chief had been forced and surrounded. When, however, the 
emperor after his fall dictated his account of the expedition to 
Egypt to General Bertrand at St Helena, he attributed the 
defeat at the Nile largely to the " bad conduct of Admiral 
Villeneuve." In the interval Villeneuve had failed in the exe- 
cution of the complicated scheme for the invasion of England 
in 1805. Napoleon must still have believed in the admiral's 
capacity and good fortune, a qualification for which he had a 
great regard, when he selected him to succeed Latouche Treville 
upon his death at Toulon in August 1804. The duty of the 
Toulon squadron was to draw Nelson to the West Indies, return 
rapidly, and in combination with other French and Spanish 
ships, to enter the Channel with an overwhelming force. It is 
quite obvious that Villeneuve had from the first no confidence 
in the success of an operation requiring for its execution an 
amazing combination of good luck and efficiency on the part of 
the squadrons concerned. He knew that the French were net 
efficient, and that their Spanish allies were in a far worse state 
than themselves. It required a very tart order from Napoleon 
to drive him out of Paris in October 1804. He took the 



command in November. On the 17th of January 1805 he left 
Toulon for the first time, but was driven back by a squall which 
dismasted some of his awkwardly handled ships. On the 3rd of 
March he was out again, and this time he headed Nelson by 
some weeks on a cruise to the West Indies. But Villcneuve's 
success so far had not removed his fears. Though on taking 
up his command he had issued an order of the day in which he 
spoke boldly enough of the purpose of his cruise, and his de- 
termination to adhere to it, he was racked by fears of what 
might happen to the force entrusted to his care. For the 
details of the campaign see Trafalgar. In so far as the 
biography of Villeneuve is concerned, his behaviour during 
these trying months cannot escape condemnation. He had 
undertaken to carry out a plan of which he did not approve. 
Since he had not declined the task altogether, it was clearly his 
duty to execute his orders at all hazards. If he was defeated, 
as he almost certainly would have been, he could have left the 
responsibility for the disaster to rest on the shoulders of Napoleon 
who assigned him the task. But Villeneuve could not free him- 
self from the conviction that it was his business to save his fleet 
even if he ruined the emperor's plan of invasion. Thus after 
he returned to- Europe and fought his confused action with 
Sir R. Calder oft" Ferrol on the 22nd of July 1805, he first hesi- 
tated, and then, in spite of vehement orders to come on, turned 
south to Cadiz. Napoleon's habit of suggesting alternative 
courses to his lieutenants gave him a vague appearance of excuse 
for making for that port. But it was one which only a very 
weak man would have availed himself of, for all his instructions 
ought to have been read subject to the standing injunction to 
come on to the Channel — and in turning south to Cadiz, he was 
going in the opposite direction. His decision to leave Cadiz 
and give battle in October 1805, which led directly to the battle 
of Trafalgar, cannot be justified even on his own principles. He 
foresaw defeat to be inevitable, and yet he went out solely 
because he learnt from the Minister of Marine that another 
officer had been sent to supersede him. In fact* he ran to meet 
the very destruction he had tried to avoid. No worse fate 
would have befallen him in the Channel than came upon him at 
Trafalgar, but it might have been incurred in a manly attempt 
to obey his orders. It was provoked in a spasm of wounded 
vanity. At Trafalgar he showed personal courage, but the 
helpless incapacity of the allies to manoeuvre gave him no 
opportunity to influence the course of the battle. He was taken 
as a prisoner to England, but was soon released. Shortly after 
landing in France he committed suicide in an inn at Rennes, on 
the 22nd of April 1806. Among the other improbable crimes 
attributed to Napoleon by the fear and hatred of Europe, was 
the murder of Villeneuve, but there is not the faintest reason to 
doubt that the admiral died by his own hand. 

The correspondence of Napoleon contains many references to 
Villeneuve. Accounts of the naval operations in which he was 
concerned will be found in James's Naval History. Troudc, in his 
Batailles navales de la France, vol. in., publishes several of his letters 
and orders of the day. (D. H.) 

VILLENEUVE-LfiS-AVIGNON, a town of south-eastern 
France, in the department of Gard on the right bank of the 
Rhone opposite Avignon, with which it is connected by a 
suspension bridge. Pop. (1906) 2582. Villeneuve preserves 
many remains of its medieval importance. The church of 
Notre Dame, dating from the 14th century, contains a rich marble 
altar and remarkable pictures. The hospice, once a Franciscan 
convent, part of which is occupied by a museum of pictures and 
antiquities, has a chapel in which is the fine tomb of Innocent 
VI. (d. 1362). The church and other remains of the Carthusian 
monastery of Val-de-Benediction, founded in 1356 by Innocent 
VI., are now used for habitation and other secular purposes. A 
gateway and a rotunda, built as shelter for a fountain, both 
dating from about 1670, are of architectural note. On the Mont 
Andaon, a hill to the north-east of the town, stands the Fort of 
St Andre (14th century), which is entered by an imposing 
fortified gateway and contains a Romanesque chapel and 
remains of the abbey of St Andrg. The other buildings of 

interest include several old mansions once belonging to cardinals 
and nobles, and a tower, the Tour de Philippe le Bel, built in the 
14th century, which guarded the western extremity of the Pont 
St Benezet (see Avignon). 

In the 6th century the Benedictine abbey of St Andre was 
founded on Mount Andaon, and the village which grew up round 
it took its name. In the 13th century the monks, acting in 
concert with the crown, established a bastide, or " new town," 
which came to be called Villeneuve. The town was the resort 
of the French cardinals during the sojourn of the popes at 
Avignon, and its importance, due largely to its numerous re- 
ligious establishments, did not decline till the Revolution. 

VILLENEUVE-SUR-LOT, a town of south-western France, 
capital of an arrondisscmcrit in the department of Lot-et-Garonne, 
22 m. N. by E. of Agen on a branch line of the Orleans railway. 
Pop. (1906) town, 6078; commune, 13,540. Villeneuve is 
divided into two unequal portions by the river Lot, which here 
runs between high banks. The chief quarter stands on the 
right bank and is united to the quarter on the left bank by a 
bridge of the 13th century, the principal arch of which, con- 
structed in the reign of Louis XIII. in place of two older arches, 
has a span of 118 ft. and a height of 59 ft. On the left bank 
portions of the 13th century ramparts, altered and surmounted 
by machicolations in the 1 5th century, remain, and high 
square towers rise above the gates to the north-east and south- 
west, known respectively as the Porte de Paris and Porte de 
Pujols. On the right bank boulevards have for the most part 
taken the place of the ramparts. Arcades of the 13th century 
surround the Place La Fayette, and old houses of the 13th, 
14th and 15th centuries are to be seen in various parts of the 
town. The church of St "fitienne is in late Gothic style. On 
the left bank of the Lot, 2 m. S.S.W. of Villeneuve, are the 
13th-century walls of Pujols, The buildings of the ancient 
abbey of Eysses, about a mile to the N.E., which are mainly of 
the 17th century, serve as a departmental prison and peni- 
tentiary settlement. The principal hospital, the hospice St 
Cyr, is a handsome building standing in beautiful gardens. 
Villeneuve has a sub-prefecture, tribunals of first instance and 
of commerce and communal colleges for both sexes. It is an 
important agricultural centre and has a very large trade in 
plums {prunes d'ente) and in the produce of the market gardens 
which surround it, as well as in cattle, horses and wine. The 
preparation of preserved plums and the tinning of peas and 
beans occupy many hands; there are also manufactures of 
boots and shoes and tin boxes. The important mill of Gajac 
stands on the bank of the Lot a little above the town. 

Villeneuve was founded in 1254 by Alphonse, count of 
Poitiers, brother of Louis IX., on the site of the town of 
Gajac, which had been deserted during the Albigensian crusade. 

French soldier, came of a noble family which had risen into 
prominence in the reign of Charles IX, His father Nicolas 
de Neufville, Marquis de Villeroi, marshal of France (1598-1685), 
created a duke by Louis XIV., was the young king's governor, 
and the boy was thus brought up in close relations with Louis. 
An intimate of the king, a finished courtier and leader of society 
and a man of great personal gallantry, Villeroi was marked 
out for advancement in the army, which he loved, but which 
had always a juster appreciation of his incapacity than Louis. 
In 1693, without having exercised any really important and 
responsible command, he was made a marshal. In 1695, when 
Luxembourg died, he obtained the command of the army in 
Flanders, and William III. found him a far more complaisant 
opponent than the "little hunchback." In 1701 he was sent 
to Italy to supersede Catinat and was soon beaten by the inferior 
army of Eugene at Chiari (see Spanish Succession War)'. In 
the winter of 1701 he was made prisoner at the surprise of 
Cremona, and the wits of the army made at his expense the 
famous rhyme: 

" Par la faveur de Bellone, et par un bonheur sans 6gal, 
Nous avons conserve" Cremone — et perdu notre general." 

In the following years he was pitted against Marlborough in 



the Low Countries. Marlborough's own difficulties with the 
Dutch and other allied commissioners, rather than Villeroi's 
own skill, put off. the inevitable disaster for some years, but 
in 1706 the duke attacked him and thoroughly defeated him 
at Ramillies (q.v.). Louis consoled his old friend with the 
remark, " At our age, one is no longer lucky," but superseded 
him in the command, and henceforward Villeroi lived the life 
of a courtier, much busied with intrigues but retaining to the 
end the friendship of his master. He died on the 18th of 
July 1730 at Paris. 

VILLERS LA VILLE, a town of Belgium in the province of 
Brabant, 2 m. E. of Quatre Bras, with a station on the direct 
line from Louvain to Charleroi. Pop. (roo4) 1166. It is 
chiefly interesting on account of the fine ruins of the Cistercian 
abbey of Villers founded in 1147 and destroyed by the French 
republicans in 1795. In the ruined church attached to the 
abbey are still to be seen the tombstones of several dukes of 
Brabant of the 13th and 14th centuries. 
VILLETTE, CHARLES, Marquis de (1 736-1 793), French 
writer and politician, was born in Faris on the 4th of December 
1736, the son of a financier who left him a large fortune and 
the title of marquis. After taking part in the Seven Years' 
War, young Villette returned in 1763 to Paris, where he made 
many enemies by his insufferable manners. But he succeeded 
in gaining the intimacy of Voltaire, who had known his mother 
and who wished to make a poet of him. The old philosopher 
even went so far as to call his protege the French Tibullus. In 
1777, on Voltaire's advice, Villette married Mademoiselle de 
Varicourt, but the marriage was unhappy, and his wife was 
subsequently adopted by Voltaire's niece, Madame Denis. 
During the Revolution Villette publicly burned his letters of 
nobility, wrote revolutionary articles in the Chronique de 
Paris, and was elected deputy to the Convention by the 
department of Seine-et-Oise. He had the courage to censure 
the September massacres and to vote for the imprisonment 
only, and not for the death, of Louis XVI. He died in Paris 
on the 7th of July 1793. 

In 1784 he published his (Euvres, which are of little value, and in 
1792 his articles in the Chronique de Paris appeared in book form 
under the title Lettres choisies sur les principaux entitlements de la 

VILLIERS, CHARLES PELHAM (1802-1898), English states- 
man, son of George Villiers, grandson of the 1st carl of Clarendon 
of the second (Villiers) creation, and brother of the 4th earl 
(<7.r.), was born in London on the 3rd of January 1802, and 
educated at St John's College, Cambridge. He read for the 
bar at Lincoln's Inn, and became an associate of the Bentha- 
mites and " philosophical radicals " of the day. He was an 
assistant commissioner to the Poor Law Commission (1832), 
and in 1833 was made by the master of the Rolls, whose secretary 
he had been, a chancery examiner of witnesses, holding this 
office till 1852. In 1835 he was elected M.P. for Wolverhampton, 
and retained his seat till his death. He was the pioneer of the 
free-trade movement, and became prominent with Cobden and 
Bright as one of its chief supporters, being indefatigable in 
pressing the need for free trade on the House of Commons, by 
resolution and by petition. After free trade triumphed in 1846 
his importance in politics became rather historical than actual, 
especially as he advanced to a venerable old age; but he was 
president of the Poor Law Board, with a seat in the Cabinet, 
from 1859 to 1866, and he did other useful work in the Liberal 
reforms of the time. Like Bright, he parted from Mr Gladstone 
on Home Rule for Ireland. He attended parliament for the 
last time in 1895, and died on the 16th of January r898. 

MATHIAS, Comte de (1838-1889), French poet, was born 
at St Brieuc in Brittany and baptized on the 28th of November 
1838. He may be said to have inaugurated the Symbolist 
movement in French literature, and Axel, the play on which 
he was engaged during so much of his life, though it was only 
published after his death, is the typical Symbolist drama. He 
began with a volume of Premieres Patsies (1856-58). This was 

followed by a wild romance of the supernatural, Isis (1862), 
and by two plays in prose, Elen (1866) and Morgane (1866). 
La Revolte, a play in which Ibsen's Doll's House seems to be 
anticipated, was represented at the Vaudeville in 1870; Contes 
cruels, his finest volume of short stories, in 1883, and a new 
series in 1889; Le Nouveau Monde, a drama in five acts, in 1880; 
L'&ve future, an amazing piece of buffoonery satirizing the 
pretensions of science, in 1886; Tribulat Bonhomet in 1887; 
Le Secret de I'ichafaud in 1888; Axel in 1890. He died in Paris, 
under the care of the Freres Saint-Jean-de-Dieu, on the 19th 
of August 1889. Villiers has left behind him a legend probably 
not more fantastic than the truth. Sharing many of the 
opinions of Don Quixote, he shared also Don Quixote's life. 
He was the descendant of a Grand Master of the Knights of 
Malta, famous in history, and his pride as an aristocrat and 
as an idealist were equal. He hated mediocrity, science, prog- 
ress, the present age, money and " serious " people. In one 
division of his work he attacked all the things which he hated 
with a savage irony; in another division of his work be dis- 
covered at least -some glimpses of the ideal world. He remains 
a remarkable poet and a remarkable satirist, imperfect as both. 
He improvised out of an abundant genius, but the greater part 
of his work was no more than improvisation. He was ac- 
customed to talk his stories before he wrote them. Sometimes 
he talked them instead of writing them. But he has left, at 
all events, the Contes cruels, in which may be found every 
classic quality of the French conte, together with many of the 
qualities of Edgar Allan Poe and Ernst Hoffman ; and the 
drama of Axel, in which the stage takes a new splendour and a 
new subtlety of meaning. Villiers's influence on the younger 
French writers was considerable. It was always an exaltation. 
No one in his time followed a literary ideal more romantically. 

(A. Sy.) 
See also R. du Pontavice de Heussey, Villiers de V Isle- Adam (1893), 
a biography, English trans. (1904) by Lady Mary Loyd ; ■ S. 
Mallarme 1 , Les Miens. Villiers de I Isle-Adam (1892) ; R. Martincau, 
Un vivant el deux morts (1901), bibliography. A selection from his 
stories, Histoires souveraines, was made by his friends (Brussels, 

VILLINGEN, a town of Germany in the grand duchy of 
Baden, pleasantly situated amid well-wooded hills, 52 m. by 
rail N. of Schaffhausen. Pop. (1905) 9582. It is in part still 
surrounded by walls, with ancient gate towers. It is the chief 
seat of the watch-making industry of the Black Forest. It 
also produces musical-boxes, glass and silk, and has a Gothic 
church of the 13th century and another of the nth, a 15th- 
century town hall, with a museum of antiquities, and music, 
technical and agricultural schools. 

Dannse) DE (1750-1805), French classical scholar, was born 
at Corbeil-sur-Seine on the sth of March 1750 (or 1753; authori- 
ties differ). He belonged to a noble family (De Ansso) of Spanish 
origin, and took his surname from a village in the neighbour- 
hood. In 1773 he published the Homeric Lexicon of Apollonius 
from a MS. in the abbey of Saint Germain des Pres. In 1778 
appeared his edition of Longus's Daphnis and Chive. In 1 781 be 
went to Venice, where he spent three years in examining the 
library, his expenses teing paid by the French government. 
His chief discovery was a 10th-century MS. of the Iliad, with 
ancient scholia and marginal notes, indicating supposititious, 
corrupt or transposed verses. After leaving Venice, he accepted 
the invitation of the duke of Saxe- Weimar to his court. Some 
of the fruits of his researches in the library of the palace were 
collected into a volume {Epislolae Vinarienses, 1783), dedicated 
to his royal hosts. Hoping to find a treasure similar to the 
Venetian Homer in Greece, he returned to Paris to prepare 
for a journey to the East. He visited Constantinople, Smyrna, 
the Greek islands, and Mount Athos, but the results did not 
come up to his expectation. In 1786 he returned, and in 1788 
brought out the Codex Venetus of Homer, which created a 
sensation in the learned world. When the revolution broke 
out, being banished from Paris, he lived in retirement at Orleans, 
occupying himself chiefly with the transcription of the notes 



in the library of the brothers Valois (Valesius). On the restora- 
tion of order, having returned to Paris, he accepted the pro- 
fessorship of modern Greek established by the government, 
and held it until it was transferred to the College de France 
as the professorship of the ancient and modern Greek languages. 
He died soon after his appointment, on the 23th oi April 1805. 
Another work of some importance, Anecdota Graeca (1781), 
from the Paris and Venice libraries, contains the Ionia (violet 
garden) of the empress Eudocia, and several fragments of 
lamblichus, Porphyry, Procopius of Gaza, Choricius and the 
Greek grammarians. Materials for an exhaustive work con- 
templated by him on ancient and modern Greece are preserved 
in the royal library of Paris. 

See J. Dacier, Notice kistorique sur la vie ei les outrages de 
Villoison (1806); Chardon de la Rochette, Melanges de critique et 
de philologie, iii. (1812) ; and especially the article by his friend and 
pupil E. Quatremere in Nouvelle biographic generate, xiii., based upon 
private information. 

VILLON, FRANCOIS (1431-c. 1463), French poet (whose real 
surname is a matter of much dispute, so that he is also called 
De Montcorbier and Des Loges and by other names, though 
in literature Villon is the sole term used), was born in 1431, and, 
as it seems, certainly at Paris. The singular poems called 
Testaments, which form his chief if not his only certain work, 
arc largely autobiographical, though of course not fully trust- 
worthy. But his frequent collisions with the law have left 
more certain records, which have of late been ransacked with 
extraordinary care by students, especially by M. Longnon. 
It appears that he was born of poor folk, that his father died 
in his youth, but that his mother, for whom he wrote one of 
his most famous ballades, was alive when her son was thirty 
years old. The very name Villon was stated, and that by no 
mean authority, the president Claude Fauchet, to be merely 
a common and not a proper noun, signifying " cheat " or 
"rascal"; but this seems to be a mistake. It is, however, 
certain that Villon was a person of loose life, and that he 
continued, long after there was any excuse for it in his years, 
the reckless way of living common among the wilder youth 
of the university of Paris. He appears to have derived his 
surname from a friend and benefactor named Guillaume de 
Villon, chaplain in the collegiate church of Saint-Benoit-le- 
Bestourne, and a professor of canon law, who took Villon into 
his house. The poet became a student in arts, no doubt 
early, perhaps at about twelve years of age, and took the 
degree of bachelor in 1449 and that of master in 1452. Between 
this year and 1455 nothing positive is known of him, except 
that nothing was known against him. Attempts have been 
made, in the usual fashion of conjectural biography, to fill up 
the gap with what a young graduate of Bohemian tendencies 
would, could, or might have done; but they are mainly futile. 

On the 5th of June 1455 the first important incident of 
his life that is known occurred. Being in the company of a 
priest named Giles and a girl named Isabeau, he met, in the 
rue Saint-Jacques, a certain Breton, Jean le Hardi, a master 
of arts, who was with a priest, Philippe Chermoye or Sermoise 
or Sermaise. A scuffle ensued; daggers were drawn; and 
Sermaise, who is accused of having threatened and attacked 
Villon and drawn the first blood, not only received a dagger- 
thrust in return, but a blow from a stone which struck him 
down. Sermaise died of his wounds. Villon fled, and was 
sentenced to banishment — a sentence which was remitted in 
January 1456, the formal pardon being extant, strangely 
enough, in two different documents, in one of which the culprit 
is described as " Francois des Loges, autrement dit Villon," 
in the other as " Francois de Montcorbier." That he is also 
said to have described himself to the barber-surgeon who 
dressed his wounds as Michel Mouton is less surprising, and 
hardly needs an addition to the list of his aliases. It should, 
however, be said that the documents relative to this affair 
confirm the date of his birth, by representing him as twenty- 
six years old or thereabouts. By the end of J456 he was again 
in trouble. In his first broil " la femme Isabeau " is only 

generally named, and it is impossible to say whether she had 
anything to do with the quarrel. In the second, Catherine 
de Vaucelles, of whom we hear not a little in the poems, is the 
declared cause of a scuffle in which Villon was so severely 
beaten that, to escape ridicule, he fled to Angers, where he 
had an uncle who was a monk. It was before leaving Paris 
that he composed what is now known as the Petit testament, 
of which we shall speak presently with the rest of his poems, 
and which, it should be said, shows little or no such mark of 
profound bitterness and regret for wasted life as does its in 
every sense greater successor the Grand testament. Indeed, 
Villon's serious troubles were only beginning, for hitherto he 
had been rather injured than guilty. About Christmas-time 
the chapel of the college of Navarre was broken open, and 
five hundred gold crowns stolen. The robbery was not dis- 
covered till March 1457, and it was not till May that the police 
came on the track of a gang of student-robbers owing to the 
indiscretion of one of them, Guy Tabarie. A year more passed, 
when Tabarie, being arrested, turned king's evidence and 
accused Villon, who was then absent, of being the ring-leader, 
and of having gone to Angers, partly at least, to arrange for 
similar burglaries there. Villon, for this or some other crime, 
was sentenced to banishment: and he did not attempt to return 
to Paris. In fact for four years he was a wanderer; and he 
may have been, as each of his friends Regnier de Montigny 
and Colin des Cayeux certainly was, a member of a wandering 
thieves' gang. It is certain that at one time (in 1457), and 
probable that at more times than one, he was in correspondence 
with Charles d'Orleans, and it is likely that he resided, at any 
rate for some period, at that prince's court at Blois. He had 
also something to do with another prince of the blood, Jean 
of Bourbon, and traces are found of him in Poitou, in Dauphin!, 
&c. But at his next certain appearance he is again in trouble. 
He tells us that he had spent the summer of 1461 in the bishop's 
prison (bishops were fatal to Villon) of Meung. His crime is 
not known, bdt is supposed to have been church-robbing; 
and his enemy, or at least judge, was Thibault d'Aussigny, 
who held the see of Orleans. Villon owed his release to a 
general gaol-delivery at the accession of Louis XL, and became 
a free man again on the 2nd of October. 

It was now that he wrote the Grand testament, the work 
which has immortalized him. Although he was only thirty 
at the date (1461) of this composition (which is unmistakable, 
because given in the book itself), there seems to be ho kind 
of aspiration towards a new life, nor even any hankering after 
the old. Nothing appears to be left him but regret; his very 
spirit has been worn out by excesses or sufferings or both. 
Even his good intentions must have been feeble, for in the 
autumn of 1462 we find him once more living in the cloisters 
of Saint-Benoit, and in November he was in the Chatelet for 
theft. In default of evidence the old charge of the college 
of Navarre was revived, and even a royal pardon did not bar 
the demand for restitution. Bail was, however, accepted, 
but Villon fell promptly into a street quarrel, was arrested, 
tortured and condemned to be hanged, but the sentence was 
commuted to banishment by the parlement on the 5th of January 
1463. The actual event is unknown: but from this time he 
disappears from history. Rabelais indeed tells two stories 
about him which have almost necessarily been dated later. 
One is a countryside anecdote of a trick supposed to have 
been played by the poet in his old age at Saint Maixent in 
Poitou, whither he had retired. The other, a coarse but 
poihted jest at the expense of England, is told as having been 
addressed by Villon to King Edward V. during an exile in that 
country. Now, even if King Edward V. were not evidently out 
of the question, a passage of the story refers to the well-known 
scholar and man of science, Thomas Linacre, as court physician 
to the king, and makes Villon mention him, whereas Linacre 
was only a young scholar, not merely at the time of Edward V.'s 
supposed murder, but at the extreme date (1489) which can be 
assigned to Villon's life. For in this year the first edition of 
the poet's work appeared, obviously not published by himself. 



and with no sign in it of his having lived later than the date 
(1461) cf the Grand testament. It would be easy to dismiss 
these Rabelaisian mentions of Villon as mere humorous inven- 
tions, if it were not that the author of Pantagruel was born 
almost soon enough to have actually seen Villon if he had 
lived to anything that could be caJled old age, that he almost 
certainly must have known men who had known Villon, and 
that the poet undoubtedly spent much time in Rabelais's own 
country on the banks of the lower Loire. 

The obscurity, the unhappiness and the evil repute of Villon's 
life would not be in themselves a reason for the minute investiga- 
tion to which the events of that life have been subjected, and the 
result of which has been summed up here. But his poetical work, 
scanty as the certainly genuine part of it is, is of such extraordinary 
qualitv, and marks such an epoch in the history of European litera- 
ture, that he has been at all times an interesting figure, and, like all 
very interesting figures, has been often praised for qualities quite 
other than those wnich he really possessed. Boileau's famous verses, 
in which Villon is extolled for having first known how to smooth 
out the confused art of the old romancers, are indeed a prodigy of 
blundering or ignorance or both. As far as art or the technical 
part of poetry goes, Villon made not the slightest advance on his 
predecessors, nor stood in any way in front of such contemporaries 
as his patron Charles d'Orleans, His two Testaments (so called by 
the application to them of a regular class-name of medieval poetry 
and consisting of burlesque legacies to his acquaintances) are made 
up of eight-line stanzas of eight-syllabled verses, varied in the case 
of the Grand testament by the insertion of ballades and rondeaux 
of very great beauty and interest, but not formally different in 
any way from poems of the same kind for more than a century 
past. What really distinguishes Villon is the intenser quality of 
his poetical feeling and expression, and what is perhaps arrogantly 
called the modern character of his subjects and thought. Medieval 
poetry, with rare exceptions, and, with exceptions not quite so 
rare, classical poetry, are distinguished by their lack of what is 
now called the personal note. In Villon this note sounds, struck 
with singular force and skill. Again, the simple joy of living which 
distinguishes both periods — the medieval, despite a common opinion, 
scarcely less than the ancient — has disappeared. Even the riot 
and rollicking of his earlier days are mentioned with far less relish 
of remembrance than sense of their vanity. This sense of vanity, 
indeed, not of the merely religious, but of the purely mundane and 
even half-pagan kind, is Villon's most prominent characteristic. It 
tinges his narrative, despite its burlesque bequests, all through; 
it is the very keynote of his most famous and beautiful piece, the 
Ballade des dames du temps jadis, with its refrain, " Mais ou sont les 
nciges d'antan ? " as well as of his most daring piece of realism, 
the other ballade of La Grosse Margot, with its burden of hopeless 
entanglement in shameless vice. It is nowhere more clearly 
sounded than in the piece which ranks with these two at the head 
of his work, the Regrets de la Belle Ileaulmiere, in which a woman, 
once young and beautiful, now old and withered, laments her 
lost charms. So it is almost throughout his poems, including the 
grim Ballade des pendus, and hardly excluding the very beautiful 
Ballade pour sa mere, with its description of sincere and humble 
piety. It is in the profound melancholy which the dominance of 
this note has thrown over Villon's work, and in the_ suitableness 
of that melancholy to the temper of all generations since, that his 
charm and power have consisted, though it is difficult to conceive 
any time at which his poetical merit could be ignored. 

His certainly genuine poems consist of the two Testaments with 
their codicil (the latter containing the Ballade des pendus, or more 
properly £pitaphe en forme de ballade, and some other pieces of a 
similarly grim humour), a few miscellaneous poems, chiefly ballades, 
and an extraordinary collection (called Le Jargon ou jobelin) of 
poems in argot, the greater part of which is now totally unintelligible, 
if, which may perhaps be doubted, it ever was otherwise. Besides 
these, several poems of no inconsiderable interest are usually 
printed with Villon's works, though they are certainly, or almost 
certainly, not his. The chief are Les Kepues Franches, a curious 
series of verse stories of cheating tavern-keepers, &c, having some 
resemblance to those told of George Peele, but of a broader and 
coarser humour. These, though in many cases " common form " 
of the broader tale-kind, are not much later than his time, and evi- 
dence to reputation if not to fact. Another of these spurious pieces 
is the extremely amusing monologue of the Franc Archier de Bag- 
nolet, in which one of the newly constituted archers or regularly 
trained and paid soldiery, who were extremely unpopular in France, 
is made to expose his own poltroonery. The third most important 
piece of this kind is the Dialogue de Mallepaye el de Baillevent, 
a dramatic conversation between two penniless spendthrifts, which 
is not without merit. These poems, however, were never attributed 
to Villon or printed with his works till far into the 16th century. 

It has been said that the first dated edition of Villon is of 1489, 
though some have held one or more than one undated copy to be 
still earlier. Between the first, whenever it was, and 1542 there 
were very numerous editions, the most famous being that (1533) 

of Clement Marot, one of whose most honourable distinctions is 
the care he took of his poetical predecessors. The Pleiade movement 
and the classicizing of the grand siecle put Villon rather out of 
favour, and he was not again reprinted till early in the 18th century, 
when he attracted the attention of students of old French like Le 
Duchat, Bernard de la Monnoye and Prosper Marchand. The 
first critical edition in the modern sense — that is to say, an edition 
founded on MSS. (of which there are in Villon's case several, chiefly 
at Paris and Stockholm) — was that of the Abbe J. H. R. Promp- 
sault in 1832. The next was that of the " Bibliophile Jacob " 
(P. Lacroix) in the Bibliolkeuue Elzevirienne (Paris, 1854). The 
standard edition is Giuvres completes de Francois Villon, by M. 
Auguste Longnon (1892). This contains copies of the documents 
on which the story of Villon's life is based, and a bibliography. 
The late M. Marcel Schwob discovered new documents relating to 
the poet, but died before he could complete his work, which was 
posthumously published in 1905. See also A. Campaux, F. Villon, 
sa vie el ses muvres (1859); A' Longnon, jltude biographique (1877); 
and especially G. Paris, Francois Villon (1901), a book of the first 
merit. A complete translation of Villon was written by Mr John 
Payne (1878) for the Villon Society. There are also translations 
of individual poems in Mr Andrew Lang's Ballads and Lyrics 
of Old France (1872) and in the works of D. G. Rossetti and Mr 
Swinburne. Among critical studies of Villon may be mentioned 
those by Sainte-Beuve in the Causeries du hmdi, vol. xiv., by Theo- 
phile Gautier in Grotesques, and by R. L. Stevenson in his Familiar 
Studies of Men and Books (1882). An unedited ballad by Villon, 
with another by an unknown poet of the same date, was published 
by W. G. C. Bijvanck (1891) as Un poete inconnu. M. Pierre 
d'Alheim published (1892) an edition of Le Jargon with a translation 
into ordinary French. (G. Sa.) 

VILNA, or Wilno, a Lithuanian government of West Russia, 
having the Polish government of Suwalki on the W., Kovno and 
Vitebsk on the N., and Minsk and Grodno on the E. and S. 
Area, 16,176 sq. m.; pop. (1906 estimate) 1,806,300. Vilna 
lies on the broad marshy swelling, dotted with lakes, which 
separates Poland from the province of East Prussia and stretches 
E.N.E. towards the Valdai Plateau. 

Its highest parts are a little more than 1000 ft., above sea-level. 
On its western and eastern boundaries it is deeply trenched by 
the valleys of the Niemen and the S. Dvina. It is chiefly built up 
of Lower Tertiary deposits, but in the north Devonian sandstones 
appear on the surface. The Tertiary deposits consist of Eocene 
clay, slates, sandstones, limestones and chalk, with gypsum, and 
are partly of marine and partly of terrene origin. The whole is 
overlain with thick layers of Glacial boulder clay and post-Glacial 
deposits, containing remains of the mammoth and other ex- 
tinct mammals. Interesting discoveries of Neolithic implements, 
especially of polished stone, and of implements belonging to the 
Bronze Age and the early years of the Christian epoch, have been 
made. Numerous lakes and marshes, partly covered with forests, 
and scarcely passable except when frozen, as well as wet meadow- 
land, occupy a large area in the centre of the government. The 
Niemen, which flows along the southern and western borders for 
more than 200 m., is the chief artery of trade, and its importance 
in this respect is enhanced by its tributary the Viliya, which flows 
west for more than 200 m. through the central parts of Vilna, 
receiving many affluents on its 'course. Among the tributaries 
of the Niemen is the Berezina, which acquired renown during 
Napoleon's retreat in 1S12; it flows in a marshy valley in the 
south-east. The S. Dvina for 50 m. of its course separates Vilna 
from Vitebsk. The climate of the government is only slightly 
tempered by its proximity to the Baltic Sea (January, 2i°-8; 
July, 64°-5); the average temperature at the town of Vilna is only 
43°"5- But in winter the thermometer descends very low, a minimum 
of -30 F. having been observed. The flora and fauna are inter- 
mediate between those of Poland and middle Russia. 

The government is divided into seven districts, the chief towns 
of which are Vilna, Vileiki, Disna, Lida, Oshmyany, Zventsyany 
and Troki. 

VILNA, or Wilno, a town of Russia, capital of the govern- 
ment of the same name, 436 m. S.S.W. of St Petersburg, at the 
intersection of the railways from St Petersburg to Warsaw and 
from Libau to the mouth of the Don. Pop. (1883) 93,760-, 
(1900) 162,633. With its suburbs Antokol, Lukishkij Pogul- 
yanka and Sarechye, it stands on and around a knot of hills 
(2450 ft.) at the confluence of the Vileika with the Viliya. Its 
streets are in part narrow and not very clean; but Vilna is an 
old town, rich in historical associations. Its imperial palace, 
and the cathedral of St Stanislaus (13S7, restored 1 801), con- 
taining the silver sarcophagus of St Casimir and the tomb of 
Prince Vitoft, are fine buildings. There is a second cathedral, that 
of St Nicholas, built in 1596-1604; also several churches dating 



from the 14th to the 16th centuries. The Ostra Brama chapel 
contains an image of the Virgin greatly venerated by Orthodox 
Greeks and Roman Catholics alike. The museum of antiquities 
has valuable historical collectioas. The ancient castle of the 
Jagellones is now a mass of ruins. The old university, founded 
in 1578, was restored (1803) by Alexander I., but has been closed 
since 1832 for political reasons; the only departments which 
remain in activity are the astronomical observatory and a 
medical academy. Vilna is an archiepiscopal see of the Ortho- 
dox Greek Church and an episcopal see of the Roman Catholic 
Church, and the headquarters of the governor-general of the 
Lithuanian provinces and of the III. army corps. The city 
possesses a botanical garden and a public library, and is adorned 
with statues to Catherine II. (1903), the poet Pushkin and 
Count M. Muraviev (1898). It is an important centre for trade 
in timber and grain, which are exported; and has theological 
seminaries, both Orthodox Greek and Roman Catholic, a 
military school, a normal school for teachers and professional 
schools. It is the seat of many scientific societies (geographical, 
medical and archaeological), and has a good antiquarian 
museum and a public library. 

History. — The territory of Vilna has been occupied by the 
Lithuanians since the 10th century, and probably much earlier; 
their chief fortified town, Vilna, is first mentioned in 1128. A 
temple to the god Perkunas stood on one of its hills till 1387, 
when it was destroyed by Prince Jagiello, after his baptism. 
After 1323, when Gedymin, prince of Lithuania, abandoned 
Troki, Vilna became the capital of Lithuania. The formerly 
independent principalities of Minsk and Lidy, as well as the 
territory of Disna, which belonged to the Polotsk principality, 
were annexed by the Lithuanian princes, and from that time 
Vilna, which was fortified by a stone wall, became the chief city 
of the Lithuanian state. It was united with Poland when its 
prince, Casimir IV., was elected (1447) to the Polish throne. 
The piague of 1 ^SS, a fire in 1610 and still more the wars between 
Russia and Poland, which began in the 17th century, checked 
its further growth. The Russians took Vilna in 1655, and in 
the following year it was ceded to Russia. The Swedes captured 
it in 1 702 and in 1 706. The Russians again took possession of 
it in 1788; and it was finally annexed to Russia in 1795, after 
the partition of Poland. Its Polish inhabitants took an active 
part in the risings of 1831 and 1863, for which they were 
severely punished by the Russian government. 

VILVORDE, a town of Belgium in the province of Brabant, 
9 m. N. of Brussels and on the Senne. Pop. (1904) 14,418. The 
old castle of Vilvorde, which often gave shelter to the dukes of 
Brabant in their days of trouble, is now used as a prison. The 
younger Tcniers lived and died at a farm outside Vilvorde, and 
is buried in the parish church of Dry Toren. 

VINCENNES, a town of northern France, in the department 
of Seine, on a wooded plateau i| m. E. of the fortifications of 
Paris, with which it is connected by rail and tram. Pop. (1906) 
town, 29,79:; commune, 34,185. Its celebrated castle, situated 
to the south of the town and on the northern border of the Bdis 
de Vincennes, was formerly a royal residence, begun by Louis 
VII. in 1164, and more than once rebuilt. It was frequently 
visited by Louis IX., who held informal tribunals in the neigh- 
bouring wood, a pyramid marking the spot where the oak under 
which he administered justice is said to have stood. The chapel, 
an imitation of the Sainte Chapelle at Paris, was begun by 
Charles V. in 1379, continued by Charles VI. and Francis I., 
consecrated in 1552 and restored in modern times. In the 
sacristy is the monument erected in r8r6 to the memory of the 
duke of Enghien, who was shot in the castle moat in 1804. 
Louis XI. made the castle a state prison in which Henry of 
Navarre, the great Conde, Mirabeau and other distinguished 
persons were afterwards confined. Under Napoleon I. the 
castle became a magazine of war-material. Louis XVTII. 
added an armoury, and under Louis Philippe numerous case- 
mates and a new fort to the east of the donjon were constructed. 
The place now serves as a fort, arsenal and barracks. It forms 
a rectangle 417 yds. long by 245 yds. wide. The enclosing wall 

was originally flanked by nine towers, which were cut down to 
its level between 1808 and 1811, and now serve as bastions. 
The donjon is a square tower, 170 ft. high, with turrets at the 
corners. The Bois de Vincennes, which covers about 2300 
acres and stretches to the right bank of the Marne, contains 
a race-course, a military training-ground, a school of military 
explosives (pyrotechnic), several artificial lakes, an artillery 
polygon and other military establishments, an experimental 
farm, the redoubts of Gravelle and La Faisanderie and the 
normal school of military gymnastics. The wood, which now 
belongs to Paris, was laid out during the second empire on the 
same lines as the Bois de Boulogne. On its south border is the 
asylum of Vincennes, founded in 1855 for the benefit of con- 
valescents from the hospitals. In the town there is a statue of 
General Daumesnil, celebrated for his defense of the castle 
against the allies in 1814 and 1815. Vincennes has a school of 
military administration and carries on horticulture and the 
manufacture of ironware of various kinds, rubber goods, 
chemicals, perfumery, mineral waters, &c. 

VINCENNES, a city and the county-seat of Knox county, 
Indiana, U.S.A., in the S.W. part of the state, on the E. bank of 
the Wabash river, about 117 in. S.W. of Indianapolis. Pop. 
(1890) 8853; (1900) 10,249, of whom 736 were foreign-born; 
(1910 census) 14,893. It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio 
South-Western, the Cleveland, Cincinnati , Chicago & St Louis, 
the Evansville & Terre Haute, and the Vandalia railways. 
Extensive levees, 15 m. in length, prevent the overflow of the 
Wabash river, which for nine months in the year is navigable 
from this point to the Ohio. The city is level and well drained, 
and has a good water-supply system. In Vincennes are a Roman 
Catholic cathedral, erected in 1835, one of the oldest in the West, 
occupying the site of a church built early in the 18th century; 
Vincennes University (1806), the oldest educational institution 
in the state, which in 1910 had 14 instructors and 236 students; 
St Rose Female Academy, and a public library. Coal, natural 
gas and oil are found near Vincennes. The city is a manufactur- 
ing and railway centre, and ships grain, pork and neat cattle. 
The total value of the factory products in 1905 was $3,172,279. 
Vincennes was the first permanent settlement in Indiana. On 
its site Francois Margane, Sieur de Vincennes, established a 
French military post about 1731, and a permanent settlement 
was made about the fort in 1735. After the fall of Quebec the 
place remained under French sovereignty until 1777, when it was 
occupied by a British garrison. In 1778 an agent of George 
Rogers Clark took possession of the fort on behalf of Virginia, 
but it was soon afterwards again occupied by the British, who 
called it Fort Sackville and held it until February 1779, when it 
was besieged and was captured (on the 25th of February) by 
George Rogers Clark, and passed finally under American juris- 
diction. The site of the fort is marked by a granite shaft erected 
in 1905 by the Daughters of the Revolution. Vincennes was the 
capital of Indiana Territory from 1800 to 1813, and was the 
meeting-place in 1805 of the first General Assembly of Indiana 
Territory. In 1839 it was incorporated as a borough, and it 
became a city in 1856. 

See J. Law, The Colonial History of Vincennes (Vincennes, 1858); 
W. H. Smith, " Vincennes, the Key to the North-West," in L. P. 
Powell's Historic Towns of the Western States (New York, 1901) ; " The 
Capture of Vincennes by George Rogers Clark," Old South Leaflets, 
No. 43 (Boston, n.d.) ; also chap. ii. of J. P. Dunn's Indiana (Boston, 

VINCENT (or Vincentius), ST, deacon and martyr, whose 
festival is celebrated on the 22nd of January. In several 
of his discourses St Augustine pronounces the eulogy of this 
martyr, and refers to Acts which were read in the church. It is 
doubtful whether the Acts that have come down to us (Acta 
Sanctorum, January, ii. 394-397) are those referred to by St 
Augustine, since it is not certain that they are a contemporary 
document. According to this account, Vincent w 7 as born of 
noble parents in Spain, and was educated by Valerius, bishop 
of Saragossa, who ordained him to the diaconate. Under the 
persecution of Diocletian, Vincent was arrested and taken to 
Valencia. Having stood firm in his profession before Dacianus, 



the governor, he was subjected to excruciating tortures and 
thrown into prison, where angels visited him, lighting his 
dungeon with celestial light and relieving his sufferings. His 
warders, having seer, these wonders through the chinks of the 
wall, forthwith became Christians. He was afterwards brought 
out and laid upon a soft mattress in order that he might regain 
sufficient strength for new torments; but, while Dacianus was 
meditating punishment, the saint gently breathed his last. 
The tyrant exposed his body to wild beasts, but a raven 
miraculously descended and protected it. It was then thrown 
into the sea, but was cast up on the shore, recovered by a pious 
woman and buried outside Valencia. Prudentius devoted one 
of his hymns {Peristeph. v.) to St Vincent, and St Augustine 
attests that in his lifetime the festival of the saint was celebrated 
throughout the Christian world (Serm. 276, n. 4). 

See T. Ruinart, Ada marlyrum sincera (Amsterdam, 1713), pp. 
364-66; Le Nam de Tillemont, M£moires pour servir & I'histoire 
ecclesiastigue (Paris, 1701, seq-), v. 215-225, 673-675. (H. De.) 

VINCENT OF BEAUVAIS, or Vincentius Bellovacensis 
(c. 1190-c. 1264), the encyclopaedist of the middle ages, was 
probably a native of Beauvais. 1 The exact dates of his birth 
and death are unknown. A tolerably old tradition, preserved 
by Louis a Valleoleti (c. 1413), gives the latter as 1264 ; 2 but 
Tholornaeus de Luca, Vincent's younger contemporary (d. 1321), 
seems to reckon him as living during the pontificate of Gregory X. 
(1271-76). If we assume 1264 as the year of his death, the 
immense volume of his works forbids us to think he could have 
been born much later than 11 90. Very little is known of his 
career. A plausible conjecture makes him enter the house of the 
Dominicans at Paris between 1225 and 1220, from which place a 
second conjecture carries him to the Dominican monastery 
founded at Beauvais in 1228-29. There is no evidence to show 
that the Vincent who was sub-prior of this foundation in 1246 
is the encyclopaedist; nor indeed is it likely that a man of such 
abnormally studious habits could have found time to attend to 
the daily business routine of a monastic establishment. It is 
certain, however, that he at one time held the post of " reader " 
at the monastery of Royaumont {Mons Regalis), not far from 
Paris, on the Oisc, founded by St Louis between 1228 and 1235. 
St Louis read the books that he compiled, and supplied the funds 
for procuring copies of such authors as he required for his com- 
pilations. Queen Margaret, her son Philip and her son-in-law, 
Theobald V, of Champagne and Navarre, are also named among 
those who urged him to the composition of his " little works," 
especially the De Institutione Principum. Though Vincent may 
well have been summoned to Royaumont even before 1240, there 
is no actual proof that he lived there before the return of Louis IX. 
and his wife from the Holy Land, early in the summer of 1254. 
But it is evident that he must have written his work De 
Erwdilione Filiorum Regalnim (where he styles himself as 
" Vincentius Belvacensis, deordinepraedicatorum, qualiscumque 
lector in monasterio de Regali Monte ") after this date and yet 
before January 1260, the approximate date of his Tractatus 
ConsoiatoHus, When he wrote the latter work he must have 
left Royaumont, as he speaks of returning from the funeral of 
Prince Louis (15th January 1260) "ad nostram domum," a 
phrase which can hardly be explained otherwise than as referring 
to his own Dominican house, whether at Beauvais or elsewhere. 

The Speculum Majus, the great compendium of all the knowledge 
of the middle ages, as it left the pen of Vincent, seems to have con- 
sisted of three parts only, viz. the Speculum Naturale, Doctrinale 
and Historiale. Such, at least, is £chard's conclusion, derived from 
an examination of the earliest extant MSS. All the printed editions, 
however, consist of four parts, the additional one being entitled 
Speculum Morale. This has been clearly shown to be the production 
of a later hand, ancl'i? ascribed by £chard to the period between 
1310 and 1325. In arrangement and style it is quite different from 

1 He is sometimes styled Vincentius Burguiidus; but, according 
to M. Daunou, this appellation cannot be traced back further than 
the first half of the 15th century. 

s Apparently confirmed by the few enigmatical lines preserved by 
fichara from his epitaph — 

" Pertulit iste necem post annos mille ducentos, 
Sexaginta decern sex habe, sex mihi retentos." 

the other three parts, and indeed it is mainly a compilation from 
Thomas Aquinas, Stephen de Bourbon, and two or three other 
contemporary writers. 

The Speculum Naturale fills a bulky folio volume of 848 closely 
printed double-columned pages. It is divided into thirty-two 
books and 3718 chapters. Jt is a vast summary of all the natural 
history known to western Europe towards the middle of the 13th 
century'. It is, as it were, the great temple of medieval science, 
whose floor and walls are inlaid with an enormous mosaic of skilfully 
arranged passages from Latin, Greek, Arabic, and even Hebrew 
authors. To each quotation, as he borrows it, Vincent prefixes 
the name of the book and author from whom it is taken, distinguish- 
ing, however, his own remarks by the word " actor." The Speculum 
Naturale is so constructed that the various subjects are dealt with 
according to the order of their creation ; it is in fact a gigantic 
commentary on Genesis i. Thus book i. opens with an account 
of the Trinity and its relation to creation; then follows a similar 
series of chapters about angels, their attributes, powers, orders, &c, 
down to such minute points as their methods of communicating 
thought, on which matter the author decides, in his own person, 
that they have a kind of intelligible speech, and that with angels to 
think and to speak are not the same process. The whole book, in 
fact, deals with such things as were with God " in the beginning." 
Book ii. treats of our own world, of light, colour, the four elements, 
Lucifer and his fallen angels, thus corresponding in the main with 
the sensible world and the work of the first day. Books iii. and iv. 
deal with the phenomena of the heavens and of time, which is 
measured by the motions of the heavenly bodies, with the sky and 
all its wonders, fire, rain, thunder, dew, winds, &c. Books v.-xiv. 
treat of the sea and the dry land: they discourse of the seas, the 
ocean and the great rivers, agricultural operations, metals, precious 
stones, plants, nerbs, with their seeds, grains and juices, trees wild 
and cultivated, their fruits and their saps. Under each species, 
where possible, Vincent gives a chapter on its use in medicine, and he 
adopts for the most part an alphabetical arrangement- In book vi. 
c. 7 he incidentally discusses what would become of a stone if it 
were dropped down a hole, pierced right through the earth, and, 
curiously enough, decides that it would stay in the centre. Book xv. 
deals with astronomy — the moon, stars, and the zodiac, the sun, 
the planets, the seasons and the calendar. Books xvi. and xvii. 
treat of fowls and fishes, mainly in alphabetical order and with 
reference to their medical qualities. Books xviii.-^xxii. deal in a 
similar way with domesticated and wild animals, including the dog, 
serpents, bees and insects; they also include a general treatise on 
animal physiology spread over books xxi.-xxn. Books xxiii.-xxviii. 
discuss the psychology, physiology and anatomy of man, the five 
senses and their organs, sleep, dreams, ecstasy, memory, reason, &c. 
The remaining four books seem more or less supplementary ; the last 
(xxxii.) is a summary of geography and history down to the year 
1250, when the book seems to have been given to the world, perhaps 
along with the Speculum Historiale and possibly an earlier form of 
the Speculum Doctrinale. 

The Speculum Doctrinale, in seventeen books and 2374 chapters, 
is a summary of all the scholastic knowledge of the age and does not 
confine itself to natural history. It is intended to be . a practical 
manual for the student and the official alike; and, to fulfil this object, 
it treats of the mechanic arts of life as well as the subtleties of the 
scholar, the duties of the prince and the tactics of the general. 
The first book, after defining philosophy, &c, gives a long Latin 
vocabulary of some 6000 or 7000 words. Grammar, logic, rhetoric 
and poetry are discussed in books ii. and Hi., the latter including 
several well-known fables, such as the Hon and the mouse. Book iv. 
treats of the virtues, each of which has two chapters of quotations 
allotted to it, one in prose and the other in verse. Book v. 
is of a somewhat similar nature. With book vi. we enter on. the 
practical part of the work; it deals with the ars oeconomica, and 
gives directions for building, gardening, sowing, reaping, rearing 
cattle and tending vineyards; it includes also a kind of agricul- 
tural almanac for each month in the year. Books vii.-ix. have 
reference to the ars potztica; they contain rules for the education 
of a prince and a summary of the forms, terms and statutes of 
canonical, civil and criminal law. Book xi. is devoted to the artes 
mechanicae, viz. those of weavers, smiths, armourers, merchants, 
hunters, and even the general and the sailor. Books xii.-xiv. deal 
with medicine both in practice and in theory: they contain practical 
rules for the preservation of health according to the four seasons of 
the year, and treat of various diseases from fever to gout. Book xv. 
deals with, physics and may be regarded as a summary of the 
Speculum Naturale. Book xvi. is given up to mathematics, under 
which head are included music, geometry, astronomy, astrology, 
weights and measures, and metaphysics. It is noteworthy that in 
this book Vincent shows a knowledge of the Arabic numerals, though 
he does not call them by this name. With him the unit is termed 
"digitus"; when multiplied by ten it becomes the "articulus"; 
while the combination of the articulus and the digitus is the 
" numerus compositus." In this chapter (xvi. 9), which is super- 
scribed " actor," he clearly explains liow the value of a number 
increases tenfold with every place it is moved to the left. He i$ 
even acquainted with the later invention of the " cifra " or cipher 


The last book (xvii.) treats of theology or (as we should now say) 
mythology, and winds up with an account of the Holy Scriptures 
and of the Fathers, from Ignatius and Dionysius the Afeopagite to 
Jerome and Gregory the Great, and even of later writers from Isidore 
and Bede, through Alcuin, Lanfranc and Anselm, down to Bernard 
of Clairvaux and the brethren of St Victor. 

As the fifteenth book of the Speculum Doctrinale is a summary of 
the Speculum Naturale, so the Speculum Historiale may be regarded 
as the expansion of the last book of the same work. It consists of 
thirty-one books divided into 3793 chapters. The first book opens 
with the mysteries ol God and the angels, and then passes on to the 
works of the six days and the creation of man. It includes disserta- 
tions on the various vices and virtues, the different arts and sciences, 
and carries clown the history of the world to the sojourn in Egypt. 
The next eleven books (ii.-xii.) conduct us through sacred and secular 
history down to the triumph of Christianity under Constantine. 
The story of Barlaam and Josaphat occupies a great part of book 
xv.; and book xvi. gives an account of Daniel's nine kingdoms, 
in which account Vincent differs from his professed authority, 
Sigebert of Gemhloux, by reckoning England as the fourth instead 
of the fifth. In the chapters devoted to the origines of Britain 
he relies on the Brutus legend, but cannot carry his catalogue of 
British or English kings further than 735, where he honestly con- 
fesses that his authorities fail him. Seven more books bring us to the 
rise of Mahomet (xxiii.) and the days of Charlemagne (xxiv.). 
Vincent's Charlemagne is a curious medley of the great emperor of 
history and the champion of romance. He is at once the gigantic 
eater of Turpin, the huge warrior eight feet high, who could lift the 
armed knight standing on his open hand to a level with his head, the 
crusading conqueror of Jerusalem in days before the crusades, and 
yet with all this the temperate drinker and admirer of St Augustine, 
as his character had filtered down through various channels from the 
historical pages of Einhard. Book xxv. includes the first crusade, 
and in the course of book xxix., which contains an account of the 
Tatars, the author enters on what is almost contemporary history, 
winding up in book xxxi. with a short narrative of the crusade of 
St Louis in 1250. One remarkable feature of the Speculum Historiale 
is Vincent's constant habit of devoting several chapters to selections 
from the writings of each great author, whether secular or profane, 
as he mentions him in the course of his work. The extracts from 
Cicero and Ovid, Origen and St John, Chrysostorh, Augustine and 
Jerome are but specimens of a useful custom which reaches its 
culminating point in book xxviii., which is devoted entirely to the 
writings of St Bernard. One main fault of the Speculum Historiale 
is the unduly large space devoted to miracles. Four of the^ medieval 
historians from whom he quotes most frequently are Sigebert of 
Gembloux, Hugh of Fleury, Helinand of Froidmont, and William 
of Malmesbury, whom he uses for Continental as well as for English 

Vincent has thus hardly any claim to be reckoned as an original 
writer. But it is difficult to speak too highly of his immense in- 
dustry in collecting, classifying and arranging these three huge 
volumes of 80 books and 9885 chapters. The undertaking to com- 
bine all human knowledge into a single w r hole was in itself a colossal 
one and could only have been born in a mind of no mean order. 
Indeed more than six centuries passed before the idea was again 
resuscitated; and even then it required a group of brilliant French- 
men to do what the old Dominican had carried out unaided.. The 
number of writers quoted by Vincent is almost incredible: in the 
Speculum Naturale alone no less than 350 distinct works arc cited, 
and to these must be added at least 100 more for the other 
two Specula. His reading ranges from Arabian philosophers and 
naturalists to Aristotle, Eusebius, Cicero, Seneca, Julius Caesar (whom 
he calls Julius Celsus), and even the Jew, Peter Alphonso. But 
Hebrew, Arabic and Greek he seems to have known solely through 
one or other of the popular Latin versions. He admits that his 
quotations are not always exact, but asserts that this was the fault 
of careless copyists. 

A list of Vincent's works, both MS. and printed, will be found in 
the Histoire litlcraire de France, vol. xviii., and in Jacques Echard's 
Scriptores cdinis pracdicatorum ( 1 7 19-2 1 ) . The Tractatus consolalorius 
pro morle amid and the Liber de eruditions filiofum regalium (dedi- 
cated to Queen Margaret) were printed at Basel in December 
1480. The Liber de Institutione Principum, a treatise on the duties 
of kings and their functionaries, has never yet been printed, and 
the only MS. copy the writer of this article has been able to consult 
does not contain in its prologue all the information which Echard 
seems to imply is to be found there. The so-called first edition of 
the Speculum Afajus, including the Speculum Morale, ascribed to 
Johann Menteiin and long celebrated as the earliest work printed 
at Strassburg, has lately been challenged as being only an earlier 
edition of Vincent's three genuine Specula (c. '1468-70"), with which 
has been bound up the Speculum Morale first printed by Menteiin 
(c. 1473-76). The edition most frequently quoted is that by the 
Jesuits (4 vols., Douai, 1624). 

See J. B. Bourgeat, fitudes sur Vincent de Beauvais, tkeologien, 
pkilosophe, encyclopHiste (Paris, 1856); E. Boutaric, Examen des 
sources du Speculum historiale de Vincent de Beauvais (Paris, 1863), 
and in tome xvii. of the Revue des questions historiques (Paris, 1875); 

9 1 

W. Wattenbach, Deutschlands GesckicMsquellen. vol. ii. 118-14 1 
B. Haureau, Notices . . . de MSS. latins de la BiUiotheque Nationals, 
tome v. (1892) ; and E. Male, L'arlrel-igieuxdu XIII' siede en France. 

(T. A. A.) 

VINCENT, GEORGE (1796-1831?), English landscape and 
marine painter, was born at Norwich in June 1796. lie studied 
art under " Old " Crome, and at the age of fifteen began to 
contribute to the Norwich exhibition. From 1814 till 1823 he 
exhibited occasionally at the Royal Academy, and also in the 
Water-Colour Exhibition and the British Institution. In iSrg 
he removed from Norwich to London, and he was a contributor 
to the Suffolk Street gallery from its foundation in 1824 till 1830. 
He possessed great artistic abilities; but he fell into dissipation, 
and his works became slight and hastily executed. Finally he 
dropped out of sight, and he is believed to have died about 1831. 
His most important work, a " View of Greenwich Hospital," 
wasshowninthelntemationalExhibitionof 1862. His" London 
from the Surrey Side ot Waterloo Bridge " is also a fine work. 

VINCENT, MARY ANN (1818-1887), American actress, was 
born in Portsmouth, England, on the 18th of September 1S18, 
the daughter of an Irishman named Farlin. Left an orphan at an 
early age, she turned to the stage, making her first appearance in 
1834 as Lucy in The Review, at Cowes, Isle of Wight. The next 
year she married J. R. Vincent (d. 1850), an actor, with whom 
she toured England and Ireland for several years. In 1846 
Mrs J. R. Vincent went to America to join the stock company of 
the old National theatre in Boston. Here she became a great 
favourite. No actress in America, except Mrs Gilbert, has ever 
been such " a dear old lady " to so wide a circle of constant 
admirers. She died in Boston on the 4th of September 1887. 
Her memory is honoured by the Vincent Memorial Hospital, 
founded in that city in 1890 by popular subscription, and 
formally opened on the 6th of April 1891, by Bishop Phillips 
Brooks, as a hospital for wage- earning women and girls. 

VINCENT DE PAUL, ST (1576-1660), French divine, founder 
of the " Congregation of Friests of the Mission," usually known 
as Lazarites (?.».), was born on the 24th of April r.576 at Touy, 
near Dax, in Gascogne, and was educated by the Franciscans 
at Dax and at Toulouse. He was ordained priest in 1600. 
Voyaging from Toulouse to Narbonne, he was captured by 
Barbary pirates, who took him to Tunis and sold him as a slave. 
He converted his third master, a renegade Italian, and escaped 
with him to Aigucs-Mortes near Marseilles in June 1607. After 
short stays at Avignon and Rome, Vincent found his way to 
Paris, where he became favourably known to Monsieur (after- 
wards Cardinal) de Berulle, who was then founding the con- 
gregation of the French Oratory. At Berulle's instance he 
became curate of Clichy near Paris (161 1); but this charge he 
soon exchanged for the post of tutor to the count of Joigny 
at Folleville, in the diocese of Amiens, where his success in 
dealing with the spiritual needs of the peasants led to the 
" missions " with which his name is associated. In 1617 he 
accepted the curacy of Chatillon-les-Dombes (or sur-Chala- 
ronne), and here he received from the countess of Joigny the 
means by which he was enabled to found his first " confr£rie 
de charite," an association of women who ministered to the 
poor and the sick. In 1619 Louis XIII. made him royal 
almoner of the galleys. Among the works of benevolence 
with which his name is associated are the establishment of a 
hospital for galley slaves at Marseilles, the institution of two 
establishments for foundlings at Paris, and the organization 
of the " Filles de la Charite," to supplement the work of the 
confrlries, whose members were mainly married women with 
domestic duties. He died at Paris on the 27th of September 
1660, and was buried in the church of St Lazare. He was 
beatified by Benedict XIII. in 1729, and canonized by Clement 
XII. in 1737, his festival (duplex) being observed on the 19th 
of July. The Society of St Vincent de Paul was founded by 
Frederic Ozananr and others in 1833, in reply to a charge 
brought by some free-thinking contemporaries that the church 
no longer had the strength to inaugurate a practical enterprise. 
In a. variety of ways it does a great deal of social service similai 

9 2 


to that of gilds of help. Its administration has always been in 
the hands of laymen, and it works through local " conferences " 
or branches, the general council having been suspended because 
it declined to accept a cardinal as its official head. 

Lives by Maynard (4 vols., Paris, i860); Bougaud (2 vols., Paris, 
1891); E. de Broglie (5th edition, Paris, 1899); Letters (2 vols., 
Paris, 1882); A. Loth (Paris, 1880); H. Simard (Lyons, 1894). 

VINCENT OF LERINS, ST, or Vincentis Lerinensis (d. c. 
a.d. 450), an ecclesiastical writer of the Western Church of 
whose personal history hardly anything is known, except that 
he was a native of Gaul, possibly brother of St Loup, bishop 
of Troyes, that he became a monk and priest at Lerinum, and 
that he died in or about 450. Lerinum (Lerins, off Cannes) 
had been made by Honoratus, afterwards bishop of Aries, the 
seat of a monastic community which produced a number of 
eminent churchmen, among them Hilary of Aries. The school 
did not produce an extensive literature, but it played an 
important part in resisting an exaggerated Augustinianism 
by reasserting the freedom of the will and the continued exist- 
ence of the divine image in human nature after the fall. As 
regards Vincent he himself tells us that only after long and sad 
experience of worldly turmoil did he betake himself to the 
haven of a religious life. In 434, three years after the council 
of Ephesus, he wrote the Cornmonitorium adversus prof anas 
omnium haerelicorum novilates, in which he ultimately aims 
at Augustine's doctrine of grace and predestination. In it he 
discusses the " notes " which distinguish Catholic truth from 
heresy, and (cap. 2) lays down and applies the famous threefold 
test of orthodoxy — quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus 
creditum est. It is very striking that in his appeal to tradition 
Vincent assigns no part to the bishops as such — apart from 
the council; he appeals to the ancient " teachers," not to 
any apostolic succession. His " semi-Pelagian " opposition to 
Augustine is dealt with by Prosper of Aquitania in his Pro 
Auguslini doclrina responsiones ad capitula objectionum Vin- 
cenliarnarium. It explains why the Commonitorium has reached 
us only in a mutilated form. 

The Commonitorium has been edited by Baluze (Paris, 1663, 1669 
and 1684) and by Kliipfe! (Vienna, 1809). It also occurs in vol. f. 
of Migne's Patrol. Ser. Lot. (1846). A full summary is given in 
A. Harnack's History of Ddgnta, iii. 230 ff. See also F. H. Stanton, 
Place of Authority in Religion, pp. 1 67 ff. ; A. Cooper-Marsdin, The 
School of Lerins (Rochester, 1905). 

VINCENT FERRER, ST (1355-1419), Spanish Dominican 
preacher, was born of respectable parentage at Valencia on the 
23rd of January 1355. In February 1374 he took the Domini- 
can habit, and after spending some years in teaching, and in 
completing his theological studies, he was licensed to preach. 
He graduated as doctor of theology at Lerida in 1374, and his 
sermons in the cathedral of Valencia from 1385 onwards soon 
became famous. Cardinal Peter de Luna took him with him 
to Paris in 1391; and on his own election to the pontificate as 
antipope Benedict XIII. made Ferrer his confessor and master 
of the sacred palace. Finding, however, the ecclesiastical 
atmosphere of Avignon an uncongenial one, he in 1397 resumed 
his work as a preacher, and Spain, France, Italy, Germany 
and Great Britain and Ireland were successively visited by him; 
and in every case numerous conversions were the result pf his 
eloquence, which is described as having been singularly power- 
ful and moving. In 1412 he was delegated by his native city 
to take part in the election of a successor to the vacant crown 
of Aragon; and in 1416 he received a special invitation to 
attend the council of Constance, where he supported the cause 
of the Flagellants (q.v.). He died at Vannes on the 5th of April 
1419, and was canonized by Calixtus III. in 1455, his festival 
(duplex) being observed on the 5th of April. 

See A. Sorbelli, II irattalo di S. Vincenzo Ferrer intorno al Grande 
Scisma d' Occidente (Bologna, 1906). 

VINCI, LEONARDO (1690-1730), Italian musical composer, 
was bom at Strongoli in Calabria in 1690 and educated at 
Naples under Gaetano Greco in the Conservatorio dei Poveri di 
Gesu Cristo. He became kne^wn first by his comic operas in 

Neapolitan dialect in 171 9; he also composed many serious 
operas. He was received into the Congregation of the Rosary 
at Formiello in 1728 and died by poisoning in 1730, not 1732, 
as is generally stated. His comic operas, of which he Zite '« 
Galera (1722) is the best, are full of life and spirit; in his serious 
operas, of which Didone Abbandonata (Rome, 172S) and Artaserse 
(Rome, 1730) are the most notable, have an incisive vigour 
and directness of dramatic expression deservedly praised by 
Burney. The well-known air " Vo solcando," from Artaserse, 
is a good example of his style. 

VINDELICIA, in ancient geography, a country bounded on 
the S. by Raetia, on the N. by the Danube and the Vallum 
Hadriani, on the E. by the Oenus (Inn), on the W. by the 
territory of the Helvetii. It thus corresponded to the N.E. 
portion of Switzerland, the S.E. of Baden, and the S. of Wiirt- 
temberg and Bavaria. Together 'with the neighbouring tribes 
it was subjugated by Tiberius in 15 B.C., and towards the end 
of the 1st century a.d. was made part of Raetia {q.v.). Its 
chief town was Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg). Its in- 
habitants were probably of Celtic origin (cf. the recurrence of 
Vind- in other Celtic names — Vindobona, Vindonissa); some 
authorities, however, regard them as German. According to 
Dio Cassius (liv. 22) they were an agricultural people, and later 
writers (e.g. Isidorus, Origines, i. 4), describe the country as very 

VINDHYA, a range of mountains in Central India. It forms 
a well-marked, though not quite continuous, chain across 
India, separating the Ganges basin from the Deccan. Starting 
on the west in Gujarat, the Vindhyas cross Malwa and the 
central portions of India, until their easternmost spurs abut 
on the valley of the Ganges at Rajmahal. They thus roughly 
form the northern side of the triangle, of which the other two 
sides are the Eastern and Western Ghats. They have an 
elevation of 1500 to 4500 ft., nowhere exceeding 5000 ft. Geo- 
logically they give their name to the " Vindhyan formation," 
one of the recognized rock systems of India. In legendary 
tradition they formed the demarcating line between the Madya- 
desha or middle land of the Sanskrit invaders and the non- 
Aryan Deccan, and they are still largely inhabited by aboriginal 
races such as the Bhils. 

VINE. The grape-vine, botanically Vitis, is a genus of 
about thirty species, widespread in the north temperate zone, 
but richest in species in North America. The best known 
and longest cultivated species is the old-world grape-vine, Vitis 
vinifera; a variety of this, silvestris, occurs wild in the Medi- 
terranean region, spreading eastwards towards the Caucasus 
and northwards into southern Germany, and may be regarded 
as the parent of the cultivated vine. It is of interest to note 
that grape-stones have been found with mummies in Egyptian 
tombs of not later age than 3000 years. The seeds have the 
characteristics of those of V. vinifera, but show some very 
slight variations from the type of seed now prevalent. Among 
the Greeks in the time of Homer wine was in general use. The 
cultivation of the vine must also have been introduced into 
Italy at a very early period. In Virgil's time the varieties 
in cultivation seem to have been exceedingly numerous; and 
the varied methods of training and culture now in use in Italy 
are in many cases identical with those described by Columella 
and other Roman writers. Grape-stones have been found 
among the remains of Swiss and Italian lake dwellings of the 
Bronze period, and others in tufaceous volcanic deposits near 
Montpellier, not long before the historic era. 

The old-world species is also extensively cultivated in 
California, but the grape industry of the eastern United States 
has been developed from native species, chiefly V. Labriisca 
and V. aestivalis and their hybrids with V. vinifera. Some 
of the American varieties have been introduced into France 
and other countries infested with Phylloxera, to serve as stocks 
on which to graft the better kinds of European vines, because 
their roots, though perhaps equally subject to the attacks of 
the insects, do not suffer so much injury from them as the 
European species. 



The vine requires a high summer temperature and a pro- 
longed period in which to ripen its fruit. Where these are 
forthcoming, it can be profitably cultivated, even though the 
winter temperature be very low. Tchihatchef mentions that 
at Erivan in Russian Armenia the mean winter temperature 
is 7°-i C. and falls in January to -30 C, and at Bokhara the 
mean temperature of January is 4 C. and the minimum -22 C, 
and yet at both places the vine is grown with success. In the 
Alps it is profitably cultivated up to an altitude of 1870 ft., 
and in the north of Piedmont as high as 3180 ft. At the present 
time the limit of profitable cultivation in Europe passes 
from Brittany, lat. 47 30', to beyond the Rhine by Liege and 
through Thuringia to Silesia in lat. 51 55'. In former 
centuries vines were cultivated to the north of this region, as, 
for instance, in Holland, in Belgium largely, and in England, 
where they might still be grown. Indeed, experiments have 
been made in this direction near Cardiff in South Wales. The 
yield is satisfactory, and the wine made, the variety known as 
Gamay noir, is described as being like still champagne. In 
the middle ages, owing to various causes, the better wines 
of France and Germany could not be obtained in England 
except at prohibitive prices; but when this state of things 
ceased, and foreign wine could be imported, the English con- 
sumers would no longer tolerate the inferior productions of 
their own vineyards. It is also probable that the English 
mixed sugar or honey with the wine and thus supplied artificially 
that sweetness which the English sun denied. It is a curious 
fact that at the present day much or even most of the wine 
of finest quality is made at or near to the northern limits of 
possible cultivation with profit. This circumstance is probably 
explained by the greater care and attention bestowed both 
on the cultivation of the vine and on the manufacture of the 
wine in northern countries than in those where the climate 
is more propitious. The relative inferiority of the wines made 
at the Cape of Good Hope and in Australia is partly due to 
variations of climate, the vine not yet having adapted itself 
to the new conditions, and partly to the deficient skill of the 
manufacturers. That such inferiority may be expected to 
disappear is suggested by the success of vine-culture in Madeira 
and the Canary Islands. 

The development of other species of Vitis, such as the curious 
.succulent species of the Soudan and other parts of equatorial 
Africa, or the numerous kinds in India and Cochin China, is 
of course possible under suitable conditions; but it is obvious 
that an extremely long period must elapse before they can 
successfully compete with the product of many centuries. 

[Sec also generally the article Wine. For currants and 
raisins, both produced by varieties of the grape-vine, see the 
respective articles.] 

Apart from their economic value, vines are often cultivated 
for purely ornamental purposes, owing to the elegance of their 
foliage, the rich coloration they assume, the shade they afford, 
and their hardihood. 

Vines have woody climbing stems, with alternate, entire or 
palmately lobed leaves, provided at the base with small stipules. 
Opposite some of these leaves springs a tendril, by aid of which the 
plant climbs. There are numerous transitional states between the 
ordinary form of tendril and the inflorescence. The flowers are 
small, green and fragrant, and are arranged in dense clusters. Each 
has a small calyx in the form of a shallow rim, sometimes five-lobed 
or toothed; five petals, which cohere by their~tips and form a cap 
or hood, which is pushed off when the stamens are ripe; and 
five free stamens, placed opposite the petals and springing from 
a fleshy ring or disk surrounding the ovary; each bears a two- 
celled anther. The anomalous position of the stamens in front 
of the petals is explained by the abortion or non-development 
of an outer row of stamens, indications of which are sometimes 
seen on the hypogynous disk encircling the ovary. The ovary 
bears a sessile stigma and is more or less completely two-celled, 
with two erect ovules in each cell. This ripens into the 
berry and seed. The cultivated vine has usually hermaphrodite 
flowers; but as it occurs in a wild state, or as an escape from 
cultivation, the flowers manifest a tendency towards unisexuality : 
- that is, one plant bears flowers with stamens only, or only the 
rudiments of the pistil, while on another plant the flowera are 
bisexual. Exclusively female flowers without stamens do not appear 

to have been observed. Seedling plants from the cultivated vines 
often produce unisexual flowers, thus reverting to the ferai type. 
Perhaps the explanation of the fact that some of the cultivated 
varieties are, as gardeners say, " bad setters," — i.e. do not ripei? uheir 
fruit owing to imperfect fertilization, — is to be sought in this natural 
tendency to dioecism. 

Ftc 1. — Vine. 

1. Foliage, tendril and inflorescence, reduced. 

2. Flower after fall of petals, magnified. 

3. Fruit, reduced. 

The conformation of the vine stem has elicited ,a vast amount of 
explanatory comment. The most generally accepted explanation 
is the " sympodial " one. According to this, the shoot of the vine is 
a " sympodium," consisting of a number of " podia " placed one over 
the other in longitudinal series. Each podium consists of a portion 
of the stem bearing one or more leaves, each with an axillary bud or 
buds, and terminating in a tendril or an inflorescence. In V. Lab- 
rusca there is a tendril opposite to each leaf, so that the podium 
bears only a single leaf. In other species there is a definite arrange- 
ment of the leaves, some with and others without tendrils opposite 
to them, the numerical order remaining constant or nearly so. 
These arrangements have doubtless some reference to climatic 
phenomena, continuity of growth being arrested by cold and pro- 
moted by warmth. In any case, it is obvious that these facts might 
be turned to practical ends in cultivation. A vine, for instance, 
that produces bunches of grapes at each joint is preferable to one in 
which there are several barren joints, as a larger quantity can be 
grown within a smaller area. The practice of pruning or " stopping " 
is, consciously or unconsciously, regulated by the mode of growth. 
The tendril or inflorescence, according to the views above explained, 
though in reality terminal, is bent to one side; hence it appears to 
be lateral and opposite to the leaf. While the tendril is thus 
diverted from its original direct course, the axillary bud of the leaf 
opposite the tendril begins a new. podium, by lengthening into a 
shoot which assumes the direction the tendril had prior to its 
deflexion. This new podium, now in a direct line with its predecessor, 
produces leaves and ends in its turn in a tendril or inflorescence. 
A third podium succeeds the second, and so on. Other authorities 
explain the formation of the tendril and its anomalous position 
opposite to a leaf by supposing that the end of the stem bifurcates 
during growth, one division forming the shoot, the other the tendril 
or inflorescence. It is not possible within the limits at our command 
to specify the facts and arguments by which these theories are 
respectively supported. Practically the tendrils assist the plant 
in its native state to scramble over rocks or trees. As in the 
case of similar formations generally, they are endowed with a 
sensitiveness to touch which enables them to grasp and coil 
themselves round any suitable object which comes in their way, 
and thus to support the plant. The seeds or grape-stones are 
somewhat club-shaped, with a narrow neck-like portion beneath, 
which expands into a rounded and thickened portion above. On 
the inner or central side of the seed is a ridge bounded on either side 
by a shallow groove. This ridge indicates the point of union of the 
' raphe " or seed-stalk with the seed; it serves to distinguish the 
varieties of V. vinifera from those of other species. In endeavouring 
to trace the filiation and affinities of the vine, the characters afforded 
bv the seed are specially valuable, because they have not been 
wittingly interfered with by human agency. Characters derived 
I from the size, colour or flavour of the berry are of less value fe* 



historical or genealogical purposes than those which are the outcome 
of purely natural conditions. 

The vine is hardy in Britain so far as regards its vegetation, but 
not hardy enough to bring its fruit to satisfactory maturity, so 
that for all practical purposes the vine must be regarded as a tender 
fruit. Planted against a wall or a building having a south aspect, 
or trained over a sunny roof, such sorts as the Black Cluster, Black 
Prince, Pitmaston White Cluster, Royal Muscadine, Sweetwater, &c., 
will ripen in the warmest English summers so as to be very pleasant 
eating; but in cold summers the fruit is not eatable in the raw 
state, and can only be converted into wine or vinegar. For outdoor 
culture the long-rod system is generally preferred. 

When the plant is grown under, glass, the vine border should 
occupy the interior of the house and also extend outwards in the 
front, but it is best made by instalments of 5 or 6 ft. as fast as the 
previous portions become well filled with roots, which may readily 
be done by packing up a turf wall at the extremity of the portion 
to be newly made; an exterior width of 15 ft. will be sufficient. 
If the soil beyond this is very unfavourable, the roots should be 
prevented from entering it by building a wall at the extreme edge 
of the border. Inside borders require frequent and thorough 
waterings. In well-drained localities the border may be partially 
below the ground level, but in damp situations it should be made on 
the surface; in either case the firm solid bottom should slope 
outwards towards an efficient drain. A good bottom may be 
formed by chalk rammed down close. On this should be laid at 
least a foot thick of coarse, hard, rubbly material, a layer of rough 
turf, grass side downwards, being spread over it to prevent the 
compost from working down. The soil itself, which should be 2i or 
3 ft. deep, never less than 2 ft., should consist of five parts rich turfy 
loam, one part old lime rubbish or broken bricks, including a little 
wood ashes or burnt earth (ballast), one part broken charcoal, and 
about one part of half-inch bones, the whole being thoroughly mixed 
and kept dryish till used. It is well after the borders are completed 
to remove the top soil, in which no roots are to be found, every two 
or three years, and to replace it with a mixture of good loam, rotten 
manure, lime rubbish and bone meal, to the depth of 6 or 7 in. 
A mulch of half-decayed stable litter is useful to prevent loss of 
moisture in summer. 

Young vines raised from eyes, i.e. buds having about \ in. wood 
above and I in. below, are generally preferred for planting. The 
eyes being selected from well-ripened shoots of the previous year 
are planted about the end cf January, singly, in small pots of light 
loamy compost, and after standing in a warm place for a few days 
should be plunged in a propagating bed, having a bottom heat of 75°, 
which should be increased to 85 when they have produced several 
leaves, the atmosphere being kept at about the same temperature or 
higher by sun heat during the day, and at about 75° at night. As 
soon as roots are freely formed the plants must be shifted into 6-inch 
pots, and later on into 12-inch ones. The shoots are trained up 
near the glass, and, with plenty of heat (top and bottom) and of 
water, with air and light, and manure water occasionally, will form 
firm, strong, well-ripened canes in the course of the season. To pre- 
pare the vine for planting, it should be cut back to within 2 ft. of 
the pot early m the season, and only three or four of the eyes 
at the base should be allowed to grow on. The best time for 
planting is m spring, when the young shoots have just started 
The vines should be planted inside the house, from I to 2 ft 
from the front wall, and from 6 ft. to 8 ft. apart, the roots being 
placed an inch deeper in the soil than before, carefully disentangled 
and spread outwards from the stem, and covered carefully and 
firmly with friable loam, without manure. When the shoots are 
fairly developed, the two strongest are to be selected and trained 
in. When forcing is commenced, the vinery is shut up for two or 
three weeks without fire heat, the mean temperature ranging about 
50 . Fire heat must be at first applied very gently, and may range 
about 55 at night, and from 65 to 70° by day, but a few degrees 
more may be given them as the buds break and the new shoots 
appear. When they are in flower, and onwards during the swelling 
of the berries, 85° may be taken as a maximum, running up to 90 
with sun heat and the temperature may be lowered somewhat 
when the fruit is npe. The temperature must, however, be regu- 
lated according to the variety, Muscats requiring a higher tempera- 
ture from the time their bunches show than Hamburghs.- As much 
ventilation as the state of the weather will permit should be given 
A moist growing atmosphere is necessary both for the swelling 
fruit and for maintaining the health of the foliage. A due amount 
of moisture may be kept up by the use of evaporating troughs and 
by syringing the walls and pathways two or three times a day but 
the leaves should not be syringed. When the vines are in flower 
and when the fruit is colouring, the evaporating troughs should 
be kept dry, but the aridity must not be excessive, lest the red 
spider and other pests should attack the leaves. In the course 
ol the season the borders (inside) will require several thorough 
soakings of warm water— the first when the house is shut up 
this being repeated when the vines have made young shoots a few 
inches long, again when the vines are in flower, and still again when 
the berries are taking the second swelling after stoning. Outside 
borders require watering in very dry summer weather only 

1 here are three principal systems of pruning vines, termed the 

long-rod, the short-rod and the spur systems, and good crops have 
been obtained by each of them. It is admitted that larger bunches 
are generally obtained by the long-rod than by the spur system. 
1 he principle of this mode of priming is to train in at considerable 
length, according to their strength, shoots of the last year's growth 
for producing shoots tu bear fruit in the present; these rods are 
atterwards cut away and replaced by young shoots trained up 
d " nn .6„ tne Preceding summer; and these arc in their turn cut out in 
the following autumn after bearing, and replaced by shoots of 
that summer's growth. By the short-rod system, short instead of 
long rods are retained; they are dealt with in a similar manner, 
the spur system has, however, become the most general. In this 
case the vines are usually planted so that one can tie trained up 
under each rafter, or up the middle of the sash, the latter method 
being preferable. The shoots are cut back to buds close to the 
stem, which should be encouraged to form alternately at equal 
distances right and left, by removing those buds from the original 
shoot which are not conveniently placed. The young shoots from 
these buds are to be gently brought tc a horizontal position, by 
bending them a little at a time, and tied in, and usuallv opposite 
about the fourth leaf the rudiments of a bunch will be developed, 
the leaf directly opposite the bunch must in all cases be preserved, 
and the young shoot is to be topped at one or two joints beyond 
the incipient fruit, the latter distance being preferable if. there is 
plenty of room for the foliage to expand; the lateral shoots, which 
will push out after the topping, must be again topped above their 
first or second joints. If the bunches arc too numerous they must 
be thinned before the flowers expand, and the berries also must be 
properly thinned out and regulated as soon as they are w-ell set, 
care being taken, in avoiding overcrowding, that the bunches be 
not made too thin and loose. 

The cultivation of vines in pots is very commonly practised with 
good results, and pot-vines are very useful to force for the earliest 
crop. The plants should be raised from eyes, and grown as strong 
as possible in the way already noted, in rich turfy loam mixed with 
about one-third of horse dung and a little bone dust.. The tempera- 
ture should be gradually increased from 6o° to 80°, or 90" by sun 
heat, and a bottom heat a few degrees higher must be maintained 
during their growth. As the roots require more room, the plants 
should be shifted from 3-inch pots into those of 6, 12 or 15 in. 
in diameter, in any of which larger sizes they may be fruited in the 
following season, but, to be successful in this, the young rod pro- 
duced must be thoroughly matured after it has reached its limit 
of growth. The periodical thorough cleansing of the vine stems 
and every part of the houses is of the utmost importance. 

The number of varieties of grapes possessing some merit is con- 
siderable, but a very few of them will be found sufficient to supply 
all the wants, of the cultivator. For general purposes nothing 
approaches the Black Hamburgh (including Frankeiuhal) in merit. 

Fungoid Diseases. — The. most destructive uirrn of fungoid disease 

1. Vine leaf attacked by mildew, Uncinula necator (Erysiphe Tuck- 

en), which forms white patches on the upper face, reduced. 

2. Grapes similarly attacked. 

3. Portion of the mycelium of the fungus bearing spores (conidia). 

s, on erect branches, 

4. Perithecium or " fruit " of the fungus with its curled append- 


5. Ascus from perithecium containing six spores. 

which attacks the vine is caused by a mildew, Uncinula necator (Ery- 
szphe Tuckeri) (fig. 2). The disease was first noticed in England in 



1845; in 1848 it appeared at Versailles; by 1 85 1 it had spread 
through ail the wine-producing countries of Europe, being specially 
virulent in the lands bordering on the Mediterranean; and in the 
following year it made its appearance in Madeira. Like the Phyllo- 
xera (q.v. ; also Wine), the mildew is in its origin probably American. 
The disease is characterized by the appearance of a mycelium forming 
white or greyish -white patches on the young leaves; this spreads 
quickly and attacks the older leaves and branches, and ultimately 
reaches the grapes. At first these are marked only by small brown 
spots; but the spots spread and fuse together, the skin of the grape 
is destroyed, and the flesh decays, the seed only remaining apparently 
untouched. The disease spreads by the mycelium growing over 
the epidermis of the plant. The hyphae composing the mycelium 
are provided with haustoria which project into the cells of the 

affected part (fig. 3). Some of 
ft the hyphae which project from 
the leaf bear spores (conidia), 
which are constricted off one 
at a time, and by their means 
the fungus is distributed 
(fig. 2, 3). The perithecia are 
only produced exceptionally 
in Europe, but this stage of 
the life-history is common in 
the United States and causes 
a widely spread disease among 
the American vines. The 
mildew is in its turn attacked 
by a fungus of the same tribe, 
Cicinnobohis Cesatii, which 
lives parasitically within the 
hyphae of its host, and at 
times even succeeds in de- 
stroying it. The means which 
have proved most efficacious, 
both as a remedy and a pre- 
ventive of this disease, is to 
scatter flowers of sulphur over 
"Wthe vines, before the morning 
dew has evaporated. An- 
other method is to boil one 
Fig. 3.— Uncinula necatot (Erysiphe Pf rt 01 June with three parts 
Tuckeri). A and B, mycelium (m), °[ sulphur, and to sprinkle 
with haustoria (ft). (After de Bary.) the fixture over the affected 
In A several cells of the epidermis P la " ts - 

are indicated. Another fungus which at- 

tacks vines, especially those or 
America, is Plasmopara viticola, which has also been introduced from 
America to Europe. The mycelium spreads through the green parts of 
the plant, attacking the leaves, twigs and unripe grapes. On the upper 
side of the leaf, where it is first visible, it forms pale green irregular 
spots, which become darker in colour. On the under side of the leaf 
these patches are white and are composed of the spore-bearing hyphae. 
The leaf ultimately becomes dried up and brittle. The grapes 
which are attacked cease to grow, turn brown or white, and ulti- 
mately dry up and fall off. This disease has been successfully 
treated with a spray of copper sulphate and lime, or sulphate of 
iron; solutions of these salts prevent the conidia from germinating. 
Anthracnose is the name usually given to a disease which was 
formerly known as " charbon," " pech " or " brenner." This 
disease is caused by the parasitism of Sphaceloma ampelinum, 
one of the Pyrenomycetous fungi (fig. 4). The fungus assails all 
the green parts of the vine, and injures the leaves and young 
shoots as much as it does the grape itself. The first sign of its 
presence is the appearance of a minute spot, which is greyish in the 
centre, with a brown border. This spot increases in size; in the 
stalks it assumes an oval shape, with its long axis parallel to 
the stalk, whilst in the leaves and grapes it is more or less circular 
in outline. The centre of the spots on the grapes becomes darker 
as the disease advances, and a red line appears dividing the dark 
brown border into an outer and an inner rim and giving a very 
characteristic appearance to the diseased plant. The surrounding 
tisane enlarges, so that the spots appear as if sunk in depressions, 
and hear a considerable resemblance to hailstone wounds. Later the 
spofi on the leaves often drop out. The berries do not shrivel up as 
those do that are affected by the black rot. The mycelium of Sphace- 
loma grows just beneath the cuticle of the vine, through which it soon 
bursts, giving rise to a number of minute hyphae, which bear conidia. 
These are minute, oval, colourless spores, which serve to spread 
the disease over the. vineyard and from place to place. The com- 
plete life-history of this form is at present unknown; and informa- 
tion as to where the fungus passes the winter, and in what form, 
would probably afford some useful indications as to the method that 
should be adopted to combat the disease. Anthracnose has been 
known in Europe for many years, but has only been observed in 
America since 1881, whither it was probably imported from the old 
world. As a preventive to its attacks the copper sulphate sprays 
and a solution (50%) of iron sulphate have been found very useful, 
as well as care in planting on well-drained soil that docs not lie 

too low, the disease seldom appearing in dry, well-exposed vine- 
yards. A great deal of confusion still exists with regard to this 
disease. A similar disease which of late has frequently been found 
in England, and which is ascribed to the fungus Gloeosporium 
ampelophagum, is very similar to it. In their mode of attack, 
in the symptoms they produce, and in the result upon the grapes 
and the vine the two fungi are so much alike that for practical 
purposes they may be regarded as identical. Massee recom- 
mends that the shoots should be dredged with flowers of 
sulphur at intervals of ten days, while the disease continues to 
spread, a small quantity of quicklime in a finely powdered con- 

Fig. 4. — Charbon or 
caused by Sphace- 
loma ampelinum. 

1. Portion of twig with 
discoloured patches, 
caused by the fun- 

2. Fruit attacked by 

dition being added and 
every application, not so 

Fig. 5. — Black Rot of Grapes, 
Guignardia Bidweilii. 

1. Grapes attacked by the fun- 
gus; the fruit becomes black, 
hard and shrivelled. 

2. Fructification of the fungus, 
entire and in section; the latter 
shows the asci containing as- 
cospores, much enlarged. 

3. Single ascus, more enlarged, 
showing the eight contained 

the quantity of lime being increased at 
as to exceed the sulphur, however. The 
iron sulphate solution should be 
used while the vines are in a dormant 
condition, and diseased parts should 
be cleared away and burned. 

The black rot, like the Uncinula 
and Plasmopara, is also American in 
its origin. It has been known and ob- 
served there since 1848, but appeared 
for the first time in France in 1885. 
The disease is caused by a fungus, 
Guignardia Bidweilii (fig. 5) (Pkoma 
uvicola), one of the Fyrenomycetes, 
and by some authorities it has been 
considered to be a further stage in the 
Hfe-history of Sphaceloma ampelinum. 
The fungus is most conspicuous on 
the grapes, but the leaves and stemB 

Harlig's Lekrbuch der Pjlanzenkrankkeiten, by permission of Julius Springer. 

Fig. 6. — Rosellinia (Demaiophora) necatrix. 

A. Mycelium of the fungus attacking root of vine (reduced). 

B. fortion of vine root, showing masses of fructification (perithecia) of 

the fungus (reduced). 

are also affected. The grapes are not assailed until nearly 
full-grown, when a brownish spot appears, which spreads over the 

9 6 


whole grape. The latter for a time retains its plumpness, but on the 
appearance of little black pustules, which first occur on the part 
primarily affected, the grape begins to shrivel. This continues until 
the grape ts reduced to a black hard mass, with the folds of skin 
pressed closely against the seed. The disease spreads from grape 
to. grape, so that as a rule many of the grapes in a bunch are 
destroyed. The hyphae of the mycelium of this fungus are 
septate, with numerous short branches. The pustules on the sur- 
face are due to fructifications, pycnidia and spermagonia. The 
fungus passes the winter in the withered grapes which fall to the 
ground, and on these the mature form of the fungus (fig. 5, 2 and 3) 
is produced; hence every care should be taken to collect these and 
burn them. The use of the copper solutions mentioned above may 
also be recommended as a preventive. 

Among the other fungi which infest the vine may be mentioned 
Phyllostictaviiicola and Ph. Labruscae, which, when theattackisscvere, 
cause the destruction of the leaves, the only part they assail. These, 
like the foregoing, are members of the Pyrennmycetes, while many 
other allied fungi have been described as causing spots on the leaves. 
Cercospora Vitis (Cladosporium viticolum), which has club-shaped 
spores of a green-bro^vn colour, also attacks the leaves; but, unless 
the season is extremely unfavourable, it does little harm. 

A ■ very disastrous root-disease of the vine is due to the rav- 
ages of another pyrenomycetous fungus, Rosellinia (Dem&topkora) 
necatrix (fig. 6), which forms subterranean strings of mycelium- — 
so-called rhizomorphs. The diseased roots have been confounded 
with those attacked by Phylloxera. The only mode of combating 
the malady seems to be to uproot the plants and burn them. Isola- 
tion of the diseased areas by means of trenches has also been prac- 

VINEGAR, a dilute solution of impure acetic acid, prepared 
by the acetous fermentation of alcohol or of substances which 
yield alcohol when suitably decomposed (ordinary vinegar), or 
obtained from the products resulting on the dry distillation 
of wood (wood vinegar). Ordinary or table vinegars, which 
contain, in addition to acetic acid, small quantities of alcohol, 
higher acids such as tartaric and succinic, various esters, albu- 
minous substances, &c, are produced solely by acetous fer- 
mentation, wood vinegar being only employed in certain arts. 
Ordinary vinegar has been known from the earliest times, and 
its power of combining with or dissolving mineral substances 
caused the alchemists to investigate its preparation and pro- 
perties. They failed, however, to obtain pure acetic acid, 
although by distillation they prepared more concentrated solu- 
tions (spiriius Veneris). In 1697 Stahl showed that vinegar 
could be concentrated by freezing out part of the water, and, 
better, in 1702, by neutralizing the acid with an alkali and dis- 
tilling the salt with oil of vitriol. A notable improvement was 
made in 1789 by Lowitz, who showed that the dilute acid could 
be concentrated by repeatedly passing it over charcoal powder, 
and by cooling he obtained a crystalline substance named in 
1777 by Durande, "glacial acetic acid." The presence of an 
acid substance in the products of the dry distillation of wood 
was mentioned by Glauber in 1648 and received the name of 
pyroligneous acid. Its identity with acetic acid was demon- 
strated by Vauquelin in 1800. 

The mechanism of acetous fermentation is described under 
Fermentation; here we only treat of the actual processes. 
There are two methods in use: the " quick " process, proposed 
in 1720 by Boerhaave and introduced by Schutzenbach in 1823 
(analogous processes were proposed at about the same time by 
Wagmann in Germany and by Ham in England), and the older or 
" slow " process. 

In the " quick " process advantage is taken of the fact that the 
fermentation proceeds more quickly when a large surface of the 
liquid is exposed to air- Any alcoholic liquid can be treated. The 
apparatus consists essentially of a vat divided into three portions: 
the lowest, which is separated from the one above by a grid or false 
bottom, serves for the collection of the vinegar; the central portion, 
which is by far the largest, is the chamber wherein the fermentation 
is effected; and it is separated from the topmost section by a disk 
perforated with holes about the size of quills through which thin 
strings lead into the upper part of the central section. The purpose 
of this disk is to subdivide the liquid placed upon it into drops so as 
to increase the surface of the liquid. The sides of the vat enclosing 
the lowest portion are provided with a ring of holes to admit air to 
the tub; and the vat is enclosed with a tightly fitting lid perforated 
by ahole through which the liquor to be fermented is admitted and 
the air drawn upwards from the base escapes. The central chamber 
is filled with some material of large surface. The commonest are 
beech-wood shavings, which, before use, must be carefully freed 

from all extractives by washing and steaming, then dried, and 
finally soured by immersion in hot vinegar for twenty-four hours. 
The fermented wort, prepared in various ways and of varying com- 
position, or wine, is warmed to about 38 C. and then fed into the 
upper chamber. Falling on to the shavings, the surface is largely in- 
creased, and the fermentation which ensues maintains the tempera- 
ture at about 37 , and draws a current of air upwards through the 
shavings, which after a time become covered with the so-called 
mother of vinegar. If the liquid contains only 4% of alcohol, it 
is completely converted into acetic acid, but stronger liquors require 
to be passed through the vat three or four times. Some of the 
alcohol (and consequently some acetic acid) is carried away by the 
air which escapes to the top of the vat; this is avoided in some 
factories by leading the air over or into water, whereby the alcohol 
and aldehyde are recovered. The same is effected in Singer's 
generators, which are coupled together in tiers. 

For making wine-vinegar by the slow process, full-bodied wines 
about one year old and containing 10% of alcohol (this amount 
being obtained, when necessary, by blending) are preferred ; and 
they are clarified by standing with beech shavings upon which the 
lees deposit. The fermentation is carried out in casks holding from 
50 to 100 gallons ; these casks are repeatedly extracted with water in 
order to prevent any impurity finding its way into the vinegar; 
also it is found that the casks foul after about six years' use, when 
it is necessary to remove the deposits of argol, yeast sediments, &c., 
and re-extract with water, after which they are again fit for use. 
In conducting the fermentation the cask is one-third filled with 
boiling strong vinegar and allowed to stand for eight days. Nine 
pints of the wine are now added every day until the cask is two- 
thirds full, and the mixture is allowed to stand for fourteen days. 
After this interval from 10 gallons to half the contents of the cask 
are drawn off, and more wine added. The working temperature is 
about 25 . The progress of the operation is shown by the white 
froth which appears on a spatula after immersion in the liquid; 
if it be reddish, more wine must be added. In certain parts of 
France, Holland and of the Rhine district a different procedure is 
adopted. Two casks, fitted with false bottoms on which are placed 
vine cuttings, are taken; one cask is completely filled with the wine, 
whilst the other is only half filled. The acetification proceeds 
more rapidly in the second cask, and after twenty-four hours half 
the contents of the first cask are transferred to it, and the process 
repeated. The product is settled in casks containing birch wood, 
and after fourteen days it is put upon the market. 

In preparing malt vinegar, an infusion of malt is prepared by 
extracting it with water at 72 , then at a higher temperature and 
finally at the boiling-point. After cooling the extracts are fer- 
mented with yeast, and the product kept for some months before 
acetification. This step can be effected by the quick process as 
described above, or by the slow process. In the latter the liquid at 
25° is transferred to barrels lying on their sides and the fermentation 
allowed to proceed. When the process is complete the product is 
filtered through rapes in a fining tun. This is a cask fitted with a 
false bottom in which are placed spent tanner's wood, shavings, 
or, better, the pressed stalks and skins of grapes and raisins from 
wine manufacture. Household vinegar is made in upright casks; 
after twenty-four hours it is transferred to a similar cask, and the 
process repeated in a third and fourth cask. Malt vinegar is sold in 
four strengths designated 18, 20, 22, 24, the last being " proof " 
vinegar, containing 6% of acetic acid and having a specific gravity 
of 1-019. These numbers represent the grains of dry pure sodium 
carbonate, which are neutralized by one fluid ounce of the vinegar. 

Several other vinegars are made. Crystal vinegar is ordinary 
vinegar decolorized by treatment with animal charcoal. Ale 
vinegar is prepared from strong sour pale ale; it has a tendency 
to putrefy. Glucose or sugar vinegar is made by first fermenting 
amylaceous substances to alcohol, and then acetifying the alcohol. 
Compound table vinegars are made by digesting ordinary vinegar 
with condiments such as pepper, garlic, capers, &c. ; whilst 
aromatic vinegars popularly used in vinaigrettes on account of their 
refreshing, stimulating pungency are obtained by distilling ordinary 
vinegar with plants, perfumes and aromatic substances. Medicinal 
vinegars are prepared either by digestion or distillation of vinegar 
with various drugs. Vinegar, however, is not now much used in 
medicine, although occasionally taken, under a false impression, in 
order to reduce obesity. 

Wood vinegar is not used in cooking, as it lacks those substances 
which render ordinary vinegar palatable. It is largely manu- 
factured for conversion into pure acetic acid and acetom ; and also 
for use as an antiseptic and wood preservative. (See Acetic Acid.) 

VINELAND, a borough of Cumberland county, New Jersey 
U.S.A., in the southern part of the state, about 34 m. S. ot 
Philadelphia and about 115 m. S.W. of New York. Pop. 
(1890)3822; (1900)4370, including jgoforeign-boru; (1905 state 
census) 4593; (1910) 5282. Area, r sq. m. It is served by the 
Central of New Jersey and the West Jersey & Seashore railways, 
and by electric railway to Miilville and Bridgeton. Vineland 
is situated at an altitude of 90-118 ft. above the sea. on a 



generally level or slightly undulating plain, and has unusually 
broad, straight and well-shaded streets. The borough main- 
tains a public library, a public park of 40 acres, artesian water- 
works, a sewerage system and an electric lighting plant. It 
is the seat of the New Jersey Training School for Feeble- 
Minded Girls and Boys (1888), the State Home for the Care 
and Training of Feeble-Minded Women (1888), and the State 
Home for Disabled Soldiers, Sailors, Marines and their Wives. 
The Vineland Historical and Antiquarian Society (organized 
in 1864) has a library (8000 volumes in 1509) housed in the 
Society's building, and it maintains a free lecture course. 
Saloons for the sale of intoxicating liquors have never been 
allowed in Vineland. The surrounding country is largely de- 
voted to the growing of small fruits, grapes, peaches, pears 
and apples, and the raising of sweet potatoes; and within 
the borough are manufactured unfermented grape juice wine, 
boots and shoes, clothing, carpets, rugs, chenille curtains, pearl 
buttons, flint-glass tubes and bottles, and iron castings. 

Vineland was founded in 1861 by Charles K. Landis (1835- 
1000), who conceived the idea of creating a settlement in the 
almost uninhabited " Pines " of Southern New Jersey, and 
after purchasing a large tract he laid out a village with small 
farms adjoining. The settlers, largely from New England 
and the Middle States, received the land at moderate prices 
on agreeing to make certain stipulated improvements. The 
township of Landis (pop. in 1910, 643s), named in honour 
of the founder of the settlement, was incorporated in 1864, 
having formerly been a part of Millville; from it Vineland was 
separated and was incorporated as a borough in 1880. 

See The Founder's Own Story of the Founding of Vineland 
(Vineland, 1903), a pamphlet published by the Vinelanu Historical 
and Antiquarian Society. 

VINER, SIR ROBERT (1631-1688), lord mayor of London, 
was born in Warwick, but migrated in early life to London, 
where he was apprenticed to his uncle, Sir Thomas Viner (1558- 
1665), a goldsmith, who was lord mayor of London in 1653-54, 
and who was created a baronet in 166 1. Soon Robert became 
a partner in his kinsman's business, and in 1666 an alderman 
of the city of London; in 1665 he was made a knight, and in 
the following year a baronet. He was sheriff during the year 
of the great fire in London, and was chosen lord mayor in 1674. 
Combining like his uncle the business of a banker with that 
of a goldsmith, Viner was brought much into contact with 
Charles II. and with the court. The king attended his mayoral 
banquet, and the lord mayor erected an equestrian statue in his 
honour on a spot now covered by the Mansion House. Having 
been appointed the king's goldsmith in 1661, Sir Robert was 
one of those who lent large sums of money for the expenses 
of the state and the extravagances of the court; over £400,000 
was owing to him when the national exchequer suspended 
payment in 1672, and he was reduced to the necessity of com- 
pounding with his creditors. He obtained from the state an 
annuity of £25,000. Viner died at Windsor on the 2nd of 
September 1688. 

See Viner: a Family History, published anonymously (1885). 

VINET, ALEXANDRE RODOLPHE (1797-1847), French 
critic and theologian, of Swiss birth, was born near Lausanne 
on the 17th of June 1797. He was educated for the Protestant 
ministry, being ordained in 1819, when already teacher of the 
French language and literature in the gymnasium at Basel; 
and during the whole of his life he was as much a critic as a 
theologian. His literary criticism brought him into contact 
with Sainte-Beuve, for whom he procured an invitation to 
lecture at Lausanne, which led to his famous work on Port- 
Royal. Vinet's Chrestcmathie franqaise (1829), his Eludes sur 
la lilterature franqaise au XIX"" siicle (1849-51), and his 
Histoire ie la litlirature franqaise au X VIII"" slide, together 
with his Eludes sur Pascal, Etudes sur les mcralisles aux XVI"" 
el XVII"" siecles, Histoire de la predication parmi les Riformls 
de France and other kindred works, gave evidence of a wide 
knowledge of literature, a sober and acute literary judgment 
and a distinguished faculty of appreciation. He adjusted his 

xx vm. 4 

theories to the work under review, and condemned nothing so 
long as it was good work according to the writer's own standard. 
His criticism had the singular advantage of being in some 
sort foreign, without the disadvantage which attaches in French 
eyes to all criticism of things French written in a foreign language. 
As theologian he gave a fresh impulse to Protestant theology, 
especially in French-speaking lands, but also in England and 
elsewhere. Lord Acton classed him with Rothe. He built 
all on conscience, as that wherein man stands in direct per- 
sonal relation with God as moral sovereign, and the seat of 
a moral individuality which nothing can rightly infringe. 
Hence he advocated complete freedom of religious belief, and 
to this end the formal separation :>f church and state {Memoire 
en faveur de la liberty des cultes (1826), Essai sur la conscience 
(1829), Essai sur la manifestation des convictions religieuses (1842). 
Accordingly, when in 1845 the civil power in the canton of 
Vaud interfered with the church's autonomy, he led a secession 
which took the name of VEglise libre. But already from 
1 83 1, when he published his Discours sur quelques sujets religieux 
(Nomieaux discours, 1841), he had begun to exert a liberalizing 
and deepening influence on religious thought far beyond his 
own canton, by bringing traditional doctrine to the test of a 
living personal experience (see also Frommel, Gaston). In 
this he resembled F. W. Robertson, as also in the change which 
he introduced into pulpit style and in the permanence of his 
influence. Vinet died on the 4th of May 1847 at Clarens 
(Vaud). A considerable part of his works was not printed till 
after his death. 

His life was written in 1875 by Eugene Rambcrt, who re-edited 
the Chrestomathie in 1876. See also L. M. Lane, Life and Writings 
of A. Vinet (1800) ; L. Molines, Etude sur Alexandre Vinet (Paris, 
1890) ; V. Rossel, Hist, de la litt. franqaise hors de France (Lausanne, 
r895); V. Rivet, Etudes sur les origines de la pensee religieuse de 
Vinet (Paris, 1896); A. Schumann, Alex. Vinet (1907). A uniform 
edition of his works was begun in 1908, sec Revue de theologie el 
philosopkie (Lausanne, 1908, 234 sqq.). (J. V; B.) 

VINGT-ET-UN (colloquially, " Van John "), a round game 
of cards, at which any number of persons may play, though 
five or six are enough. The right to deal having been decided, 
the dealer gives one card face downwards to each person, in- 
cluding himself. The others thereupon look at their cards 
and declare their stakes — one, two, three or more counters or 
chips — according to the value of their cards. When all have 
staked, the dealer looks at his own card and can double all 
stakes if he chooses. The amount of the original stake should 
be set by each player opposite his card. Another card is their 
dealt, face downwards, all round; each player looking at bis 
own. The object of the game is to make 21, by the pips or. 
the cards, an ace counting as 1 or n, and the court cards as 
10 each. Hence a player who receives an ace and a ten-card 
scores 21 at once. This is called a "natural"; the holder 
receives twice — sometimes thrice — the stake or the doubled 
stake. If the dealer has a natural too, the usual rule is 
that the other natural pays nothing, in spite of the rule of 
" ties pay the dealer." The deal passes to the player who 
turns up the natural, unless it occurs in the first round of a 
deal or the dealer has a natural too. If the dealer has not a 
natural, he asks each player in turn, beginning with the player 
on his left, if he wishes for another card or cards, the object 
still being to get to 21, or as near up to it as possible. The 
additional cards are given him one by one, face upwards, though 
the original cards are not exposed. If he requires no additional 
card, or when he has drawn sufficient, he says, " Content," 
or " I stand." If a player overdraws, i.e. if his cards count 
more than 21, he pays the dealer at once. When all 
are either overdrawn or content, the dealer may "stand" 
on his own hand, or draw cards, 'ill he is overdrawn or stands. 
All the hands are then shewn, the dealer paying those players 
whose cards are nearer to 21 than his own, and receiving from 
all the others, as " ties pay the dealer." If the dealer's cards, 
with the additions, make exactly 21, he receives double the 
stake, or doubled stake; if a player holds 21, he receives double 
likewise, but ties still pay the dealer. If a player receives two 

9 8 


similar cards he may put his stake on each and draw on them 
separately, receiving or paying according as he stands success- 
fully or overdraws, but the two cards must be similar, i.e. he 
cannot draw on both a knave and a queen, or a king and a 
ten, though their values are equal for the purpose of counting. 
A natural drawn in this way, however, only counts as 21, and 
does not turn out the dealer. Similarly a player may draw on 
three cards, or even four, should they be dealt him. A player 
who overdraws on one of such cards must declare and pay 
immediately, even though he stands on another. After a hand 
is played, the " pone " (Latin for " behind ") — the player on 
the dealer's right — collects and shuffles the cards played, the 
dealer dealing from the remainder of the pack, till it is exhausted, 
when he takes the cards the pone holds, after the pone has cut 
them. It is a great advantage to deal, as the dealer receives 
from all who have already withdrawn, even if he overdraws 

French Vingt-et-un, or vingt-et-un with variations, is played by 
any number of persons. The first deal is played as in the ordinary 
game. In the second (" Imaginary Tens ") each player is supposed 
to hold a ten-card and receives one card from the dealer, face down- 
wards; he is then considered to hold a ten-card plus the one dealt, 
and stands or draws, receives or pays, as in the ordinary game. If 
he receives an ace he holds a natural. In the third deal (" Blind 
Vingt-et-un ") each player receives two cards, and draws or stands 
without looking at either. The fourth deal is " Sympathy and 
Antipathy," each player staking, and declaring which of the two 
he backs: two cards are then dealt to him: if they are of the same 
colour, it is "sympathy"; if of different colours, "antipathy." 
At the fourth deal (Rouge-et-noir) , each player, having received three 
cards, bets that the majority will be either black or red, as he chooses. 
In " Self and Company " every one stakes but the dealer, who then 
sets out two cards, face upwards, one for himself and one for the 
players. If the two cards are pairs, the dealer wins; if not, he deals 
till one of the cards exposed is paired, paying or receiving according 
as that card belongs to himself or the ' company." The seventh 
deal is " Paying the difference." Each player receives two cards, 
face upwards. The dealer pays or receives a stake for the difference 
in number between the pips on his own cards and those of each 
player. The ace counts as one. The eighth deal is " Clock." The 
stakes are pooled. The dealer deals the cards out, face upwards, 
calling " one " for the first, " two " for the second, and so on, the 
knave being 11, queen 12, and king 13. If any of the cards dealt 
correspond to the number called, the dealer takes the pool ; if none 
correspond, he forfeits that amount. At the end of this (the eighth) 
deal, the next player deals. 

VINITA, a city and the county-seat of Craig county, Okla- 
homa, U.S.A., in the N.E. part of the state, about 135 m. E.N.E. 
of Guthrie. Pop. (1900) 2339; (1907) 3157, including 624 
Indians and 479 negroes; (igio) 4082. Vinita is served by the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas and the St Louis & San Francisco 
railways. In the city are the Sacred Heart Institute (Roman 
Catholic), and a hospital for masons. Vinita is situated in an 
agricultural and stock-raising region, and lead, zinc, oil and 
natural gas are found in the vicinity; the city's water supply is 
obtained from artesian wells. Bricks are manufactured. The 
first settlement was made here in 1870 and Vinita was chartered 
as a city in 1898. 

VINLAND (Old Norse, V inland, i.e. Vineland or Wineland), 
some region on the eastern, coast of -North America, visited and 
named by the Norsemen in the beginning of the nth century. 
The word first appeared in print in Adam of Bremen's De- 
scriptio Insularum Aquilonis, an appendix to his Gesta Hamma- 
burgensis Ecdesiae Pontificum, published by Lindenbrog in 
1595. In pursuit of historical study, Adam visited the Danish 
court during the reign of the well-informed monarch Svend 
Estridsson (1047-1076), and Writes that the king " spoke of an 
island (or country) in that ocean discovered by many, which is 
called Vinland, because of the wild grapes [iiites] that grow 
there, out of which a very good wine can be made. Moreover, 
•hat grain unsown grows there abundantly [fruges ibi non 
seminatas abiindare] is not a fabulous fancy, but is based on 
trustworthy accounts of the Danes." This passage offers im- 
portant corroboration of the Icelandic accounts of the Vinland 
voyages, and is, furthermore, interesting " as the only un- 
doubted reference to Vinland in a medieval book written be- 
yond the limits of the Scandinavian world " (Fiske). Adam's 

information concerning Vinland did not, however, impress his 
medieval readers, as he placed the new land somewhere in the 
Arctic regions: " All those regions which are beyond are filled 
with insupportable ice and boundless gloom." These words 
show the futility of ascribing to Adam's account Columbus's 
knowledge of lands in the West, as many overzealous advocates 
of the Norse discoveries have done. The importance of the 
information, meagre as it is, lies in the fact that Adam received 
from the lips of kinsmen of the explorers (as the Danes in a 
sense were) certain characteristic facts (the finding of grapes 
and unsown grain) that support the general reliability of the 
Icelandic sagas which tell of the Vinland voyages (in which 
these same facts are prominent), but which were not put into 
writing by the Norsemen until later — just how much later it is 
not possible to determine. The fact that the Icelandic sagas 
concerning Vinland are not contemporaneous written records 
has caused them to be viewed by many with suspicion; hence 
such a significant allusion as that by Adam of Bremen is not 
to be overlooked. To the student of the Norse sources, Adam's 
reference is not so important, as the internal evidence of the 
sagas is such as to give easy credence to them as records of 
exploration in regions previously unknown to civilization. The 
contact with savages would alone prove that. 

During the middle ages the Scandinavians were the first to 
revive geographical science and to practise pelagic navigation. 
For six centuries previous to about 800, European interest in 
practical geographical expansion was at a standstill. During 
the 6th and 7th centuries, Irish anchorites, in their " passion 
for solitude," found their way to the Hebrides, Orkneys, Shet- 
lands, Faroes and Iceland, but they were not interested in 
colonization or geographical knowledge. The discovery of new 
lands in the West by the Norsemen came in the course of the 
great Scandinavian exodus of the 9th, 10th and nth centuries — 
the Viking Age — when Norsemen, Swedes and Danes swarmed 
over all Europe, conquering kingdoms and founding colonies. 
The main stream of Norsemen took a westerly course, striking 
Great Britain, Ireland and the Western Isles, and ultimately 
reached Iceland (in 874), Greenland (in 985) and Vinland (in 
1000). This western migration was due mainly to political 
dissatisfaction in Norway, doubtless augmented by a restless 
spirit of adventure. The chiefs and their followers that settled 
Iceland were " picked men," the flower of the land, and sought 
a new home from other motives than want or gain. They sought 
political freedom. In Iceland they lived active, not to say 
tumultuous, lives, and left fine literary records of their doings 
and achievements. The Icelandic colony was an interesting 
forerunner of the American republic, having a prosperous 
population living under a republican government, and main- 
taining an independent national spirit for nearly four centuries. 

Geographically Iceland belongs to America, and its coloniza- 
tion meant, sooner or later, the finding of other lands to the 
West. A century later Greenland was peopled from Iceland, 
and a colony existed for over four hundred years, when it was 
snuffed out, doubtless by hostile Eskimos. Icelandic records, 
among them the Vinland sagas, also a Norwegian work of the 
13th century, called Speculum regale (The King's Mirror), and 
some papal letters, give interesting glimpses of the life of this 
colony. It was from the young Greenland colony that an 
attempt was made to establish a new outpost in Vinland, but 
plans for permanent settlement were given up on account of 
the hostility of the natives, with whom the settlers felt powerless 
to grapple. Gunpowder had not yet been invented. 

Icelandic literature consists mainly of the so-called " sagas," 
or prose narratives, and is rich in historical lore. In the case 
of the Vinland sagas, however, there are two independent narra- 
tives of the same events, which clash in the record of details. 
Modern investigators have been interested in establishing the 
superiority of one over the other of the two narratives. One of 
them is the " Saga of Eric the Red " as found in the collection 
known as Hauk's Book, so called because the manuscript was 
made by Hauk Erlendsson, an Icelander who spent much of his 
life in Norway. It was copied, in part by Hauk himself, between 



the years 1305 and 1334, the date of his death, and probably 
during the period 1310-20. It is No. 544 of the Arne- 
Magnaean collection in Copenhagen. Another manuscript 
that tells the same story, with only verbal variations, is found 
in No. 557 of the same collection: This manuscript was made 
later than Hauk's, probably in the early part of the 15th century, 
but it is not a copy of Hauk's. Both were made independently 
from earlier manuscripts. The story as found in these two 
manuscripts has been pronounced by competent critics, especi- 
ally Professor Gustav Storm of the university of Christiania, 
as the best and the most trustworthy record. 

The other saga, which by chance 'came to be looked upon as 
the chief repository of facts concerning the Viniand voyages, is 
found in a large Icelandic work known as the Flatey Book, as 
it was once owned by a man who lived on Flat Island (Flatey), 
on the north-western coast of Iceland. This collection of sagas, 
completed in about 1380, is " the most extensive and most 
perfect of Icelandic manuscripts," and was sent to Denmark in 
1662 as a gift to the king. It was evidently the general ex- 
cellence of this collection that gave the version of the Viniand 
story that it contained precedence, in the works of early investi- 
gators, over the Viniand story of Hauk's Book. (Reeves's 
Finding of Wineland contains fine photographs of all the vellum 
pages that give the various Viniand narratives.) 

According to Flatey Book saga, Biarni Heriulfsson, on a 
voyage from Iceland to Greenland in the early days of the 
Greenland colony, was driven out of his course and sighted new 
lands to the south-west. He did not go ashore (which seems 
strange), but sailed northward to Greenland. Fifteen years 
later, according to this account, Leif Ericsson set out from 
Greenland in search of the lands that Biarni had seen, found 
them and named them — Helluland (Flat-stohe-land) , Markland 
(Forestland) and Viniand. After his return to Greenland, 
several successive expeditions visited the new lands, none of 
which (strangely enough) experienced any difficulty in finding 
Leif's hut in the distant Viniand. 

According to the Viniand saga in Hauk's Book, Leif Ericsson, 
whose father, Eric the Red, had discovered and colonized Green- 
land, set out on a voyage, in 999, to visit Norway, the native land 
of his father. He visited the famous King Olaf Tryggvason, who 
reigned from 995 to 1000, and was bending his energies toward 
Christianizing Norway and Iceland. He immediately saw in Leif 
a likely aid in the conversion of the Greenlanders. Leif was 
converted and consented to become the king's emissary to 
Greenland, and the next year (rooo) started on his return voyage. 
The saga says that he was " tossed about " on this long voyage, 
and came upon an unknown country, where he found " self- 
sown wheatfields, and vines," and also some trees called " mosur," 
of which he took specimens. Upon his arrival in Greenland, 
Leif presented the message of King Olaf, and seems to have 
attempted no further expeditions. But his visits to the new 
lands aroused much interest, and his brother Thorstein made an 
unsuccessful attempt to find them. Later, in 1003, an Icelander, 
Thorfinn Karlsefni, who was visiting the Greenland colony, and 
who had married Gudrid, the widow of Leif's brother Thorstein, 
set out with four vessels and 160 followers to found a colony in 
the new lands. Here they remained three years, during which 
time a son, Snorri, was bom to Thorfinn and Gudrid. This 
expedition, too, found " grapes and self-sown wheat," though 
seemingly not in any great abundance. Concerning the southern- 
most region of Viniand, the saga says: "They found self-sown 
wheatfields in the lowlands, but vines everywhere on higher 
places. . . . There were great numbers of wild animals in the 
woods." Then the saga relates that one morning a large 
number of men in skin canoes came paddling toward them and 
landed, staring curiously at them: " They were swarthy men 
and ill-looking, and the hair of their heads was ugly; they had 
large eyes and broad cheeks." Later the saga says: "No^ snow 
came there, and all of their live stock lived by grazing, and 
thrived." The natives appeared again the next spring, and a 
clash occurred. Fearing continued trouble with them, Karlsefni 
resolved to return to Greenland. This he did a year later, and 

spent the winter of 1006-7 there, whereupon he settled in 
Iceland. From him and Gudrid a number of prominent 
ecclesiastics claimed descent, and also Hauk Erlendsson. The 
Viniand story was doubtless a cherished family possession, 
and was put into writing, when writing sagas, instead of telling 
them, came into fashion. And here It is important to remember 
that before the age of writing in Iceland there was a saga-telling 
age, a most remarkable period of intellectual activity, by the aid 
of which the deeds and events of the seething life of the heroic 
age was carried over into the age of writing. " Among the 
medieval literatures of Europe, that of Iceland is unrivalled in 
the profusion of detail with which the facts of ordinary life are 
recorded, and the clearness with which the individual character 
of numberless real persons stand out from the historic back- 
ground " (Origines Islandicae). Icelandic literary history says 
that Ari the Learned (born in 1067) was " the first man in this 
land who wrote in the Norse tongue history relating to times 
ancient and modern." Among his works is the Book of 
Settlements, " a work of thorough and painstaking research 
unequalled in medieval literature " (Fiskc). His work The 
Book of Icelanders is unfortunately lost, but an abridgment 
of it, Libellus Islandorum, made by Ari him3elf, contains a 
significant reference to Viniand. It tells that the colonists in 
Greenland found " both broken cayaks (canoes) and stone 
implements, whereby it may be seen that the same kind of 
folk had been there as they which inhabited Viniand, and 
whom the men of Greenland (i.e. the explorers) called the 
'skraelings' (i.e. inferior people)." From this allusion one 
cannot but think that so keen and alert a writer as Ari had given 
some attention to Viniand in the lost work. But of this there 
is no other proof. We are left to affirm, on account of definite 
references in various sagas and annals to Leif Ericsson and the 
discovery of Viniand, that the saga as preserved in Hauk's Book 
(and also in No. 557) rested on a strong viva voce tradition that 
was early put into writing by a competent hand. Dr Finnur 
Jonsson of Copenhagen says: "The classic form of the saga and 
its vivid and excellent tradition surely carry it back to about 
1200." This conservative opinion does not preclude the possi- 
bility, or even probability, that written accounts of the Viniand 
voyages existed before this date. Vigfusson, in speaking of the 
sagas in general, says: " We believe that when once the first saga 
was written down, the others were in quick succession committed 
to parchment, some still keeping their form through a succession 
of copies, other changed. . . . That which was not written down 
quickly, in due time, was lost and forgotten for ever." 

The fact that there are discrepancies between the two ver- 
sions as they appear in the Hauk's Book and in the Flatey Book 
does not justify the overthrow of both as historical evidence. 
The general truth of the tradition is strengthened by the fact 
that it has come down from two independent sources. One of 
them must be the better, however, and this it is the province of 
competent scholars to determine. The best modem scholarship 
gives the precedence to the Hauk's Book narrative; as it harmonizes 
better with well-established facts of Scandinavian history, and 
is besides a more plausible account. In accordance with this 
decision, Biarni Heriulfson's adventure should be eliminated, 
the priority of discovery given to Leif Ericsson, and the honour 
of being the first European colonists on the American continent 
awarded to Thorfinn Karlsefni and his followers. This was 
evidently the only real attempt at colonization, despite the 
numerous contentions to the contrary. Under date of 1121 the 
Icelandic annals say: " Bishop Eric of Greenland went in search 
of Viniand." Nothing further is recorded. The fact that his 
successor as bishop was appointed in 1 1 23 would seem to indicate 
that the Greenlanders had information that Eric had perished. • 

The only important phase of the Viniand voyages that has not 
been definitely settled is the identifications of the regions visited 
by Leif and Thorfinn. The Danish antiquarian Rafn, in his 
monumental Antiquitates Americanae, published in 1837, and 
much discussed in America at that time, held for Rhode Island 
as Leif's landfall and the locality of Thorfinn 's colony. Pro- 
fessor E. N. Horsford, in a number of monographs (unfortunately 



of no historical or scientific value), fixed upon the vicinity of 
Boston, where now stand a Leif Ericsson statue and Horsford's 
Norumbega Tower as testimonials to the Norse explorers. But 
in 1887 Professor Storm announced his conviction that the 
lands visited by the Norsemen in the early part of the nth 
century were Labrador, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. And 
a careful reading of the Hank's Book narrative seems to show 
that the numerous details of the saga fit Nova Scotia remarkably 
well, and much better than any other part of the continent. 
This view has in recent years been quite generally accepted by 
American scholars. But in 1910 Professor M. L. Fernald, a 
botanist of Harvard University, published a paper in Rhodora, 
vol. 12, No. 134, in which he contends that it is most probable 
that the " vinber " of the sagas were not " grapes/' but " wine- 
berries," also known as the mountain or rock cranberries. The 
" self-sown wheat " of the sagas he identifies as strand wheat, 
instead of Indian corn, or wild rice, and the mosur trees as the 
canoe birch. He thinks the natives were Eskimos, instead of 
American Indians, as stoutly maintained by John Fiske. Pro- 
fessor Fernald concludes his paper by saying that: " The mass 
of evidence which the writer has in hand, and which will soon be 
ready for publication, makes it clear that, if we read the sagas 
in the light of what we know of the abundant occurrence north of 
the St Lawrence of the ' vinber ' ( V actinium Vilis-Idaea or 
possibly Ribes triste, R. prostratum, or R. lacuslre), ' hveiti ' 
(Elymus arenarius), and ' mosur ' (Belula alba, i.e. B. papyri/era 
of many botanists), the discrepancies in geography, ethnology 
and zoology, which have been so troublesome in the past, will 
disappear; other features, usually considered obscure, will 
become luminous; and the older and less distorted sagas, at 
least in their main incidents, will become vivid records of actual 
geographic exploration." 

It is possible that Professor Fernald may show conclusively 
that Leif's landfall was north of the St Lawrence. That the 
" vinber " were mountain cranberries would explain the fact, 
mentioned in the Flaley Book saga, that Leif filled his after- 
boat with " vinber " in the spring, which is possible with the 
cranberries, as they are most palatable after having lain under 
the snow for the winter. But Thorfinn Karlsefni found no 
abundance of " vinber," in fact one of his followers composed 
some verses to express his disappointment on this score. 
" Vines " were found only in the southernmost regions visited 
by Karlsefni. It is to be noted that the word " vines " is 
more prominent in the Hank's Book narrative than the word 
" vinber." At present it does not seem likely that Professor 
Fernald's argument will seriously affect Professor Storm's 
contention that Thorfinn's colony was in Nova Scotia. At 
any rate, the incontrovertible facts of the Vinland voyages 
are that Leif and Thorfinn were historical characters, that 
they visited, in the early part of the nth century, some part 
of the American continent south-west of Greenland, that they 
found natives whose hostility prevented the founding of a 
permanent settlement, and that the sagas telling of these 
things are, on the whole, trustworthy descriptions of actual 

Bibliography. — The bibliography of this subject is large, but 
adequate documents, accounts and discussions may be found in 
the following modern works: Gustav Storm, Studies on the Vine- 
land Voyages (Copenhagen, 1889); Arthur M. Reeves, The Finding 
of Wineland, the Good (London, 1890 and 1895); John Fiske, The 
Discovery of America, vol. 1. (Boston, 1892) ; Juul Dieserud, " Norse 
Discoveries in America," in Bulletin of the American Geographical 
Society, vol. xxxiii. (New York, 1901); Gudbrandr Vigfusson and 
F. Yorke Powell, Origines Islandicae (Oxford, 1905); and Julius 
E. Olson and others, The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, q8 5-1 503 
(New York, 1906), the first volume of Original Narratives of Early 
American History. (J. E. O.) 

VINOGRADOFF, PAUL (1854- ), Anglo-Russian jurist, 
was born at Kostroma in Russia. He became professor of 
history in the university of Moscow, but his zeal for the spread 
of education brought him into conflict with the authorities, 
and consequently he was obliged to leave Russia. Having 
settled in England, Vinogradoff brought a powerful and original 
mind to bear upon the social and economic conditions of early 

England, a subject whiqh he had already begun to study in 
Moscow. His Villainage in England (1892) is perhaps the 
most important book written on the peasantry of the feudal 
age and the village community in England; it can only be 
compared for value with F. W. Maitland's Domesday Book and 
Beyond. In masterly fashion Vinogradoff here shows that 
the villein of Norman times was the direct descendant of the 
Anglo-Saxon freeman, and that the typical Anglo-Saxon 
settlement was a free community, not a manor, the position 
of the freeman having steadily deteriorated in the centuries 
just around the Norman Conquest. The status of the villein 
and the conditions of the manor in the 12th and 13th centuries 
are set forth with a legal precision and a wealth of detail which 
shows its author, not only as a very capable historian, but 
also as a brilliant and learned jurist. Almost equally valuable 
was Vinogradov's essay on " Folkland " in vol. viii. of the 
English Historical Review (1893), which proved for the first time 
the real nature of this kind of land. Vinogradoff followed up 
his Villainage in England with The Growth of the Manor (1905) 
and English Society in the nth Century (1908), works on the lines 
of his earlier book. In 1903 he was appointed Corpus professor 
of jurisprudence in the university of Oxford, and subsequently 
became a fellow of the British Academy. He received honorary 
degrees from the principal universities, was made a member 
of several foreign academies and was appointed honorary 
professor of history at Moscow. 

VINOY, JOSEPH (1803-1880), French soldier, was originally 
intended for the Church, but, after some years at a seminary, 
he decided upon a military career, and entered the army in 
1823. When he was a sergeant in the 14th line infantry, he took 
part in the Algerian expedition of 1830. He won his com- 
mission at the capture of Algiers, and during the subsequent 
campaigns he rose by good service to the rank of colonel. He 
returned to France in 1850, and in the Crimean War served 
under Canrobert as general of brigade. For his brilliant con- 
duct at the Malakoff he was promoted general of division, and 
he led a division of Niel's corps in the campaign of Solferino. 
Retired on account of age in 1865, he was recalled to active 
service on the outbreak of the war of 1870, and after the early 
reverses was put at the head of the XIII. army corps, which, 
fortunately for France, did not arrive at the front in time to 
be involved in the catastrophe of Sedan. By a skilful retreat 
he brought his corps intact to Paris on September 7th. Vinoy 
during the siege commanded the III. army operating on the 
south side of the capital and took part in all the actions in 
that quarter. On Trochu's resignation he was appointed to 
the supreme command, in which capacity he had to negotiate 
the surrender. During the commune he held important 
commands in the army of Versailles, and occupied the burning 
Tuileries and the Louvre on May 23rd. He was in the same 
year made grand chancellor of trie Legion of Honour. 

Vinoy wrote several memoirs on the war of 1870-71; Operations 
de Varmee pendant le siege de Paris (1872), L* Armistice et la com- 
mune (1872), V Armee francaise (1873). 

VINT, a Russian card-game. It is generally considered as 
the immediate ancestor of Bridge (q,v.). Vint means in 
Russian " screw," and is given to the game because the four 
players, each in turn, propose, bid and overbid each other 
until one, having b>d higher than the others care to follow, 
makes the trump, his vis-a-vis becoming his partner. It has 
many points of resemblance to Bridge. The cards have the 
same rank; the score of tricks is entered under the line, and 
points for slam, penalties and honours above the line; while 
the value of the different suits is the same as in Bridge: spades, 
clubs, diamonds, hearts and " no trumps." In a " no trump " 
declaration aces only count as honours; in a suit declaration 
both the aces and the five next highest cards. During the 
progress of the bidding and declaring, opportunity is taken by 
the players to indicate by their calls their strength in the 
various suits and the high cards they hold, so that, when the 
playing begins, the position of the best cards and the strength 
of the different hands can often be fairly accurately estimated. 



The leads are subject to much the same rules as those in 

See The Laws and Principles of Vint, edited by Frank W. Haddan 
(London, 1900). 

VINTON, FREDERIC PORTER (1846- ), American 

portrait painter, was born at Bangor, Maine, on the 29th of 
January 1S46. He was a pupil of Duveneck, of William M. 
Hunt in Boston, of Leon Bonnat and Jean Paul Laurens in 
Paris, and of the Royal Academy of Munich. In 1891 he was 
elected a full member of the National Academy of Design, 
New York. 

VIOL, a generic term for the bowed precursors of the violin 
(q.v.), but in England more specially applied to those immediate 
predecessors of the violin which are distinguished in Italy and 
Germany as the Gamba family. The chief characteristics of 
the viols were a flat back, sloping shoulders, "c "-shaped 
sound-holes, and a short finger-board with frets. All these 
features were changed or modified in the violin, the back 
becoming delicately arched, the shoulders reverting to the 
rounded outline of the guitar or troubadour fiddle, the shape 
of the sound-holes changing from " c " to " f," and the finger- 
board being carried considerably nearer the bridge. The viols, 
of which the origin may be traced to the 13th and 14th cen- 
tury German Minnesinger fiddle, characterized also by sloping 
shoulders, can hardly be said to have evolved into the violin. 
The latter was derived from the guitar-fiddle through the 
Italian lyre or viol-lyra family, distinguished as da braccio and 
da gamba, and having early in the 17th century the outline 
and " f " sound-holes of the violin. The viol family consisted 
of treble, alto, tenor and bass instruments, being further 
differentiated as da braccio or da gamba according to the position 
in which they were held against the arm or between the knees. 
The favourite viol da gamba, or division viol, frequently had 
a man or a woman's head instead of the scroll finish to the peg- 
box, and sometimes a few fine wire sympathetic strings tuned 
an octave higher than the strings in the bridge. 

Michael Praetorius mentions no less than five sizes of the 
viol da gamba, the largest corresponding to the double bass, 
and in a table he notes the various accordances in use for each. 
He carefully distinguishes these instruments as violen and the 
viole da braccio (our violin family) as geigen. Of the latter he 
gives six sizes, the highest being the pochette with vaulted back, 
a rebec in fact, and the lowest corresponding to the violoncello, 
which he calls bass viol or geige da braccio. 

The viols were very popular in England in the 16th and 17th 
centuries, holding their own for a long time after the introduction 
of the louder-toned violin; they are fully described and figured in 
the musical works of the period, and more especially in Christopher 
Simpson's Division Viol (1667), Thomas Mace's Mustek's Monu- 
ment (1676) and John Playford's Introduction to the Skill of Music. 

(K. S.) 
VIOLA [Fr. viole, Ger. Bratsche, Ital. viola, alto], the tenor 
member of the violin family. The construction of the viola is 
the same, but on a larger scale, as that of the violin (q.v.). 
The instrument is pitched a perfect fifth below the violin. 

VIOLET. The violets comprise a large botanical genus 
{Viola) — in which more than 200 species have been described 
— found principally in temperate or mountain regions of the 
northern hemisphere; they also occur in mountainous districts 
of South America and South and Tropical Africa, while a few 
are found in Australasia. The species are mostly low-growing 
herbs with alternate leaves provided with large leafy stipules 
(fig. 1). The flowers, which are solitary, or rarely in pairs, at 
the end of slender axillary flower-stalks, are very irregular in 
form, with five sepals prolonged at the base, and five petals, 
the lowest one larger than the others and with a spur, in which 
collects the honey secreted by the spurs of the two adjoining 
stamens. The five anthers are remarkable for the coloured 
processes which extend beyond the anther cells and form a sort 
of cone around the style (fig. 2). The ovary is superior and 
one-celled, with three parietal placentas and numerous ovules; 
it bears a single style, which ends in a dilated or hood-like 
stigma (fig. 3). The fruit is a capsule bursting loculicidally, 

i.e. through the centre of each of the three valves. By the 
contraction of the valves the small smooth seeds, which form 

Fig. 1. — Leaf of Viola tricolor 
(Pansy) showing the large 
leafy stipules (sj. 

Fig. 2. — Two Stamens 

of Viola tricolor 
(Pansy), with their 
two anther lobes and 
the processpextend- 
ing beyond them. 
One of the stamens 
has been deprived of 
its spur; the other 
shows its spur, c. 

a row down the centre, are shot out to some little distance from 
the parent plant. The irregular construction of the flower is 
connected with fertilization by insect agency. To reach the 
honey in the spur of the flower, the insect must thrust its 
proboscis into the flower close under the globular head of the 
stigma. This lies in the anterior part of a groove fringed with 
hairs on the inferior petal. The anthers shed their pollen into 
this groove, either of themselves or when the pistil is shaken 
by the insertion of the bee's proboscis. The proboscis, passing 
down this groove to the spur, becomes dusted with pollen; 
as it. is drawn back, it presses up the lip-like valve of the 
stigma so that no pollen can enter the stigmatic chamber; 
but as it enters the next flower it leaves some pollen on the 
upper surface of the valve, and thus cross-fertilization is effected. 
In the sweet violet, V. odorata and other species, inconspicuous 
permanently closed or " cleistogamic " flowers (fig. 4) occur of a 

Fig. 3. — Pistil of Viola tricolor 
(Pansy). 1. Vertical section to 
show the ovules o, attached to 
the parietes. Two rows of ovules 
are seen, one in front and the 
other in profile, p, a thickened 
line on the walls forming the 
placenta; c, calyx; d r ovary; 
s, hooded stigma terminating the 
short style. 2. Horizontal section 
of the same, p, placenta ; 0, 
ovules; s, suture, or median line 
of carpel. 

Ftg. 4. — CleistogamicFlower 
of Viola sylvatica. 
1. Flower, 2. Flower 

more highly magnified 
and cut open, a, anther; 
5, pistil; st, style; v, stig- 
matic surface. 

greenish colour, so that they offer no attractions to insect visitors 
and their form is correspondingly regular. The anthers are so 
situated that the pollen on escaping comes into contact with 
the stigma; in such flowers self-fertilization is compulsory and 
very effectual, as seeds in profusion are produced. 

Several species of Viola are native to Great Britain. Viola 
canina (fig. 5) is the dog violet, many forms or subspecies of which 
are recognized ;_ V. odorata, sweet violet, is highly prized for its 
fragrance, and in cultivation numerous varieties have originated. 
The Neapolitan or Parma violet (var. pallida plena) is a form with 
very sweet-scented, double, pale lavender flowers; var. s-ulphtirea 
has shining deep green leaves and lemon-yellow flowers, deeper 
yellow in the centre, and with a pale-violet spur. Sweet violets like 
a rich, fairly heavy soil, with a north or north-west aspect if possible; 



they are readily increased by dividing the crowns after flowering. 
Other species known in gardens are: V. altaica, flowers yellow or 

Fig. 5.— Dog Violet (Viola canina). 

1. Floral diagram of Viola, showing arrangement of parts in hori- 

zontal plan, b, pair of bracteoles below the flower; j, sepals; 
p, petals; st, stamens; 0, ovary. 

2. Frutt, split open. 

violet with yellow eye; V. bifiora, a pretty little species 3-4 in. high 
with small yellow flowers, the large petal being streaked with black; 
V. calcarala, flowers light blue or white, or yellow in var. iiava\ 
V. cornuta, flowers pale blue — there are a few good varieties of 
this, including one with white flowers; V. cucullata, a free-flowering 
American species with violet-blue or purple flowers; V, Munbyana, 
a native of Algeria, with large violet or yellow flowers; V. peduta, 
the bird's -foot violet, with pedately divided leaves and usually 
bright blue flowers; V. rothomagensis, a native of western Europe, 
with flowers bright blue striped with black, and sometimes called 
the Rouen violet ; and V. suavis, a native of Asia Minor, the Russian 
violet, with pale-blue sweet-scented flowers. The garden pansies 
or heartseases are derivatives from V. tricolor, a cornfield weed, 
or V. altaica, a native of the Altai mountains. (See Pansy.) 
" Bedding violas," which differ from pansies in some slight technical 
details, have been raised from V. cornuta and V. lutea by crossing 
with the show pansies. The application of an infusion of violet 
leaves was at one time believed to have the power of reducing 
the size of cancerous growths, but its use is now discredited. 

VIOLIN, a musical instrument consisting essentially of a 
resonant box of peculiar form, over which four strings of 
different thicknesses are stretched across a bridge standing 
on the box, in such a way that the tension of the strings can 
be adjusted by means of revolving pegs to which they are 
severally attached at one end. The strings are tuned, by 
means of the pegs, m fifths, from the second or A string, which 
is tuned to a fundamental note of about 435 vibrations per 

second at the modern normal pitch: thus giving v?~-~-j^— - 

as the four open notes. To produce other notes of the scale 
the length of the strings is varied by stopping them with the 
fingers on a finger-board, attached to a " neck " at Lhe end of 
which is the " head " in which the pegs arc inserted. The 
strings are set in vibration by drawing across them a bow 
strung with horse-hair, which is rosined to increase adhesion. 

The characteristic features which, in combination, distinguish 
the violin (including in that family name its larger brethren 
the viola and the violoncello) from other stringed instruments 
are: the restriction of the strings to four, and their tuning 
in fifths; the peculiar form of the body, or resonating 
chamber, especially the fully moulded back as well as front, 
or belly; the shallow sides or " ribs " bent into characteristic 
curves; the acute angles of the corners where the curves of 
the ends and middle " bouts " or waist ribs meet; and the 
position and shape of the sound-holes, cut in the belly. By 

a gradual process of development in all these particulars the 
modern violin was evolved from earlier bowed instruments, 
and attained its highest perfection at the hands of the great 
Italian makers in the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries, since 
which time, although many experiments have been made, no 
material improvement has been effected upon the form and 
mode of construction then; adopted. 

The body, or sounding-box, of the violin is built up of two arched 
plates of' thin wood, the belly and the back, united by side pieces 
or ribs to. form a shallow box. The belly is cut from soft elastic 
wood, pine being universally used for this purpose, while the back is 
made of a close-grained wood, generally sycamore or maple. Both 
back and belly are carved to their model from the solid, but for 
utilitarian reasons are generally, though not always, built up of tw r o 
longitudinal sections; while the sides or ribs, of very thin sycamore 
or maple, usually in six sections, are bent on a mould, by the aid. of 
heat, to the required form. Into the corners are glued corner-blocks 
of soft wood, which help to retain the ribs in their sharply recurved 
form, and materially strengthen the whole structure. Into the 
angle of the joints between the sides and the back and belly are glued 
thin lining strips, bent to the mould, giving a bearing surface for 
the glued joint along the whole outline of the instrument; while, 
in addition, end blocks are inserted at the head and bottom of the 
body, the former to receive the base of the neck, and the latter the 
" tail pin " to which is attached the tail-piece, carrying the lower 
(fixed) ends of the strings. The belly is pierced with two sound- 
holes in the form of TT near, and approximately parallel to, the 

" bouts." The size, shape and position of these holes have an 
important influence on the character of the tone of the instrument, 
and present distinctive variations in the instruments of the different 
great makers. 

The neck, made of maple, is glued and now always mortised into 
the block at the upper end of the body, 1 bearing against a small 
semicircular projection of the back, and is inclined at such an angle 
that the finger-board, when glued on to its upper surface, may lie 
clear of the belly, over which it projects, but in such relation to the 
height of the bridge as to allow the strings to be stretched nearly 
parallel to, and at a convenient distance above, its own surface. 

The bridge, cut out of maple, in the peculiar form devised by 
Stradivari in the 17th century, and not since materially departed 
from, is in the violin about ii in. high by if in, wide, and tapers in 
thickness from about 5 in. at the base to ^ at the crown; but the 
dimensions of this very important member vary for different instru- 
ments according to the arch of the belly, the strength of the wood 
and other considerations. It is placed on the belly exactly midway 
between the sound-holes and in such a position as to stand on a 
transverse line dividing the surface into two approximately equal 
areas, that is, about ij in. below the middle, the lower end of the 
body being wider than the upper part or shoulders; whereby a 
greater length is rendered available for the vibrating portion of the 

A short distance behind the right foot of the bridge, the sound- 
post, a rod of soft pine about j in. thick, is fixed inside the body in 
contact with the belly and the back, and serves directly, not only to 
sustain the belly against the pressure of the bridge under the tension 
of the strings, but to convey vibrations to the back. It also exer- 
cises a very important influence on the nodal arrangement of these 
vibrating plates. The pressure of the other foot of the bridge, 
where the tension of the fourth string is far less than that of the 
first string, is partly sustained by the bass-bar — a strip of wood 
tapering from the middle to both ends, which is glued underneath 
the belly and extends to within rather less than 2 in. of the ends of 
the instrument. This fitting not only serves to strengthen the belly 
mechanically, but exerts a profound effect upon the vibrations of 
that plate. 

The fixed structure is completed by the head, which surmounts 
the neck and consists primarily of a narrow box into the sides of 
which are inserted the pegs round which the free ends of the strings 
are wound. The head is finished by an ornamentation w r hich in the 
hands of the Italian makers followed the traditional pattern of a 
scroll, or volute, offering the skilled craftsmen infinite scope for 
boldness and freedom in its execution; but sometimes, especially 
in the Tirolean instruments, it was carved in the form of an animal's 
head, usually a lion's. 

The strings, fastened at one end to an ebony tail-piece or tongue, 
which is itself attached by a gut loop to the pin at the base of the 
instrument, pass over the bridge, along the finger board and over the 
nut (a dwarf bridge forming the termination of the finger-board) to 
the pegs. The effective vibrating portion of the strings is accord- 
ingly the length between the nut and the bridge, and measures now 

1 Up to about the year 1800 the old Italian makers, including 
Stradivari (in his earlier instruments), usually strengthened the 
attachment of the neck by driving nails, frequently three and some- 
times four, through the top block into the base of the neck, which 
was not mortised into the block. 



in an ordinary full-Bized violin about 13 in. The portion of the 
strings to which the bow is applied lies over the space, measuring 
about 2\ in., between the bridge and the free end of the finger- 
board. The strings are manufactured from so-called catgut, made 
from the intestines of lambs, and range in thickness from the first 
to the third or D string from -026 to -046 in. more or less. The 
necessary weight is given to the string of lowest pitch, G, without 
unduly sacrificing its elasticity, by winding a thin gut string with 
fine silver wire to about the same thickness as the A string. 

An ornamental feature characteristic of nearly all violins is the 
purfling, a very thin slip of wood with margins of ebony or (rarely) 
whalebone, inlaid in thin strips close to # the edge of both plates, 
and following the entire outline of the instrument. In some in- 
struments, especially of the Brescian school, a double line of purfling 
was inserted. 

The total number of pieces of wood of which the .violin is composed 
amounts to about 70, varying, as the plates are made in one piece 
or built together, and with the number of sections in which the 
ribs are put together. Of this number 57 pieces are built into 
the permanent structure, while 13. may be described as fittings. 
The whole of the permanent structure is cemented together with 
glue alone, and it is a striking testimony to the mechanical condi- 
tions satisfied by the design, that the instrument built of such 
slender material withstands without deformation the considerable 
stresses applied to it. It is worthy of remark that after the lapse 
of so many years, since it attained perfect musical efficiency, no 
unessential adjunct has entered into the construction of this in- 
strument. No play of fancy has grafted anything beyond quite 
minor ornamentation on a work of art distinguished by its simplicity 
of pure outline and proportion. 

The following are the exact principal dimensions of a very fine 
specimen of Stradivari's work, which has been preserved in perfect 
condition since the latter end of the 17th century : — 

Length of body =14 in. full. 

Width across top =&H m - bare. 

Width across bottom =8J in. 

Height of sides (top) . . . =i T ; ^ „ 

Height of sides (bottom) . . . =1/3 >> 

The back is in one piece, supplemented a little in width at the lower 
part, after a common practice of the great makers, and is cut from 
very handsome wood; the ribs are of the same wood, while the belly 
is formed of two pieces of soft pine of rather fine and beautifully 
even grain. The sound-holes, cut with perfect precision, exhibit 
much grace and freedom of design. The scroll, which is very char- 
acteristic of the maker's style and beautifully modelled, harmonizes 
admirably with the general modelling of the instrument. The 
mode! i? flatter than in violins of the earlier period, and the design 
bold, while displaying all Stradivari's microscopic perfection of 
workmanship. The whole is coated with a very fine orange-red- 
brown varnish, untouched since it left the maker's hand in 1690, 
and the only respects in which the instrument has been altered since 
that date are in the fitting of the longer neck and stronger bass-bar 
necessitated by the increased compass and raised pitch of modern 
violin music. 

The measurements given above are the same as those of a well- 
known Stradivari of later date (1714). 

The acoustics of the violin are extremely complex, and not- 
withstanding many investigations by men of science, and the 
enunciation of some plausible hypotheses with regard 
to details of its operation as a musical instrument, 
remain as a whole obscure. So far as the elementary principles 
which govern its action are concerned, the violin follows 
familiar laws (see Sound). The different notes of the scale 
are produced by vibrating strings differing in weight and 
tension, and varying in length under the hand of the player. 
The vibrations of the strings are conveyed through the bridge 
to the body of the instrument, which fulfils the common function 
of a resonator in reinforcing the notes initiated by the strings. 
So far first principles carry us at once. But when we endeavour 
to elucidate in detail the causes of the peculiar character of 
tone of the violin family, the great range and variety in that 
character obtained in different instruments, the extent to 
which those qualities can be controlled by the bow of the 
player, and the mode in which they are influenced by minute 
variations in almost every component part of the instrument, 
we find ourselves faced by a series of problems which have so 
far defied any but very partial solution. 

The distinctive quality of the musical tones of the violin is 
generally admitted to be due largely to its richness in the upper 
harmonic or partial tones superimposed on the fundamental notes 
produced by the simple vibrations of the strings. 

The characteristic tone and its control by the player are un- 
doubtedly conditioned in the first place by the peculiar path of the 

vibrating string under the action of the rosined bow. This takes 
the form not of a symmetrical oscillation but of a succession of 
alternating bound and free movements, as the string adheres to the 
bow according to the pressure applied and, releasing itself by its 
elasticity, rebounds. 

The lightness of the material of which the strings are made 
conduces to the production of very high upper partial tones which 
give brilliancy of sound, while the low elasticity of the gut causes 
these high constituents to be quickly damped, thus softening the 
ultimate quality of the note._ 

In order that the resonating body of the instrument may fulfil 
its highest purpose in reinforcing the complex vibrations set up by 
the strings vibrating in the manner above described, not only as a 
whole, but in the number of related segments whose oscillations 
determine the upper partial tones, it is essential that the plates, 
and consequently the Dody of air contained between them, should 
respond sensitively to the selective impulses communicated to them. 
It is the attainment of this perfect selective responsiveness which 
marks the construction cf the best instruments. Many factors 
contribute to this result. The thickness of the plates in different 
parts of their areas, the size and form of the interior of the body, 
the size and shape of the sound-holes through which the vibrations 
of the contained air are communicated to the external air, and 
which also influence the nodal points in the belly, according to the 
number of fibres of the wood cut across, varying with the angle at 
which the sound-holes cross the grain of the wood. Their position 
in this respect also affects the width of the central vibrating portion 
of the belly under the bridge. 

All these important factors are influenced by the quality and 
elasticity of the wood employed. 

Much has been written and many speculations have been ad- 
vanced with regard to the superiority in tone of the old Italian 
instruments over those of modern construction. This superiority 
has sometimes been disputed, and, judging from the many examples 
of second-rate instruments which have survived from the 17th 
and 18th centuries, it is certain that antiquity alone does not confer 
upon violins the merits which have frequently been claimed for it. 
When, however, we compare the comparatively £ew really fine 
specimens of the Italian school which have survived in good condition, 
with the best examples of modern construction in which the propor- 
tions of the older masterpieces have been faithfully followed, and 
in which the most careful workmanship of skilled, hands has been 
embodied, it cannot be denied that the former possess a superiority 
in the quality of their tone which the musical ear immediately 
recognizes. After taking into account the practical identity in 
dimensions and construction between the classical and many of the 
best modern models, the conclusion suggests itself that the difference 
must be attributed to the nature of the materials used, or to the 
method of their employment, as influenced by local conditions 
and practice. The argument, not infrequently advanced, that the 
great makers of Italy had special local sources of supply, jealously 
guarded, for wood with exceptional acoustical properties, can hardly 
be sustained. Undoubtedly they exercised great care in the selec- 
tion of sound and handsome wood; but there is evidence that some 
of the finest wood they used was imported from across the Adriatic 
in the ordinary course of trade; and the matter was for them, in 
all probability, largely one of expense. There is good reason to 
suppose that a far larger choice of equally good material is accessible 
to modern makers. 

There remains the varnish with which the completed instrument 
is coated. Tins was an item in the manufacture which received most 
careful attention at the hands of the great makers, and much im- 
portance has been attachedto the superiority of their varnish over 
that used in more recent times — so much so that its composition 
has been attributed to secret processes known only to themselves. 
The pr